Wi10-Lec 4

Wi10-Lec 4 - Macromolecules and Membranes Lecture 4 1-13-10...

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1 Macromolecules and Membranes Lecture 4 1-13-10 Announcements • Changes to syllabus • Date changes for debates
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2 Why Carbon-based life forms? Why Carbon-based life forms? Carbon is unique: its outer shell is half full, half empty
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3 Carbon can bond with LOTS of atoms Functional groups give organic compounds their distinctive properties Macromolecules • Macromolecules (polymers) are distinctly biological. • They usually do not exist unless an organism makes them. • Made up of monomers (relatively simple molecules) the resulting complex molecules - macromolecules - are the "Godzilla" of the chemical world.
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4 Macromolecules: polymers our bodies make with Carbon! • Carbohydrates (sugars) • Lipids (Fats) •P ro te ins • Nucleic Acids (DNA and RNA) What Are Carbohydrates? A simple sugar = monosaccharide Fig. 2-13 Glucose, linear form Glucose, ring form (a) (b) H H CH 2 OH HO OH OH O H H OH H 2 3 5 64 1 HHH H H H H H HH H H OO O O O O C C C C C C Polymers of Sugars
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5 Put monosaccharides together = disaccharides glucose fructose sucrose O HO O HOCH 2 OH HO CH 2 OH H H OH H OH H H O HO O CH 2 OH H H OH H OH H H H H H HO CH 2 OH H HOCH 2 H H H HO CH 2 OH O OH O + O H H Polysaccharides—complex carbs • Long chains of sugars make starches in bread, cereal, etc • Liver stores polysaccharides as glycogen
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6 Polysaccharides— dual purpose • Long chains of sugars also make cellulose • What’s the difference? plant cell with H O O H O O H O H O O O HH H OH OH H OH H H H H OH H H H OH O H H OH OH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH CH 2 OH wood is mostly cellulose Lipids Greasy, and fatty and oily, oh my!
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7 3 main types of Lipids in biology •Fa ts • Phospholipids •S te ro ids Fats: Triglycerides
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8 Controversy about Fats •Fa t Types – Unsaturated – Saturated What’s the fuss about Partially Hydrogenated Oils?
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9 What’s good about fat? Phospholipids Lipids with Multiple personalities! 2 parts: 1) 1 water-soluble head 2) 2 water-insoluble tails – Make up the cell membrane in a BILAYER – Like triglycerides except one fatty acid is replaced by a phosphate group attached to glycerol. polar head glycerol (hydrophilic) (hydrophobic) fatty acid tails CH 3 O O O CH 3 CH CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 H 3 CN + -CH 2 2 -O-P-O-CH 2 O HC-O-C-CH 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 H 2 C-O-C-CH 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 -
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10 Phospholipid bilayer Steroids—the lipid with rings!
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Wi10-Lec 4 - Macromolecules and Membranes Lecture 4 1-13-10...

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