Lecture 15 - David D. Jackson Department of Earth and Space...

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Energy Resources Fossil Fuels David D. Jackson Department of Earth and Space Sciences Questions • What fraction of earth’s total petroleum resources have been used already? • What is the ratio of total global resources to consumption rate, in years? • What is the average US consumption of petroleum, in gallons/person day? • How much CO2 is emitted per person day in the US?
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• Energy content: 1 gallon of gasoline has the energy content of 300 lead-acid batteries • Liquid: Flows, does not disperse as rapidly as a gas, easier to load than a solid. • Not explosive: burns only with oxygen supply. Why is gasoline so special? Source: Out of Gas: The End of the Age Of Oil by David Goodstein Will higher prices, or taxes, reduce demand substantially?
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US Energy Consumption by Use Source: Energy Information Agency, Annual Review 2008 Conditions for petroleum formation • Biologic: phytoplankton • Geologic – water – reservoir rock: permeable, porous – cap rock: seal – trap: put cap on reservoir • Chemical – reducing yes – oxidizing no: sinking • Thermal – 50 C-200 C limits --> 1 km - 8 km
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Formation of Oil and Gas Deposits • Organic matter, rich in carbon and hydrogen, accumulate and are rapidly buried • Rapid burial aids in the decay of the organic material protecting it from oxygen and biological reactions that would destroy the formation of the hydrocarbons • Source of the organic material is microscopic life abundant in the seas of the earth – These organisms die and their remains settle to the sea floor – Some natural gases are derived by burial of massive amount of plant material The process of petroleum maturation
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• The solid organic matter will be converted to liquids and/or gases (hydrocarbons) • Liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon will migrate out of the rocks in which they formed • The migration is required so the hydrocarbon will pool in economically usable deposits • Reservoir rocks for hydrocarbon are overlain by impermeable caps that trap the migration
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2010 for the course GE CLST 70B taught by Professor Morris,m.r./friscia,a.r./moldwin,m.b./vanvalkenburgh,b during the Winter '10 term at UCLA.

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Lecture 15 - David D. Jackson Department of Earth and Space...

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