CH01 - An Introduction to Programming with C+, Fifth...

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An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition 1 - 1 Chapter 1 An Introduction to Programming At a Glance Instructor’s Manual Table of Contents Chapter Overview Chapter Objectives Instructor Notes Quick Quizzes Discussion Topics Classroom Activities/Additional Projects Key Terms
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An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition 1 - 2 Lecture Notes Chapter Overview This chapter begins with a brief history of programming languages. The chapter then covers the three basic control structures common to most programming languages. These are the sequence, selection, and repetition structures. Subsequent chapters cover the ways these control structures are implemented in C++. But it is imperative that students understand how and why each control structure is used. Chapter Objectives After completing the chapter, the student will be able to: Explain the history of programming languages Explain the sequence, selection, and repetition structures Write simple algorithms using the sequence, selection, and repetition structures Instructor Notes Programmers It is important to understand the relationship between three terms in programming: programs, programmers, and programming language. The directions that humans give to computers are called programs. The people who create these directions are called programmers. And finally, the set of directions (programs) that programmers write are written in a programming language. The two primary types of programmers are applications programmers and systems programmers. Applications programmers write and maintain programs that handle a specific task, such as calculating a company’s payroll. Application programmers may also customize off-the-shelf programs to match a company’s unique requirements. Systems programmers, on the other hand, write and maintain programs that help the computer carry out its basic operating functions. Examples of such programs include operating systems, device drivers, and utilities. A Brief History of Programming Languages There are many different types of programming languages. This text will discuss machine languages, assembly languages, high-level procedure-oriented languages, and high-level object- oriented languages.
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An Introduction to Programming with C++, Fifth Edition 1 - 3 Machine Languages Machine language is a language that uses bits/bytes to form instructions to communicate with a computer. Each computer has its own instruction set (set of instructions it understands). Machine language uses binary, which is a number system using 1’s and 0’s to represent data (base two). Each digit in binary is commonly called a bit (binary digit), and eight bits form a byte. Each character entered into the computer will be represented by a unique code consisting of 1’s
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CH01 - An Introduction to Programming with C+, Fifth...

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