ch09_Sensor-Transducers - ! . 0( ! ! " "...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: ! . 0( ! ! " " " ! " 3 ! !, + ! $%#&' ( / 4 # ! $%#&' ( " )* + ,) ! /& 0/!11 % ! - 2 /' , - (- / . ! + !+ ( - !, . ) ! /& 0/!1 1 % -2 )* /2 # ! +/ "- )* 2 +- ! ! ) &+ " ! . ! -( " + ! "' ! )+ /2 # ! /2 # ! 5' " + /+ ,) 0 +/ #! ( 6 + , -$ ) / 3 # $ & (# ) # + ,- . ! /2 # ! / # # !/ ! " ! ! ($ /, ! .+ !" " $% & !" " ' ( * " " + , 5' ! 7" -/ .# " " /) /) !, ! ' 6 + ! "'+ )8--$ ! , ! - ) " /2 # ! + /) /) ! '0 ( " 4 2 +# ) % )9 5 + !0 !- 2 0 )+ + ! + / ,- )* ) (5 $ $) / +# #4 + & 0 ) , & ,- ./ ) // !, " )* / ) -2 )* # " - -2 )* # .# #3# $ 0( 3 4 - + /( -2 )* / 0( 3+ ( + ! ! ) " ') )+ ! )8--$ ! , 0" " " !, )* !0 " " $ ! 7 ! ( )* / ! !, .+ . ! 2 ' / /' 0( 3 0 2 )+ + %3 + /) ! + )8--$ ! )* $ ) +# )* ) ( % ) 4- 2 +#) . $) %3+ 4 ) :; : %3 + --! "& 0 / 2 # )* " )" / :; # : # . !! ) !' --! )" ) )( % "& 0+ 0 ! $%#&' ( ,2 7 " !" " " ! '/ # )* / #" "& 0+ "'+ ') /!11 % :; : -2 )* :; "' : ! 7 "+ )0 !0 2 +# $) %3 ! # )" )( % -2 ! ! 0( 3/ . --! 4/2 # ! " " " / . <( "+ " " "# ! ) , )* / ! ( ) (# ) 01 ) 3 ") 5 -! , ) "' " / # !, ! # !, - +# ) " ) + ') ) ( +!"! " ( )* !, "& 0+ +# )* ) ( % :; + : ! )* ! " 0( 3 )* ) ( % :; : !, ! ! + ! "'+ ( ! / )* 6 -/.. !, # + /2 # ! !)( % "& 0 (" 0( + 2# % /( , ++ " # # #& ' ( $ % ($ (, 2( 2( # ' ** 1 ' 2. ) . # / / 0 0 ** / 0 * +' ) , $) %3 # , ! )" ) "& 0 - ) " # !, + ') /!11 % :; + . : , 7 "/ +#1 /!11 % !, "'+ ') ! "3# :; 6 $) %3 ) & - +#) ( % / . - ! : ! $) %3) & +#/!11 %+ ! % / . ! " 0, = ! # + ( /!11 % # , /' ! -5 /( /!11 % "' 2 +# .-+ ) ! /& 0/!11 % # !, / ! /!11 % -( ! "/ # $ ! (+ , ! 4 ! -2 )* $) %3 + " /' # $) %3 , 4 6 " ! !, + # " % -2 )* ) ! /! 11 % + , /( $ ) %3 , 0 !, /!11 % 0" 0 - )* "$ " + -" $) %3 0( ! $) %3 , -2 )* - /!11 % ) ! # 4 '-! ); $) %3 - + ! /!11 % '0 " ! ! ) ! /& 0/!11 % -2 )* ) ! /& 0/!1 1 % + 4 "' # (< ! 7 "/ $) -"! 0 -2 !, 4 ) " $) %3 /!11 % :; . : - /!11 % / .) #" +4 # ) ! +# +#1 , # !, )# + (< " , " 4 )* 7 ") ( ) ( %/!11 % /!11 % 4(< /2 # ! ! 3+#.' ! /!11 % - + $ ) %3 " , (! 5 /!11 %+# "'+ /& 0 0 + / ,- ) ! !, # /!11 %) & + ! % !" " /' /' " 4" + +# ! /!11 %+ * 6 )* / ) /' 3 # - 7' # ) &+ )! / /& 0 ! ! "! ! 