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genetics_lecture - Genetic Techniques in Ecology and...

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Unformatted text preview: Genetic Techniques in Ecology and Evolution Lab Techniques 0 DNA ext-action from preserved tissue/blood Lab Techniques 0 DNA extraction from preserved tissue/blood Lab Techniques 0 DNA extraction from preserved tissue/blood 0 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) - target gene of interest - amplify using primers and DNA polymerase - to |'( R . l’ulymcmsc ("hum Rcuclmn stabilize pH - dNTPs (individual nucleotides) Lab Techniques 0 DNA extraction from preserved tissue/blood 0 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) - target gene of interest - amplify using primers and DNA polymerase 0 DNA Sequencing - like PCR. but with dye-bound nucleotides Neutral GeneticVariafion 0 Mutations can be good, bad or neutral Neutral GeneticVariafion 0 Mutations can be good, bad or neutral 0 Natural selection favors good mutations - but good mutations are extremely rare Neutral GeneticVariafion 0 Mutations can be good, bad or neutral 0 Natural selection favors good mutations - but good mutations are extremely rare 0 Bad mutations are rarely observed - purged by purifying selection Neutral GeneticVariafion 0 Mutations can be good, bad or neutral 0 Natural selection favors good mutations - but good mutations are extremely rare 0 Bad mutations are rarely observed - purged by purifying selection 0 Most variation is neutral - natural selection ires neutral mutations Who Cares? 0 If selection leaves genes alone, then the randomness of mutation can be preserved Who Cares? 0 If selection leaves genes alone, then the randomness of mutation can be preserved 0 Now we can use DNA sequence divergence to infer geographic isolation... Phylogeography 0 Biogeography - study of geographic distribution of species assemblages Phyiogeography - study of geographic distribution of genetic diversity within a single species mitochondrial control nation ID-bop. 809bp: '-»u.~... Ml. - (EARL! Bayesian - MrBuycs mitochondrial control ngiun ID'|oop. 809bp: . Diwrgcm Northern " Gulf cladc '-»-..~... Ml. - CARL] Buyuiun - MrBuyes 0 Different species with similar patters 0 Same event separated populations of many different species at the same time Molecular Clocks um i OAny clock will keep time if it has power Molecular Clocks um i OAny clock will keep time if it has power 0 But all clocks must be set Molecular Clocks IA _, ,. i + OAny clock will keep time if it has power 0 But all clocks must be set 0 Molecular clocks also require calibration Molecular Clocks Gymnogobius in the Sea ofjapan -West Padflc slsur genus of Gilkmhys - braddsh/fruhwater . mn across Tsushina Strait restricted by warm surface current Molecular Clocks Gymnogobius in the Sea ofjapan -Wcst Padflc slsur genus of Glidnhys - bradddilfruhwator . mn across Tsushina Strait ram-km by warm surface comm n'lochrmm- b I 102mm: (hm-Innumm spp. (iu'khrhu spp. 3.0 my. BEASI - IRdnxcd dock l'.\(‘l.l Population Genetics Population Genetics 0 Demographic history Population Genetics 0 Demographic history - bottlenecks - range expansion 0 Demographic history - bottlenecks - range expansion - isolation by distance Population Genetics 0 Demographic history - bottlenecks - range expansion - isolation by distance 0 Conservation - genetic diversity - migration - evolutionary sipificant unit: (ESUs) ...
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