DNAPhylo10 - A ash back to last quarter Earthquakes!...

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1 A fash back to last quarter Earthquakes!!! Northern CA Magnitude 6.5 Jan 10, 2010 5am 30mi WSW oF Eureka Depth 29km Near the Mendocino Triple Junction Strike-Slip Fault Remnant oF old ±arallon plate movement
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2 Historical Activity Haiti Magnitude 7.0 (about 5x stronger than the NorCal quake) Jan. 12, 2010 9:50pm 25km WSW of Port-au- Prince Depth 13km Strike-Slip between Caribbean and NA plates
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3 Historical Activity Building the Tree of Life: Phylogenies, DNA, and Molecular Clocks
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4 Chuck D.’s The Origin of the Species Darwin surmised that speciation was basically a fssion process - one lineage branches making another one Darwin also deduced that ALL living things are derived From one ultimate common ancestor ±rom this could be concluded two things. ±irst… • That the history oF liFe on earth would look like a tree, with the ultimate common ancestor as a the root, and all living things as end points oF branches The only fgure in Darwin’s work Darwin knew that iF you traced these lines back that they’d all meet back at one point: The Ultimate Common Ancestor
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5 The second point that arises from Darwin’s conclusions… Things that are more closely related will be closer on the tree and will look more similar than those that are less closely related and farther apart on the tree This tree-like structure lends itself to an obvious method of classiFcation , or TAXONOMY Of course you don’t need evolution to make a taxonomy. Linneaus did it 150 years before Darwin, by just using similarity of organisms Nowadays we have a very speciFc method for building the tree of life, based on the concept of homology, called….
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6 CLADISTICS • Uses homologies to generate a tree that shows relations of organisms • The trees are called CLADOGRAMS • Used to classify TAXA (sing. TAXON), which are groups of organisms, usually species Homology vs. Analogy • Homology - derived from a common ancestor – not necessarily similar in form • Analogy - similar in form, but not derived from a common ancestor
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7 A note about what a species is… • Biological Species Concept - A species is a group of organisms that can potentially mate and have viable, fertile offspring. • Paleontological Species Concept - based on morphological differences observed in living groups and applied to fossil groups Here’s a cladogram… HUMANS APES BIRDS DINOSAURS TROUT
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8 Here’s the anatomy of a cladogram Some things about cladograms… • ONLY SHOW relative RELATIONSHIPS, i.e. who is related to who • There is no sense of time implied; fossil groups are right at the top with living things • There are no lineages shown • They can be used to show how traits have been acquired by different groups, i.e. their evolutionary history First we need to see how we build them…
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9 Cladistics uses the concept of HOMOLOGY to create cladograms
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2010 for the course GE CLST 70B taught by Professor Morris,m.r./friscia,a.r./moldwin,m.b./vanvalkenburgh,b during the Winter '10 term at UCLA.

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DNAPhylo10 - A ash back to last quarter Earthquakes!...

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