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GE70 - Midterm 1 Study Guide

# GE70 - Midterm 1 Study Guide - 1 Newton used the sun as a...

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1. Newton used the sun as a falling object to verify his inverse square law. He knew that all objects fall at the same rate, thus, the gravitational force between two objects is “directly proportional” to the product of their masses. For example, if two objects are twice as far away from each other, then the gravitational force between them is four times fainter (2 2 =4). With the inverse square law, he was able to calculate that since the Moon is 60 radii times further away from Earth, then the gravitational force is 3600 times fainter. (60 2 =3600). 2. Mercury’s orbit objected to Newton’s law, because if applied to his gravitational equation, it states that it would take 3 million years for Mercury to complete 1 orbit around the sun. Newton’s inverse square law is not accurate for stars with large masses. 3. The Doppler’s effect (shifts in the wavelengths of light) is needed to determine the radial velocity of a distant galaxy. Blueshift (shorter wavelength) means that an object is moving towards us while redshift (longer wavelength) means an object is moving away from us. 4. The relationship between redshift and distance, or Hubble’s law (72 km/sec per mpc), tells us that the universe is expanding uniformly. Hubble stated that since all galaxies are cosmologically redshifted, all distant galaxies are moving away from us in all directions. Thus, this means that the

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