cchapter6 -...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡ „µ¦Á…¸¥œÃž¦Â„¦¤š¸É¤¸…œµ—Ä®nž¦³„°—oª¥„µ¦šÎµŠµœ®¨µ¥­nªœ ¨³¤¸‡ªµ¤Ž´Žo°œ œ´„Á…¸¥œ  ަ„¦¤‹¹ŠÂnŠ„µ¦šÎµŠµœ°°„Áž}œ­nªœ¥n°¥®¦º°Ã¤—¼¨ PRGXOHV  ץ˜n¨³Ã¤—¼¨¤¸„µ¦šÎµŠµœš¸ÉÁž}œ°·­¦³šÎµ    Ä®o­µ¤µ¦™‡ª‡»¤„µ¦—εÁœ·œŠµœÅ—oŠnµ¥­Îµ®¦´Äœ£µ¬µ & œ´Êœ Á¦¸¥„ä—¼¨ªnµ¢{Š„r´œ IXQFWLRQ ¢{Š„r´œÁ®¨nµœ¸Ê   °µ‹Áž}œ¢{Š„r´œ­ÎµÁ¦È‹¦¼žš¸ÁÉ „ȝŪoĜ‡¨´Š¤µ˜¦“µœ…°Š£µ¬µ & & 6WDQGDUG OLEUDU\  ‡¨´Š¤µ˜¦“µœœ¸ÊÁž}œš¸É¦ª¤  …°Š¢{Š„r´œ˜nµŠ Ç Ánœ …o°¤¼¨œÎµÁ…oµÂ¨³…o°¤¼¨­nŠ°°„ „µ¦—εÁœ·œŠµœ…°Š­µ¥°´„…¦³ „µ¦‡Îµœª–šµŠ    ‡–·˜«µ­˜¦r ¨³„µ¦—εÁœ·œŠµœ°ºÉœÇ ­·ÉŠÁ®¨nµœ¸ÊÁž}œ„µ¦°Îµœª¥‡ªµ¤­³—ª„­Îµ®¦´œ´„Á…¸¥œÃž¦Â„¦¤¢{Š„r´œ   °¸„ž¦³Á£š®œ¹ÉŠÅ—o„n¢{Š„r´œš¸É„ε®œ—…¹ÊœÃ—¥œ´„Á…¸¥œÃž¦Â„¦¤ Ž¹ÉŠ­µ¤µ¦™šÎµŠµœÅ—o˜µ¤‡Îµ­´ÉŠš¸É„ε®œ—…¹Êœ     ×¥œ´„Á…¸¥œÃž¦Â„¦¤¨³‹³œÎµ¤µ„¨nµª˜n°ÅžÄœšœ¸Ê )XQFWLRQV /LEUDU\IXQFWLRQV 0DWK ,2 2WKHUV 3URJUDPPHUGHILQHGIXQFWLRQ šš¸É¢{Š„r´œ )XQFWLRQ šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ  ¢{Š„rœšµŠ‡–·˜«µ­˜¦r ´ ¢{Š„r´œÄœ‡¨´Š¤µ˜¦µ“µœnŠÁž}œž¦³Á£š‡º°  ¢{Š„r´œšµŠ‡–·˜«µ­˜¦r  ¢{Š„r´œ­Îµ®¦´…o°¤¼¨œÎµÁ…oµÂ¨³…o°¤¼¨­nŠ°°„   ¢{Š„r´œ°ºÉœÇÁnœ¢{Š„r´œ¼¨œ¨³¢{Š„r´œ­µ¥°´„…¦³Áž}œ˜oœ ¸ ¢{Š„r´œ­Îµ®¦´…o°¤¼¨œÎµÁ…oµÂ¨³­nŠ°°„ ¨³¢{Š„r´œ­µ¥°´„…¦³ ŗo„¨nµª™¹ŠÅžÂ¨oªÄœš„n°œ Ĝš  œ¸Ê‹³„¨nµª™¹ŠÁŒ¡µ³¢{Š„r´œšµŠ‡–·˜«µ­˜¦rÁšnµ„´œ Ÿ¼očo­µ¤µ¦™—εÁœ·œ„µ¦‡Îµœª–Å—o×¥Á¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„r´œšµŠ‡–·˜«µ­˜¦rš„ε®œ—Ūo¨oªÄœ£µ¬µ & „µ¦  ¸É  Á¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„r´œÁ®¨nµœ¸Ê­µ¤µ¦™šÎµÅ—o×¥Á¦¸¥„ºÉ°¢{Š„r´œ ¨oªÄ­n˜´ª°µ¦r„ªÁ¤œ˜rŪoĜªŠÁ¨Èš¸ÁÉ …¸¥œ˜µ¤®¨´ŠºÉ°  · ¢{Š„r´œÁnœœ´„Á…¸¥œÃž¦Â„¦¤˜o°Š„µ¦‡Îµœª–¨³¡·¤¡r‡nµ…°Š¦µ„š¸É­°Š…°Š­µ¤µ¦™Á…¸¥œÅ—o—´Šœ¸Ê SULQWI vIwVTUW   Á¤ºÉ°Ãž¦Â„¦¤Á¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„r´œ VTUW ‹³‡Îµœª–®µ¦µ„š¸­°Š…°Š¤¼¨‡nµš¸„ε®œ—ŪoĜªŠÁ¨È Ĝš¸Éœ¸Ê‡º° É É Ž¹ÉŠÁž}œ°µ¦r„ªÁ¤œ˜r…°Š¢{Š„r´œÁ¤ºÉ°Ãž¦Â„¦¤‡Îµœª–Á­¦È‹Â¨oª‹³Å—o‡µ · n ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥¸ ¦¼žš¸É ­—Š„µ¦ÂnŠž¦³Á£š…°Š¢{Š„r´œ „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡ ¢{Š„rœ ´ VTUW [ H[S [ ORJ [ ®œoµš¸É ®µ¦µ„š¸É…°Š[ ORJ [ IDEV [ FHLO [ IORRU [ SRZ [\ IPRG [\ VLQ [ FRV [ WDQ [ ˜´ª°¥nµŠ VTUW  LV VTUW  LV ¢{Š„r´œÁ°È„ÞÁœœÁ›¸¥¨ …°Š[ H[S  LV H[S  LV ¨È°„“µœH…°Š[ ORJ  LV ORJ  LV ¨È°„“µœ…°Š[ ORJ  LV ORJ  LV ORJ  LV ‡nµ­´¤¼¦–r…°Š[ LI[!WKHQIDEV [ LV[ LI[ WKHQIDEV [ LV LI[WKHQIDEV [ LV[ ž¦´‡nµ[Ä®oÁž}œ‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤š¸¤„„ªnµ FHLO  LV É ®¦º°Ášnµ„´[ FHLO  LV ž¦´‡nµ…°Š [ Ä®oÁž}œ‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤š¸É IORRU  LV Ä®n­»—š¸Éœo°¥„ªnµ®¦º°Ášnµ„´ IORRU  LVy [¥„„ε¨´Š\  SRZ  LV SRZ  LV Á«¬š¸ÁÉ ®¨º°…°Š„µ¦®µ¦[—oª¥\ IPRG  LV ‡nµŽµ¥œr…°Š[ [®œnª¥Á¦Á—¸¥œ VLQ  LV ‡nµÃ‡Žµ¥œr…°Š [ [®œnª¥Á¦Á—¸¥œ FRV  LV ‡nµÁšœÁ‹œšr…°Š [ [®œnª¥Á¦Á—¸¥œ WDQ  LV ¦¼žš¸É ­—Š¢{Š„r´œšµŠ‡–·˜«µ­˜¦rĜ£µ¬µ& šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ   „µ¦„ε®œ—¢{Š„rœ  ´ „µ¦„ε®œ—¢{Š„r´œÄœÃž¦Â„¦¤ž¦³„°—oª¥­nªœ®¨´„‡º°  ˜oœÂ…°Š¢{Š„r´œ IXQFWLRQSURWRW\SH  „µ¦„ε®œ—¢{Š„r´œ IXQFWLRQSURWRW\SH   „µ¦Á¦¸¥œÄo¢{Š„r´œ IXQFWLRQFDOO ަ„¦¤Äœ£µ¬µŽ¸š»„ަ„¦¤ž¦³„°—oª¥¢{Š„r´œ®¨´„Á¦¸¥„ªnµ PDLQ  Ž¹ÉŠšÎµ®œoµš¸ÁÉ ¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„r´œ  ‡¨´Š¤µ˜¦“µœÁ¡ºÉ°šÎµŠµœ˜nµŠÇ¦¼žÂ…°ŠÃž¦Â„¦¤š¸Éž¦³„°—oª¥¢{Š„rœPDLQ¨³¢{Š„r´œ°ºÉœÇ¤¸—´Šœ¸Ê‡º°  ´ ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥¸ „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡ LQFOXGHVWGLRK! GHILQH« FRQVWDQWGHILQLWLRQV  GHILQH« FRQVWDQWGHILQLWLRQV  JOREDOYDULDEOHGHFODUDWLRQV! PDLQ  PDLQSURJUDPERG\  RWKHUIXQFWLRQGHILQLWLRQV! šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ  „ǦŠ¦nµŠ…°Š¢{Š„r´œÄœ£µ¬µ& KHDGHUFRGH! LQWD IORDWE LQWF FKDUG IXQFWLRQGHILQLWLRQV! … „µ¦„ε®œ—œ·—…°Š˜´ªÂž¦‡¦°‡¨»¤Äœ£µ¬µ& W\SH!IXQFWLRQQDPH! SDUPSDUP« SDUPW\SH!SDUP GHFODUHSDUDPHWHU  SUPW\SH!SDUP ^ EHJLQ  ORFDOIXQFWLRQYDUVW\SHG! IXQFWLRQERG\! UHWXUQ H[SUHVVLRQ!  ` HQG  ‡„µ¦„ε®œ—¢{Š„r´œÄœ£µ¬µ &  ¦¼žš¸É ǦŠ­¦oµŠ…°Š£µ¬µ& ˜oœÂ…°Š¢{Š„rœ ´ ˜oœÂ…°Š¢{Š„r´œÁž}œ­nªœš¸É„ε®œ—Ä®o‡°¤Å¡Á¨°¦r¦¼o™Š‡»–­¤´˜˜µŠÇ…°Š¢{Š„r´œÅ—o„n  ¹ ·n  œ·—…°Š…o°¤¼¨š¸Éŗo‹µ„„µ¦šÎµŠµœ…°Š¢{Š„r´œ   ‹Îµœªœ…°Š¡µ¦µ¤·Á˜°¦ršÃž¦Â„¦¤­nŠÄ®o¢{Š„r´œ ¸É  œ·—…°Š¡µ¦µ¤·Á˜°¦r  ¨Îµ—´…°Š¡µ¦µ¤·Á˜°¦r —´Šœ´Êœ‡°¤Å¡Á¨°¦r‹³˜¦ª‹„µ¦Á¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„r´œ‹µ„˜oœÂ…°Š¢{Š„r´œ ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥¸ „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡ ¦¼žÂ…°Š˜oœÂ…°Š¢{Š„rœ ´ šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ  UBW\SHIBQDPH DUJBW\SHDUJBQDPHDUJBW\SHDUJBQDPH«  ®¦º° UBW\SHIBQDPH DUJBW\SHDUJBW\SHDUJBW\SH«  UBW\SH‡º°œ·—…°Š…o°¤¼¨Ÿ¨¨´¡›rš¸Éŗo‹µ„„µ¦šÎµŠµœ…°Š¢{Š„r´œ  IBQDPH‡º°ºÉ°¢{Š„r´œ DUJBW\SH‡º°œ·—…°Š°µ¦r„·ªÁ¤œ˜r DUJBQDPH‡º°ºÉ°…°Š°µ¦r„ªÁ¤œ˜r °µ‹Ä­n®¦º°Å¤nÄ­n„Å—o · È ˜´ª°¥nµŠ…°Š˜oœÂ…°Š¢{Š„r´œ LQWPD[LPXP LQWDLQWELQWF  ˜oœÂ…°Š¢{Š„r´œœ¸Ê„ε®œ—ªnµ¢{Š„r´œPD[LPXP ¦´°µ¦r„ªÁ¤œ˜r ˜´ª ‡º° DE ¨³ F š¸É¤œ·—…o°¤¼¨ · ¸ Áž}œLQW¨³‡ºœŸ¨¨´¡›rÁž}œ…o°¤¼¨œ·—LQW „µ¦„ε®œ—¢{Š„rœ  ´ ¦¼žÂ…°Š„µ¦„ε®œ—¢{Š„rœ  ´ UBW\SHIBQDPH DUJBW\SHDUJBQDPHDUJBW\SHDUJBQDPH ^ « IXQFWLRQERG\ « ` UBW\SH ‡º°œ·—…°Š…o°¤¼¨Ÿ¨¨´¡›rš¸Éŗo‹µ„„µ¦šÎµŠµœ…°Š¢{Š„r´œ ŗo„n LQW  ORQJ LQW IORDW GRXEOH  ORQJGRXEOHFKDU ¨³ YRLG ™oµ„ε®œ—œ·—…°Š¢{Š„r´œÁž}œYRLG ®¤µ¥™¹Š¢{Š„r´œœ´Êœ‹³Å¤n¤¸Ÿ¨¨´¡›r‡ºœÅžÄ®o  ަ„¦¤®¦º°¢{Š„r´œš¸ÉÁ¦¸¥„čo IBQDPH ‡º°ºÉ°…°Š¢{Š„r´œ „µ¦„ε®œ—ºÉ°…°Š¢{Š„r´œœ¸Ê¤¸®¨´„Á„–”rÁnœÁ—¸¥ª„´„µ¦„ε®œ—˜´ªÂž¦   YRLGÁž}œœ·—…°Š¢{Š„r´œš¸ÉšÎµŠµœÃ—¥Å¤n¤¸„µ¦­nŠŸ¨¨´¡›r‡œÅžÄ®oަ„¦¤®¦º°¢{Š„r´œš¸ÉÁ¦¸¥„čo º DUJBW\SH‡º°œ·—…°Š…o°¤¼¨°µ„·ªÁ¤œšr Ĝ„¦–¸š¢{Š„r´œÅ¤nŗo¦´¡µ¦µ¤·Á˜°¦rŽ¹ÉŠÁž}œ°µ„·ªÁ¤œšrš„ε®œ—Ūo‹µ„¢{Š„r´œš¸ÉÁ¦¸¥„čo ¸É ¸É  œ·—…°Š°µ„·ªÁ¤œ˜rÁž}œYRLG Ä®o„ε®œ—  ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥¸ „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡ „µ¦­´ÉŠÄ®o¢{Š„r´œ‡ºœ‡nµ®¨´Š„µ¦šÎµŠµœÅžš¸Éަ„¦¤Äo‡Îµ­´ÉŠ UHWXUQ Ĝ„¦–¸š¢{Š„r´œÅ¤n‡ºœ‡nµÄ®o  ¸É ަ„¦¤ ®¦º°Äo‡Îµ­´ÉŠUHWXUQH[SUHVVLRQ!