0( 7 ' 4 , "' ! -+ 4" / + ') ), 3 )* $) %3 + "'+ # )>( ! ( 7 7 " # ( " !" 7 7 "/$ 7' 7 )* 4" ! ) " ' "3 "7 ' ! (" /3 /2 # ! ( ) ! /!11 % ! " "/!11 % + 0( 2 ! +# ) ! +# )* ( / ); ! /!11 % + " /!11 % + / ) !, - ) * + +' , , & , , 8 , /2 # ! ), # '0% '0 5 + ) ! /& 0/!11 % $ 9 %7 2 ' !, 0, = 7 " ! % * & )- '0 '0 5 + %7 7 , 30 ' 8 !0 & * ) 2 7 " : ' .8 ; 0 ' 2 % % %7 ' #0 ( * & 8 '0 )7 5 * & 0 %7 / ) ! /& 0/!11 %+ 0 /!11 % % -2 )* " 0" + 0 + 0(- % ( "2 # )& 6 .' & /!11 % - ( .' =# 6= ! !, ( -2 )* "2 " 0" + /2 # ! + #! ) ,- )* 2 / ! !, " ' + -" ! !, . # ! /!11 % 0 )+ + + ) ! /& /!11 % 3&& ! + , )* $) %3 + ! "# 6 , )* $) %3 (" + ! " !, + # )>( ! ( + !# " + !, , " " ( +. , > /2 # ! / $ "'& "+ & ! < ! )" ) " !/ $ # " " ( ! !, + %/2 # ! " / . " )* / "'+ ') 5' " ! + :, ?8 )* (" "( ' ' ? ?* - (" / + : , , - #4 " !, - )* ) ( % (( " 4 /2 # ! ( !, / +#1 - +# / +- ! !/ $ "! # "'+ . ' 6 4- 2 +# " )* ! " ! !, + % - (" " )* + # -" - '% ! !, " < ! 4, ) 7 3 .# " " !, + , ( , + (, / .# 7 "+ /! 0! <3 "!" %" + ( (( +:, 7" . @ # A( A < ! !, 2 +# ! " 4- / .# )* $) %3 /2 !1 #+ ! 6 / . 2 )) "$ 3 . ! ( & 7 " ?0 ! " " "( + 7 3 @ @: ! )* /! / 7 " " 7" ! " 4+ - )* )8--$ ! 4"! 0 #4 ! ! $) %3 ! +#! +!" " !, ! " !, " /2 # ! - )* /! / 7 " !, "! $) %3 / . " "! ( , ! (, $ ) %3 , " "'7 " " " ! / . 2 )# " " 7" % 7" (, ! 7" (, ! .8 4 !, )* ! " (, " 7" 6+ + :, 7 "+ / !, # " " % : ; / $ ) %3 ! : 7( C ## /$ - )* * " :; 6 7 ") (: /2 # ! (" % ! )" ) !, 4 - + # ! 7 )* +#! # ' + )9 D6< ' E % / +# #4 !, - ) " ) "' & "+ " 7" % )* $) %3 + + " 4 / .2 + - ( !, 0# ", + )" :; : + F ; #4 :; : 7 7 " !/ $ B 0! A , "'+ )8--$ ! , ' 4 ! 0!A '4( " ') / ./ ) + #! !, .' - 2 +# ) " ). # !, ) " ! !, ! " ( , ! (, /! 0! <3 ) ,/ $ ( !2 7 " - )* ( ( ? > !3 / ' "3 2 "'& "+ " - #! :; , : " 0( , "' ( ! (, )" ) 6! 6 - # ! 0, # ! "! 5 +#/& 0 :; : (, )" ) 4- ) " ) :; :/ 4 - )* /! / ! !, $%/ ! ( :; : $%/ ! ( !/ $ !, / .# ! +/ -2 )* # ! )* " ( ' 0, # ! " #! )* +% - )* / 5 + %/ # " -! $ !/ )* # ? )* , ! - 0( , / 0, # ! # A +:, -/ +:, .0(- % - )* :; + > , : $ +/ %7 +:, " !/ $ + > , / !, ) " ) ! !, "! !, $0! <3 / # + :3, #/ + :3, "+ :, + :6 , 6 - " "'+ ') + :6$ , D 2 # +# 6- / / )* + :<, 6/ ,- )* / 0, = :; : / ?G 6 % : /2 # ! 