Lecture 11 - Our 201st birthday The Invasion of the Land THE INVASION OF LAND KEY QUESTIONS TO BE ADDRESSED 1 What are the difculties of moving

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February 12, 2010 Our 201 st birthday!
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The Invasion of the Land
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THE INVASION OF LAND KEY QUESTIONS TO BE ADDRESSED: 1) What are the dif±culties of moving from water to land for plants and animals? 2) What does the fossil record indicate about where and when the transition was made? 3) What is the origin of vertebrate lungs? 4) How did the vertebrate limb evolve from a ±n?
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THE INVASION OF LAND Plants : 450 ma, Ordovician Invertebrates : 410 ma, Silurian Vertebrates : 370 ma, Devonian
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THE INVASION OF LAND
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Problems to be overcome in making the transition to land include : : 1) Lack of support (gravity). 2) Dessication. 3) Near absence of dissolved nutrients and gases. 4) No liquid medium for transport of gametes.
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3) Respiration : Evolution of stomata , specialized cells on plant surface that can open and shut allowing gas exchange PLANT SOLUTIONS : 2 ) Dessication : evolution of waxy outer covering known as the cuticle 1) Support : evolution of lignin (an organic compound that strengthens plants) and cellulose (wood)
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5) Reproduction : spores that could be wind dispersed, and then seeds that did not require water for fertilization to occur. MORE SOLUTIONS : 4) Feeding / drinking : evolution of roots and internal transport system, xylem
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First life on land consisted of algae and fungi. Blue-green algae Fungi
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Prokaryotes Fungi Plantae Protista (algae, and others) Metazoa (animals) THE EUKARYOTES
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algae + fungi = lichens What happened when the fungus met the algae?. Symbiosis : Fungus extracts nutrients from the rock that are used by the algae, and the algae returns energy to the fungus vis photosynthesis. He took a lichen to her.
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algae fungus Lichen growing on car headlight
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427- 470 million year old fossil spores provide the earliest evidence for life on land. (< 50 micrometers in diameter)
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Fossil evidence of early land plants from the Ordovician and Silurian Fossilized cuticle
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Cooksonia : mid Silurian- early Devonian 1. First plant to exhibit upright, branched stems.
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2010 for the course GE CLST 70B taught by Professor Morris,m.r./friscia,a.r./moldwin,m.b./vanvalkenburgh,b during the Winter '10 term at UCLA.

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Lecture 11 - Our 201st birthday The Invasion of the Land THE INVASION OF LAND KEY QUESTIONS TO BE ADDRESSED 1 What are the difculties of moving

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