°¸„„¦–¸®œ¹ÉŠš¸É¢{Š„r´œ‡ºœ‡nµÄ®oަ„¦¤š¸ÁÉ ¦¸¥„čoÁž}œœ·¡‹œr ˜´ª°¥nµŠš¸É ަ„¦¤‡Îµœª–‡nµ­¼Š­»—…°Š‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤‹Îµœªœ    )LQGLQJWKHPD[LPXPRIWKUHHLQWHJHUV  LQFOXGHVWGLRK! LQWPD[LPXP LQWLQWLQW  IXQFWLRQSURWRW\SH  PDLQ ^ LQWDEF SULQWI ´(QWHUWKUHHLQWHJHUV´  VFDQI ´GGGµ D E F  SULQWI ´0D[LPXPLVG?QµPD[LPXP DEF  UHWXUQ ` (QGPDLQ   )XQFWLRQPD[LPXPGHILQLWLRQ  LQWPD[LPXP LQW[LQW\LQW ^ LQWPD[ [ LI \!PD[ PD[ \ LI!PD[ PD[  UHWXUQPD[ ` LQWPD[LPXP  šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ  Ÿ¨¨´¡›ršÅ—o‹µ„¦´œ‡¦´ÊŠš¸É®œ¹ÉŠÃ—¥Ä­n‡µ¨³ ¸É n Ÿ¨¨´¡›ršÅ—o‹µ„¦´œ‡¦´ÊŠš¸É®œ¹ÉŠÃ—¥Ä­n‡µ¨³ ¸É n Ÿ¨¨´¡›ršÅ—o‹µ„¦´œ‡¦´ÊŠš¸É®œ¹ÉŠÃ—¥Ä­n‡µ¨³ ¸É n ަ„¦¤œ¸Êž¦³„°—oª¥¢{Š„r´œ PD[LPXP š¸É‡Îµœª–‡nµ­¼Š­»—‹µ„…o°¤¼¨œÎµÁ…oµ‹Îµœªœ¨³‡ºœ‡nµ­¼Š  ­»—Ä®o¢{Š„rœPDLQץčo‡Îµ­´ÉŠUHWXUQPD[ ´  ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥¸ „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡  „µ¦Á¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„rœ ´ „µ¦Á¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„r´œ IXQFWLRQFDOO Ĝ£µ¬µ&šÎµÃ—¥„ε®œ—¤¼¨‡nµÄ®o„¢{Š„r´œ FDOOE\YDOXH ˜´ª°µ¦r   ´ „·ªÁ¤œ˜r‹³Å—o¦´¤¼¨‡nµš¸É„ε®œ—Ä®o ¨³­nŠÅžÄ®o¢{Š„r´œšÎµŠµœ  ª·›¸„µ¦œ¸Ê¤¼¨‡nµÁ—·¤…°Š˜´ªÂž¦Äœ¢{Š„r´œ PDLQ  ‹³Å¤n¤¸„µ¦Áž¨¸É¥œÂž¨Š ˜´ª°¥nµŠš¸É „µ¦Á¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„r´œÄœÃž¦Â„¦¤£µ¬µ& LQFOXGHVWGLRK! YRLGIXQFWRQ LQWLLQWM  PDLQ ^ LQWD E  IXQFWLRQ DE  SULQWI ´D GE G?QµDE  ` (QGPDLQ  YRLGIXQFWLRQ LQWLLQWM ^ SULQWI ´L GM G?QµLM  ` (QGYRLGIXQFWLRQ  šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ  Ÿ¨¨´¡›ršÅ—o ¸É ¦¼žÂ„µ¦„ε®œ—¨³„µ¦Á¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„rœ  ´ SURWRW\SH IXQFWLRQFDOO IXQFWLRQKHDGHU YRLGIXQF LQWQFKDU[  IXQF P\  YRLGIXQF LQWQFKDU[ ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥¸ „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡ ˜´ª°¥nµŠš¸É ¢{Š„r´œš¸É¤¸„µ¦‡ºœ‡nµ‡nµ LQWP LQWIXQFWLRQ LQWHLQWILQWJLQW,  PDLQ ^ LQWQHIJKL Q  « L IXQFWLRQ HIJK  ` šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ  IXQFWLRQ LQWDLQWELQWFLQWG LQWQ  LI D!  HOVH UHWXUQ UHWXUQ IXQFWLRQ ¦´°µ„·ªÁ¤œšr  ˜´ª‡º° H I J K  ¨oª­nŠ‡nµÅžÄ®o IXQFWLRQ šÎµŠµœ Á¡ºÉ°‡Îµœª–‡nµ D Á¤º°  É ‡Îµœª–‡nµD Á¦¸¥¦o°¥Â¨oª‹³‡ºœ‡nµÄ®o¢{Š„r´œPDLQÁ¡¸¥Š ‡nµ‡º°DĜ„¦–¸š¸É D! °¸„„¦–¸®œ¹ÉŠ‡ºœ‡nµF ™oµ  D ˜´ª°¥nµŠš¸É ¢{Š„r´œš¸É¤¸„µ¦‡ºœ‡nµ¤µ„„ªnµ‡nµ PDLQ ^ LQWLMN GRXEOH[\ IXQFWLRQ LM[\ N  ` YRLGIXQFWLRQ LQWDLQWEGRXEOHUGRXEOHVLQW FGRXEOH W ^ F DE W UV F  ` ަ„¦¤œ¸Êž¦³„°—oª¥IXQFWLRQŽ¹ÉŠ¤¸°µ¦r„ªÁ¤œ˜r˜´ª‡º°LM[\ N×¥¢{Š„rœPDLQ­nŠ‡nµ · ´  ‡nµÅžšµŠ LM[\ Á¡ºÉ°Åž¥´Š˜´ª¡µ¦µ¤·Á˜°¦r DEU¨³V ¨³­nŠÁ¨…š¸É°¥¼nšµŠ N „´ ] Ş¥´Š˜´ª¸Ê F ¨³ W Á¤º° É IXQFWLRQšÎµŠµœÁ­¦È‹Á¦¸¥¦o°¥Â¨oª‹¹Š‡ºœ‡nµ‡nµ„¨´Åžš¸ÉPDLQ×¥ŸnµœšµŠ˜´ª¸Ê F¨³ W ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥¸ „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡ ¢{Š„rœÁ¦¸¥„ŽÎµ ´ Ê ¢{Š„r´œÁ¦¸¥„ŽÎµ UHFXUVLYH IXQFWLRQ   ‡º°¢{Š„r´œš¸ÁÉ ¦¸¥„čo˜ªÁ°ŠÃ—¥šµŠ˜¦ŠÂ¨³šµŠ°o°¤ ×¥Ÿnµœ Ê ´ ¢{Š„r´œ°ºÉœ ¢{Š„r´œÂÁ¦¸¥„ŽÎµœ¸Ê¤¸„µ¦œÎµÅžÄo„ož{®µšµŠ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r°¥nµŠÂ¡¦n®¨µ¥  ‡»–­¤´˜…°Š Ê  · ¢{Š„r´œœ¸Ê‡º°­µ¤µ¦™Â„ož{®µÄœ„¦–¸š¸ÉŠµ¥š¸­»— VLPSOHFDVH Ášnµœ´Êœ®¦º°Á¦¸¥„„¦–¸œ¸Êªnµ„¦–¸“µœ EDVHFDVH nÉ ™oµ¤¸„µ¦Á¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„r´œÃ—¥„ε®œ—ÁŠºÉ°œÅ…Ä®oÁž}œ„¦–¸“µœ¢{Š„r´œœ¸Ê‹³Ä®oŸ¨¨´¡›r¨³®¥»—„µ¦šÎµŠµœ  ­Îµ®¦´„µ¦Â„ož®µš¸Ž´Žo°œ Á¦µ‹³ÂnŠž{®µ°°„Áž}œ  ­nªœ ‡º° ­nªœÂ¦„Áž}œž{®µš¸É„o—oª¥ { É ¢{Š„r´œ ­nªœš¸É­°ŠÁž}œ­nªœš¸É¢{Š„r´œÅ¤n­µ¤µ¦™Â„ož®µÅ—o ‡º°œÎµ¤µÂnŠÄœ¨´„¬–³Á—·¤ ‹³šÎµÄ®ož®µ¤¸ {  { …œµ—Á¨È„¨Š„ªnµž{®µÁ—·¤ „µ¦Á¦¸¥„čo˜ªÁ°ŠÁ¡ºÉ°Â„ož{®µš¸É¤¸…œµ—Á¨È„¨Šœ¸ÊÁ¦¸¥„ªnµ„µ¦Á¦¸¥„ŽÎµ UHFXUVLRQFDOO ´ Ê ¨³°µ‹Á¦¸¥„ªnµ…´Êœ˜°œÁ¦¸¥„ŽÎʵ UHFXUVLRQVWHS …´Êœ˜°œ„µ¦Á¦¸¥„ŽÎʵœ¸Ê‹³¦ª¤™¹Š‡Îµ­Îµ‡´ UHWXUQ Ž¹ÉŠÁž}œ‡Îµ­´ÉŠš¸É  šÎµÄ®o¢{Š„r´œ­nŠŸ¨¨´¡›rš¸Éŗo‹µ„„µ¦—εÁœ·œŠµœ„¨´Åžš¸Éަ„¦¤Ž¹ÉŠÁ¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„r´œœ´Êœ  …´Êœ˜°œ„µ¦Á¦¸¥„ŽÎµšÎµÄ®oÁ„·—„µ¦Á¦¸¥„ŽÎµ®¨µ¥‡¦´Š ÁœºÉ°Š‹µ„¢{Š„r´œ¤¸„µ¦ÂnŠž{®µ°°„Áž}œ  ­nªœ Ê  Ê Ê ¥n°¥ Ĝ˜n¨³‡¦´ÊŠš¸É¢{Š„r´œ¤¸„µ¦Á¦¸¥„čo˜ªÁ°Šœ´Êœ‹³¤¸„µ¦¨—‡ªµ¤Ž´Žo°œ®¦º°…œµ—…°Šž{®µ¨ŠÁ¦ºÉ°¥ Ç ‹œ ´ „¦³š´ÉŠž{®µœ¸Ê¤¸…œµ—¨—¨Š‹œ™¹Š„¦–¸“µœ – ‹»—œ¸Ê ¢{Š„r´œ‹³¤°ŠÁ®Èœ„¦–¸“µœÂ¨oª‡ºœ‡nµš¸Éŗo‹µ„„µ¦šÎµŠµœ  Ş¥´Š¢{Š„r´œ¨nµ­»—š¸ÉÁ¦¸¥„čo¨³‹³¤¸„µ¦‡ºœ‡nµÄ®o¢{„r´œš¸ÉÁ¦¸¥„čo™—ÅžÁž}œ¨Îµ—´‹œ„¦³š´ÉŠ™¹Š¢{Š„r´œÂ¦„­»— ´ ¨³­nŠ‡ºœÅž¥´Š¢{Š„r´œPDLQ ˜´ª°¥nµŠ…°Š¢{Š„r´œÁ¦¸¥„ŽÎµÅ—o„n„µ¦‡Îµœª–‡nµÂ¢„š°Á¦¸¥¨…°Š‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤Q Ê   Q‡º°Q Q Q h  Ž¹ÉŠ¤¸‡µÁž}œ¨³‡º° n ‡º°Ÿ¨‡¼–…°Š    ¤¸‡µÁž}œ n „µ¦‡Îµœª–¢„š°Á¦¸¥¨…°Š‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤QXPEHUŽ¹ÉŠ¤¸‡µ¤µ„„ªnµ®¦º°Ášnµ„´­µ¤µ¦™®µÅ—o‹µ„ „µ¦ªœ  n ŽÎµץčo‡Îµ­´ÉŠIRU—´Šœ¸Ê Ê  IDFWRULDO  IRU FRXQWHU QXPEHUFRXQWHU! FRXQWHU IDFWRULDO  FRXQWHU ­µ¤µ¦™Á…¸¥œ‡Îµ‹Îµ„´—‡ªµ¤…°ŠÂ¢„š°Á¦¸¥¨¢{Š„r´œÅ—o˜µ¤‡ªµ¤­´¤¡´œ›r—´Šœ¸Ê  Q Q Q                 „µ¦ž¦³¤ª¨Ÿ¨…°Š  ­µ¤µ¦™Â­—ŠÅ—o—´Š¦¼žš¸É  ×¥¦¼žš¸É  „ ­—Š„µ¦Á¦¸¥„ŽÎµ„¦–¸š¸É Ê ž{®µ¤¸…œµ—Á¨È„¨Š‹œ„¦³š´ÉŠ™¹Š ¨³¤¸„µ¦ž¦³¤ª¨Ÿ¨ ŗo‡µŽ¹ŠÁž}œ„µ¦‹„µ¦Á¦¸¥„ŽÎµ ¦¼ž…­—Š nÉ Ê ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥¸ šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ  „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡ ¤¼¨‡nµš¸Éŗo¦´‡ºœ‹µ„„µ¦Á¦¸¥„ŽÎʵ˜n¨³‡¦´ÊŠ‹œ„¦³š´ÉŠ¤¼¨‡nµ­»—šoµ¥Å—o¦´„µ¦‡Îµœª–¨³­nŠ‡ºœÅž¥´ŠÃž¦Â„¦¤š¸É Á¦¸¥„čo ¤¼¨‡nµ­»—šoµ¥        ¤¼¨‡nµš¸‡œ ɺ     ¤¼¨‡nµš¸‡œ ɺ                  šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ      ¤¼¨‡nµš¸‡œ ɺ     ¤¼¨‡nµš¸‡œ ɺ  ¤¼¨‡nµš¸‡œ ɺ ¦¼ž „ „¦³ªœ„µ¦Á¦¸¥„ŽÎµ Ê  ¦¼ž … ¤¼¨‡nµš¸‡ºœÅž¥´Š¢{Š„r´œš¸ÉÁ¦¸¥„čo É ˜´ª°¥nµŠš¸É „µ¦‡Îµœª–®µÂ¢„š°Á¦¸¥¨Ã—¥Äo¢{Š„r´œÁ¦¸¥„ŽÎʵ   5HFXUVLYHIDFWRULDOIXQFWLRQ  