5'5 ( 4 + /& 0 2 / + :<, + :B, + !, , 0( - % / + :<, . # +# /2 # ! 7 # ! ) + 2 / ) - 5'5 ( !, / # 6 !, / !, - . )* + "#/! + !, - ! !, - / " 4- 2 +#/ " 4 # + :B, .# .# / " .! ( , ! !/ $ + :B, )" ) ) + (< !/ $ "'& "+ ! " 7" 0(- % / /? : ? ( ?/ ? + ,+ , + 8 <, ? : 3 # : = 6 )* " )" ) 7 #3 ( 3< ! ! !, - -2 )* + ! ,# 7 "" 4 /!11 % ! !) ! /& 0/!11 % 2 2005 ! / , !" / & " -)" ) + !, / .-+ - :; /2 # ! - ! : )" ) - "'+ /& 0 # / ! ' + :B, + ", %! ). # + -/ - :; - + ! : / "!# " ! "3 !, 0 -! $ ($ ) !, )* - : ; : /' 0 )" ) 2 /2 # ! - : ; + /2 # ! : +/ ,. ?0 - F ; /$ 4 )* - (" + ! =, ! "3 " + ( - :; , : / :; # 5 ( 3 # : ? /2 # ! ( 3 4)* ' "3 ! ! !, - '). % ,? # /2 # ! - : ; : - : ; ,/ $ ! : /! 0! <3 ! G BD ED ID L IH EF BC ED EH M EJ EK IJ N IK # 6- #! )* + !, " ) # 7 "+ ) + :D, ,/ --! % .- ! % F )" ) --! $ ! 6 0(- % - /2 # ! ') ,, % - # .# ) " )( > - - .# ,- )* + !, ( !, ; "'+ /& 0/ $ - ! !, / +:, + + !, - !# + ; )* ,/ $ +#& ! (, / ", ( "' 4- ( "+ )( % ! , ) " ) 4/ . --! 7 "+ --! + :,# )" ) +/ )>( ! ( - + - 2 +# ; ! / + ') 7 " (, /-( ! "3 ( ,+ BC OD + # +/ " ! !, 0 +:, / 0 +# -+ -/ + :B, +: , 6/ ,- +# )" ) 0(- % !, -- #4 ! "3 , 0(- % + % !, " ! "3 / )* 2 +# ' / . -! 6- /2 # ! / .# , ) ! !, + % )* " * ! " !, 0( - % )" ) % " )* ! " % # , /2 # ! /? : ? +! 6/ .) (# ) % ?D) 6 2 +# ?3 ) ?3 ) /2 # ! " 5 5 ? 6 / :; /' : 4- 2 +# ( ,6 "# :; : ) " ) ) ! !, / :; 5 : )" ) " )" ) ) ,5 - $%#&' ( ); 5 ,/ . 2 7 "+ ( (, !/ $ " ! (, +#& + ! (, ,!/+ 2 +#/& 0 - 2 +# "5 ("! ') D J H N K ! !, 7" & ! 0(- % - ( $ / :; 5 : )" ) 0, = - 2 +# !, ( (, - $%#&' ( ) " ) ) "'+ /& 0/ $ - -( - ( / :; : .# $%#&' ( ) " ) ) " )> 6 - - / :; # 5 : 2 +# .# $%#&' (- ) " ) 6 + /& 0/ $ - !, / :; 5 : $ 4"! - / $ "' " ); ! 5 - $%#&' ( ) " ) ) -" H 7 I ) *+ 2 +# $% #&' ( (, / ) " ) !, +# ; !, / 4- ) " ) ! !, ( !, ,- / ( 7" & + 2 "' . ! +; )* - ( 2 +# )! , " $ 5 ; ? 5 !0<3 ? # )! J !, - 2 +# -( 0 6 (" % 7" +:, 5 !0<3 + -($ ; . 0" ! " ! , , "' !, ! ! % #; D K " /' /$ ( 4 ( ( ! /2 # ! ( (, ! $ !/ $ /2 # ! ! " !, ' ') ( ( !, ') , - 0 :; : - - - )* / 0 " ! " ! !, + % , ; ,- )* 5 $%#&' (7 " 7 ! " # )* ( !, ') ) , ( !, ,- 2 +# ! # "'+ ! # )* )+ ! )" ) 6- - / + :B, +: +: , , # A +:, /2 # ! ( !, 0" ! " )" ) ! "3 : :- )* ) ; / + : 3, .# /! 0! <3 )" ) / ! :; )* : ; ) " )- ( #3 - - + : 6, ; J J " ! !, + - )* ! / % ,- )* ! / -( / + : 6, " /' /$ "/ #! + : 3, ( !, # + : <, # + ! + : B, % )" ) " - ; ) % ( ( ,' /2 # ! ( !, 5 ,- " 5 (, (, 2 +# !, )* "+ /2 # ! ( !, !, J ! ) /2 # ! ( !, / . " " / .# - # ! / ) ", -' $ % #&' ( "" # ) ; ; -( / >+ 3&& :; / ! 2 # / : ! 2- ) " ). # $%#&' ( / !, ) " ) ) - # ! " ,/ . 2 + / $% #&' ( # ' /! 0! <3 ! $%#&' ( ) " ) ) !/ $ ! +#! , )* / 0 +#1 ) & + / ! 2 6 / ! 2 , - /' , $ % #&' ( / /' , ! !, 2 +# ( " " $ ) %3 ( + ,/ ) & # !, -+/ !2 4 / ! 2 ,7 " ! )" 4 $%#&' ( / !, 0( , ! $%#&' ( +/ ! 2 , (" " , (" /2 # ! + #! ,." " + !, "' ) ! , )* " 3 ! ' $%#&' $%#&' ( !% (" # 7 " !/ 0 ); ! ( !/ $ + 2 ! - )* - &" - , (" / 7 "+ $%/ / !, / + ') 7 " $+ 2 ! !, ! - )* !/ $ ", ! - )* # $+# - !, 0 ); !/ $) & ! #$ - & " !, # " ( ! () " ) - .' " "' !/ $ "" ! ) $%#&' ) ! # ! (" ") ! ) " !" # .# $%#&' ( 7 2 # +# )" ) 4 .8 " # % )* " " )* $%#&' ( $ % #&' ( $%#&' (+# / .# ! -0 + ) " ) !, )* + : D, 7 " # " ::: )* )" ) ! ! !, / ! / + ') , / !/ $ " .-) 4% $%#&' ( /! 0! <3 ( 6 ! !, "'+ ') ( / /! 0! <3 )* )* # /! 0! <3 ( / ! / .- ') / + : D, +# +: , 7" # ** * % 7) % /! 0! <3 )* !, ( / !, /2 # ! 7 # ( !, +# 5( 0 2 +% )% /! 0! <3 )* ( / !, - +# 5( 0 2 : = /2 # ! ! $%#&' (+ $ $ +# 5( 0 ( : =+ ! $%#&' (+ $ D $ ! !, !, / $ (= /! 0! <3 ( / !, )* " ! + ( /$ 4 # 0 # !, )* 7 # !/ $ ( " 2 + + )" ) $%#&' ( / . 2 6,2 / . # ! 5 !0<3 - , "! / . - ) " ! " / .+# "2 /' -,+ /! 0! <3 ( / !, "! / .+ + $%#&' ( ) /2 !1 # )* < $ ! - / . - + ! + " $%#&' ( /' 6 # $5 !, # ,- 2 +# " + + )* ) " ! $%#&' ( = 2# ! % !/ $ - + 2 $) %3 = , " + )* =" !, 2 : 6$ 6 .# / " !! )* 2# (/$ <(P $ !, 0 / .+# .' /' 7" 5( 0 ) % : 6 $ !/ / ) + 4 ! ( , )" ) $%#&' ( )" ) 4 ! 0 -2 2 +# / + $%#&' (/' - 2 +#7 # /'1 /" $%/ ! ( :; ) : " 4 - ') 5 /! #4 )" ) $%#&' ( /' ! ! !, - -2 )* ) ! /& 0/!11 % # ! # , 7 " - + 4- " ! !" " &' /2 # ! - :; + ! : !4 !, /2 # ! - F /": ! ! !, 2 $ . !, )! -+ - ; / " :+ ') , 7" !, ! +4 ! +# < $ $ $( ( $% ) &' - ') /! 0! <3 - "'+ /& 0/ $ # ( /": "' +: , .# 0(- % /": )"+: , 3 ! 3 6. /": ! +# ? - 7" ! -# 3 2! +: , !4# )! - )* " /$ $ 7" - ! 4 / +#/ " : F ( ! " (< , /": ! 