LQFOXGHVWGLRK! ORQJIDFWRULDO ORQJ  PDLQ ^ LQWL IRU L L L SULQWI ´G OG?QµLIDFWRULDO L  UHWXUQ `  (QGPDLQ   5HFXUVLYHGHILQLWLRQRIIXQFWLRQIDFWRULDO  ORQJIDFWRULDO ORQJQXPEHU ^ LI QXPEHU  UHWXUQ HOVH UHWXUQ QXPEHU IDFWRULDO QXPEHU²  ` (QGORQJIDFWRULDO  ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥¸ „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡ Ÿ¨¨´¡›ršÅ—o ¸É šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ  Ĝ˜´ª°¥nµŠš¸É  ަ„¦¤œ¸Â­—Š„µ¦‡Îµœª–®µ‡nµÂ¢„š°Á¦¸¥¨Ã—¥Äo„µ¦Á¦¸¥„ŽÎµ ×¥ Q ¤¸‡µ˜´ŠÂ˜n  Ê  Ê nÊ ™¹Š ¢{Š„r´œÁ¦¸¥„ŽÎʵœ¸Ê‹³¤¸„µ¦š—­°ªnµ‡nµÁŠºÉ°œÅ…‹„µ¦šÎµŠµœœ´Êœªnµ‹¦·Š®¦º°Å¤n „¨nµª‡º° ™oµQXPEHU¤¸‡µ  n œo°¥„ªnµ®¦º°Ášnµ„´  ¢{Š„r´œ IDFWRULDO Ä®o‡µÁž}œ  ¨³Å¤n¤„µ¦Á¦¸¥„ŽÎµ ¨oªÃž¦Â„¦¤‹³‹„µ¦šÎµŠµœ  ™oµ n ¸ Ê  QXPEHU¤¸‡µ¤µ„„ªnµ‹³Á¦¸¥„ŽÎµÃ—¥‡Îµ­´ÉŠ n Ê  UHWXUQ QXPEHU IDFWRULDO QXPEHU  ‡Îµ­´ÉŠœ¸ÊÁž}œ„µ¦‡Îµœª–Ÿ¨‡¼–…°Š QXPEHU  ¨³¢{Š„r´œÁ¦¸¥„ŽÎʵ IDFWRULDO QXPEHU   ‹³Á®ÈœÅ—oªnµ ¢{Š„r´œ IDFWRULDO QXPEHU   ¤¸‡ªµ¤Ž´Žo°œ…°Š„µ¦‡Îµœª–œo°¥„ªnµ¢{Š„r´œ IDFWRULDO QXPEHU  Á¡¦µ³…œµ—  …°Š°µ„·ªÁ¤œ˜r„µ¦‡Îµœª–QXPEHU ¨—¨Š Ž¹ÉŠªµ¤Ž´Žo°œ…°Š„µ¦‡Îµœª–‹³¨—¨ŠÁ¦ºÉ°¥Ç‹œ„¦³š´ÊŠ™¹Š  ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥¸ „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡  ‹µ„ަ„¦¤š¸É„宜—Ä®o‹Š°„ªnµ­nªœÅ®œ…°ŠÃž¦Â„¦¤‡º° „ ˜oœÂ…°Š¢{Š„rœ IXQFWLRQSURWRW\SH ´ … „µ¦„ε®œ—¢{Š„r´œ IXQFWLRQGHILQLWLRQ  ‡ „µ¦Á¦¸¥„¢{Š„r´œ IXQFWLRQFDOO Š „µ¦‡ºœ‡nµÄ®oަ„¦¤ LQFOXGHVWGLRK! LQWFXEH LQW\  YRLGPDLQ ^ LQW[ IRU [ [ [ SULQWI ´G?QµFXEH [  ` (QGPDLQ  LQWFXEH LQW\  ^ UHWXUQ\ \ \ ` (QGLQWFXEH   f„®´— šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ   ‹ŠÁ…¸¥œ¢{Š„r´œš¸É­µ¤µ¦™šÎµŠµœ˜n°Åžœ¸Ê  „ ¢{Š„r´œFHOFLXVš¸ÉÁž¨¸É¥œ‡nµ°»–®£¼¤®œnª¥¢µÁ¦œÅ±˜rÁž}œ°Š«µÁŽ¨ÁŽ¸¥­ · … ¢{Š„r´œIDKUHQKHLWš¸ÉÁž¨¸É¥œ‡nµ°Š«µ¢µÁ¦œÅ±˜rÁž}œ°Š«µÁŽ¨ÁŽ¸¥­ ‡ Á…¸¥œÃž¦Â„¦¤š¸Éž¦³„°—oª¥¢{Š„r´œÄœ…o° „ ¨³ … Ž¹ÉŠÃž¦Â„¦¤œ¸Ê­µ¤µ¦™¡·¤¡r˜µ¦µŠÂ­—Š‡nµ …°Š°Š«µ¢µÁ¦œÅ±˜rš¤‡µÁšnµ„´°Š«µÁŽ¨ÁŽ¸¥­×¥¤¸°»–®£¼¤‹µ„™¹Š°Š«µÁŽ¨ÁŽ¸¥­¨³‡nµ ¸É ¸ n · ¢µÁ¦œÅ±˜r¤¸‡µ‹µ„™¹Š°Š«µ n  ‹ŠÁ…¸¥œ¢{Š„r´œš¸É¦´‡nµ‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤ ¨³‡ºœ‡nµÁž}œ‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤š¸É¤˜ªÁ¨…Á¦¸¥Š¨Îµ—´„¨´„´…o°¤¼¨œÎµÁ…oµ Ánœ  ¸´  „ε®œ—‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤Áž}œ¢{Š„r´œ‹³Ä®o‡µ n  ‹ŠÁ…¸¥œ¢{Š„r´œ 4XDOLW\3RLQWV Ž¹ÉŠ¦´‡nµ‡³ÂœœÁŒ¨¸É¥…°Šœ´„Á¦¸¥œÄœ„µ¦­° ¨³¤¸„µ¦‡ºœ‡nµÁž}œÁ„¦—š¸Éŗo ¦´—´Š˜n°Åžœ¸Ê     ˜Îµ„ªnµ ‡³Âœœ      Á„¦—š¸Å—o¦´ É ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡ÃœÃ¨¥¸ „µ¦Ãž¦Â„¦¤ÁºÊ°Š˜oœ—oª¥£µ¬µ& °œŠ‡rœµ’«¦¸ª·®‡  ˜´ª®µ¦¦nª¤¤µ„ ®¦¤  …°Š‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤  ‹Îµœªœ ‡º° ‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤š¸ÉÄ®nš­»—Ž¸ÉŠ­µ¤µ¦™®µ¦‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤  ¸É  ˜´ªœ´Êœ¨Š˜´ª ‹ŠÁ…¸¥œ¢{Š„r´œJFG Á¡ºÉ°®µ®¦¤‡nµ˜´ª®µ¦…°Š‹ÎµœªœÁ˜È¤‹Îµœªœš¸É¦´Á…oµ   ‹Š¡·‹µ¦–µªnµÃž¦Â„¦¤˜n°Åžœ¸®œoµš¸É°³Å¦ Ê PDLQ ^ LQWF LI F JHWFKDU  (2) ^ PDLQ  SULQWI ´FµF  ` UHWXUQ ` šš¸É ¢{Š„r´œ ®œoµ   ‹ŠÁ…¸¥œÃž¦Â„¦¤¹Š­µ¤µ¦™œÎµÅžÄo­°œ„µ¦‡¼–­Îµ®¦´œ´„Á¦¸¥œž¦³™¤«¹„¬µ ץަ„¦¤œ¸‹³Á¨º°„­»n¤ É   Ê ‹Îµœªœ…¹Êœ¤µ  ‹Îµœªœ ¨³Â­—Š‹Îµœªœš´ÊŠ  œ‹°£µ¡Â¨oªÄ®oœ´„Á¦¸¥œ˜°Ÿ¨‡¼–…°Š  œ´Êœ ×¥„µ¦ ¡·¤¡rŸ¨¨´¡›rœÂŸŠÂžjœ°´„…¦³ ™oµœ´„Á¦¸¥œ˜°™¼„  ަ„¦¤¡·¤¡r v9HU\ JRRGw  ™oµœ´„Á¦¸¥œ˜°Ÿ·— ަ„¦¤¡·¤¡r v1R &RUUHWw  ަ„¦¤‹³Ä®oœ´„Á¦¸¥œ˜°Å—oŤnÁ„·œ  ‡¦´Š  ™oµ¥´Š˜°Å¤n™„„È‹³ÁŒ¨¥‡Îµ Ê ¼  ˜°¨³Ä®o®µŸ¨‡¼–…°Š‹ÎµœªœÄ®¤n˜°Åž  n ­Îµ®¦´„µ¦­»n¤‹Îµœªœœ´Êœ „¦³šÎµÅ—oץčo¢{Š„r´œ UDQG š¸É°¥¼nĜ‡¨´Š¢{Š„r´œ„µ¦Á¦¸¥„čo¢{Š„r´œ   UDQG¤¸—´Šœ¸Ê LQFOXGHVWGLRK! LQFOXGHVWGOLEK! PDLQ ^ LQWL L UDQG  ` ­µ…µ‡°¤¡·ªÁ˜°¦r ­™µ´œ­nŠÁ­¦·¤„µ¦­°œª·š¥µ«µ­˜¦r¨³Áš‡Ãœ¨¥¸ ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 03/11/2010 for the course MECHANICAL 1234 taught by Professor Futao during the Spring '10 term at Kasetsart University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online