4 + (< /$ ') ) , $ !, (" $ $( ( &' $% ) $) # 6-0 ?" /": !, - ')- / :; # 5 : / ! / " :!, 2 +#/ +: , . B + ! !, !, # - 2 +# 66 ! # !, ! !, / (< ,5 # )" % +# ! % - !, 2 ! + : 3, !, / .-# % ?" / " : .' ! ) 3 ! + : 6, 7" ! % !, )" ) ! $%#&' !, + 2 )+ " ! $% #&' ( )" ) / (< ! # + 0 +# / )" ) 4 / +# 4 0 2 +# /'/& 0 7 " (< , 4 4 " - ,"! (< + )* / 4- + ! 2 )* 5 (< , 4- / . 0( ( !, - )* ) " " 4 !, $%#&' (+# 4 , ! 4, /" ) #4 +# ! ! . 3&& $ )* 2 " " 7 ( , !, )" ) $%#&' ( " - )* / ! 2 " + ! ! )* " 4 $%#&' ( 0( 0( , $%#&' ( ") !, - "'+ ') / 8 " % $) %3 +/ !2 ! 2 !, - " 0( , ) !, 6! % /2 !1 )" ) ,6 ! ! 4 4 / "' )" ) 4 )% / + : <, ! 7" " 7 " ! )- ) + (< / 2+ ') ) , / . + . #"( % 6 E. ! !, " )" ) 3< E , "' ! !/ $ + $%#&' ( # $%#&' ( !/ $ + 2 D /2 # ! < + (< ) -+! !, ( ! !, - -2 )* -$ % 6 - !, / + ') "+ ! -+" /' "' "4 ID IQ OD Q QRBSTEUVWS /2 # ! ! # -+/ + : B, !, / .# 7 "+ (< ) % 7" ! (P . !, !! !, )* / + ') "! . / * $+ $ * , G + (, +" , /' - + !, / :; + : . 2"5 -' 4/ ! 2 !, ) " ) $% / ! ( " / . ! /'/& 0 ( . "'+ /& 0 /' )* $ -/ - 2 ) ! $%#&' ( /' 3& $ K: $ J + BB D , - 2 2 +# 0 ! +! /" $% #&$ (/' ! !, + / 0 !, # , !, / " ! )* . -$ + 9 :; + : %* * , , 7" $%#&' ( -$ !, / !, ) > %3 , , 4 )* ! $%#&' ( " 2 7# / ( $%#&' ( ! - 2 +# * !, - , "' ! ! / $ + " $ J ** ') ) , / # ! ! ( 2 - #! -" " - ./&0 - ./&1 23 - ./&1 + /2 # ! )* /! 0! <3 * - )* ) # / . L , , "' ! !/ $ + 2 :; :$%#&' ( , )* 5 # :; & "+ / ! 2 :; # . : : +# ! - "( , 4 -) > %3 , ( , #' + , 7 7+ + ,# " ! (P :; -- 2 +# ( : # # #" 7 )9X # $%#&' ( 4 -- 2 +# ( # / :; : $) %3 +#! , ! $%#&' (- " - , #0 ! :; : -$ !, "! ( )" ) 0! - 0! :; )* 0 ! : 7" ( , !, )* " ! ,- ( , + ! % " ! + )>( ! ( !, ) > %3 2 /'1 /"0 ! :; " : 4 ,/ , 0- 5 " ! , +# /2 !1 ! 0 ! + /" ! 0 -$ /2 !1 !, 0 + ! $% #&' ( /2 # ! /! 0! <3 0 ! :; : 0! !, / . - + / 37 ( /3# )* / %( / 3 - -$ ) / 3# ! 2# ! ,+4 0 - + ! $%#&' (-2 )* - # /! 0! <3 ! 0+ )>( ! ( !, # / .! * (, $%#&' ( -$ ! + ! # 7 " (< ) " ! / . - # $%#&' ( -$ -$ # " 4 "! ) > %3 0, = / -0+ #$ J ** ) > %3 !, / 4 # .** .** ) %3 ( 0 # !, - ( ) > %3 < +# / :; /' : 0(- % ') + +# -$ ! $%#&' ( ." 7 ") K # " !, ! )( % (, 7 ") ( % ( ,!" " / :; + : ! 2 !, " 4 -$ 7# ! !, ) ( % 2 $ %#&' (+# !, - )( % K 5 !, / !, ( , - # ** : + (, " # - -0 # ( % ." !K2 0! )( % ! \BZV VSZ]U^BS &0 , & *23 &&4 # ** YZVBSEZ[ L 5 ( ,)" ) 0! :; # 5 -$ : )* 0 ! ') 7 " ) " ) 0 ! ( , !, )* ) " ) & "+ " ! +% / :; : -$ 6 ! !0! ) "" ! K ! !, # +#-$ $%#&' ( () " ) , 0( ( - ) ( % " 7 ") ( % /! / 7 " ! / :; # + : ( -$ !, . # $%#&' ( -$ 4- /' , 2 +# ( * 0( ( , $ J ** , 0 7" K : :# + BD6 D36, + # 2 # ** 60 5 / :; : )+ "! # - $%#&' (/' , / -$ -$ # !, - $%#&' ( 2 - ) > %3 ,/ 2 )/ 2 "4 / :; 7 " 7 " : -! " 2 "4 , '-! ! + 0 ' $ # !, 2 +# ( ") 2 ( , ,." -$ -$ ." #$ J ** # ** 2 +# ( * , + !, "! ) > %3 ) > %3 # 2 +# ( * 0( , + - ) > %3 ! " ** 6 0 7" F +D3 B 6 & "+# ! ! (P )* ' E% !, )9 D , 6 * ( , !, - / # $ )" ) $%#&' ( ! 2 " " + - ) > %3 !, / %- 0 + *, # " % ! !, + + !, --! * )" ! * !, # ". $%#&' ( + " /2 # ! 0, = !, 2 +# -$ / -$ "'+ # $%#&' ( ! /2 # ! K #2K / -$ "' ! !, "( * K # K /#$ " !, 0 !, - " ( !, (" - + -$ )+ ,2 4 2 ! " ! "0 $%#&' ( $ + ,- . & $ ! + >0, = /2 !1 "'/ . 2 7# ( / * /$ <( -$%#&' ( ! , , , !, - ( "! -$ $%#&' ( -$ + )* -$ -$ !, ! "+# - :; 0 2 : ! - !, / !)" ) - ./&0 * "( , ( ,+ /2 !1 ! - !, ), + -$ ! / + ') 5 !0<3 ( , +# !, / !, 0 &8 % - ./&, % % - ./&1 1 6 / . 2 +# + )+ 0 ! ! - !, - 2 +# ( -$ - ,"! / . 2 +# + 7 # 2 :; : - 7# + 2 /": 2"! ! 6 - 2 +#) #"! + - " " 7# + 2 !, / /' !, /(, 1 " , " ! 0( , +0 /2 # ! / # 0(- % $%#&' (/ -$ ') / ), . 2 : ; )* : *!, 2 :; : ! $% #&' (/ -$ $ ( )! # 2 * $ , ) ! $%#&' ( -$ / -$ * * !, QJ ! *G QD BT^ D QH QH BT^ H QD BT^ J _ BT^ D `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a - + 5 5,6 2 0 !, / 7- 0 5- , # ) ( / + ') $ 0 - )a +,- ./. # . 0123 +,# 0 # + ./. 0 0 # . 0143 # - !, "! 2# # # ". -2 / 0 !, -$ /! 5!/ # " ! + )a # )a - 0" - " / )a -0 ! !, . / / + ') ) , -2 & "+ " # - # )a " 7" 6 2 +# ( )a # )a - :; / : + # 0 , - )* 0 # $ 0 , - )* 0 )a - # - )a ! % 0 !, ! + +5 )a )a % 0 +5 ( # , - 2 +# ( 0 /!11 % 7 " ?0 !, . # 0 , "' ! 6 0 ,- 7" - + (" " 0 /!11 % / + ') ) , + )" ) $ # !!% )" ) - 0 D + 2 7 "+ ' 0 $ 0 ! / + &0 ), /!11 % ! / + ') 5 - -$ ; . " 0 - /! 5!/ - /! 5!/ # /! 5!/ !, ) " - ) . 6 ) ! !, 0 ( )" ) -)" ) , "! 2 -/ 0 0$ " - ') 4 ( # /! 5!/ /$ ) " ) )* / 0 - /!11 %+ / " ; - ( !, /!11 % 4- ( 0 !, - )* )" ! /& 0 +# /& 0 " 2 +# ! ) / $ # # 4 ($ ,- 6/ - 2 +# + /. ! 7" 5 ! .- ! /. ! 2 ) 2# (<# 6 ( " + ! 4 + )* / / +#1 # 6 2 4- 5 ,- ( !, "' 0 0 !, # ! /!11 % - # . /!11 % , 7 "+ 2 %# 4 #$ 4 + #! 2# 0 " ') ) , / # " ( '. 6/ /! /!1 1 % # 2# ( / 6 -+ ' 2# # $ ) 4- ( ! 6 - ! % )* ! . (< , )* (< + ) ! "# ! 2 # " /!11 % !, !" "!, /2 # ! # " /2 !1 !, / / !, ) 4 /2 # ! - + + + - " ! / + ') , - -2 # " ! ) !, ! + $ " ! "4 # ! (" + : ) ! 6 ), - )* + ! % / ) -- + $) %3 !, / " - ! # ) &" 0 # ! /- ) , # ". $) %3 ) ! ! "3 $) %3 ) ! ## (/ ( $ 7" / - + !/ $ :; /2 # ! + ') ) , )* ') : . # + $) %3 (" + ! "' !, "' 0! # -(/ /2 # ! ' ) 0! ) , )* ') / )* /, # " !/ $ ( $ 7 " ')6 " :; 7 " ?0 : )* + # / !, !, / # 2# !, , 4- ) " ) , 6 7" )" ) / .- + - ) . 2 ) ! " )* -! # )" ) ) ) "/ ! % )" ) ! )" ) - )* ! % !, / - , "' ! (/ ! -! /' ! ), ! --! + + + # $) %3) & , )" ) - - ! % ! ') bd bc 6- 7 ! 6/ . " )* -" !, bd bc b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a/ ) ,6 #! 2 / + ,# ! 5' /. !$ ( !"# ! ) " ) ) ( %# "! $ " 4 ! "# " ') ! # #! )" ) )( % "& 0# -2 ) % # ") ( % ! !, )* -$ ! !, # 2 +#+ / , 0" " 2 # ! )* # ! 2 )/ ! /2 # ! # # ! :( /3 a/ / $) & "'- + # , !, # , ) /2 # ! )* <( ". # ! !, 0" 6 - .' !, # -2) +"" #! ;1 5 / : ; /' ! 2 + / : # 4 - 2 +# ( - #! , / .2 + 2 % 7" 5 / :; + : & "+ / #4 ( !+/ # 4 - ! ) ( % / :; : /' "! #! )( % #' # 2 # #- ! +/ "'+ # ! .$ - # ! 27 $ ;0 #! ,2 + # !, ) ( % -,! # +#! ,+ ! # 2 +# 4+ # # $ " "'+ ) ;# 0! # /' 1 # " )+ # / .# /! 0! <3 # ! #! , )+ + ! 4 # 3 #! ) < 1 !2 / :; ( 5 - 2 +# ( / : #4 +#! ! '/ #4-+#! ,+ ! / ( 5 "'+ ! 2 ; A ' 0 ) ( % / 5 5 ! 2 - )* /! / 7 " ! $ % #&' ( # ! 2 !, # ! , )* 0, = " + ! $%#&' ( ! $%#&' (-$ " 4/ ) ( % , + % $%#&' (-$ / e 0( , 5 '% ! )( (/$ <(P - 0( , f6 $ (/ e 0( , / ) 1 ) ;1 . $%#&' ( ) ;1 / $ # & ' / ) f6 $ (- +" 8* * , ! / $- , ! 2 ! #! # /' ' "3 $% #&' ( /+ #" 2 2" ! .$ 7, $ ;1 /7- ( ( # 5 '% 2 +# $%/ ! ( )( f6 $ # $ 5 e$g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h $M !, ! $%#&' ( ( i kl VEW] "' C $M W[j ]i = # = ( # D 6 < . . (# ) $ % 66 <= & $ &$ &$ # 7 ** = 3B 3D ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 03/11/2010 for the course MECHANICAL 1234 taught by Professor Futao during the Spring '10 term at Kasetsart University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online