11 - Engineering the Biosphere-2

11 - Engineering the Biosphere-2 - Engineering and Society:...

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Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2009 Engineering and Society: Engineering the Biosphere Dr. Gershon Weltman Engineering 183EW, UCLA SEAS Lecture 11
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  2 The Biosphere The term " Biosphere" was coined by Russian scientist Vladimir Vernadsky in 1929. The biosphere is the life zone of the Earth and includes all living organisms , including man. In the last half century we have gained the ability to seriously modify key elements of the biosphere, including us.
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  3 Our Focus: Micro BioEngineering x10-12 DNA-Based Biotechnology Nanotechnology BioNano
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  4 Genetics and Bioengineering Early Technology and Science Antiquity: Breeding for desired characteristics 1859: Charles Darwin’s “Origin of Species” Changes in populations due to natural mutations Survival of beneficial traits 1870: Gregor Mendel’s genetic experiments with flowers Application of science and statistics Dominant and recessive traits are coded particularly – by “genes” Can predict occurrence of traits in successive generations 1900s -- Genetic material located on chromosomes 1940s -- Genetic information is molecularly coded 1950s -- DNA molecule structure and function Several groups of scientists compete 1953 - James Watson and Francis Crick report on Double Helix 1960s to Present -- DNA Based Bioengineering “Back in 1953, all we wanted to do was find out how DNA provided the information and what the cellular machinery was for making proteins.” James Watson, 2003 1. Random Variation 2. Inheritance 3. Natural Selection 1. Specific Traits 2. Independent Inheritance 3. Statistical Relationships
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  5 Structure of DNA The Double Helix G – C A – T C – G T – A 3.4 nm
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  6 DNA Replication Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Methodology
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  7 Recombinant DNA Technology A body of techniques for cutting apart and splicing together different pieces of DNA. When segments of foreign DNA are transferred into another cell or organism, the substance for which they code may be produced along with substances coded for by the native genetic material of the cell or organism. Thus, these cells become "factories" for the production of the protein coded for by the inserted DNA.
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  8 Basic Technical Approach Recombinant DNA and Genomics, Biology 2601, Mount Allison University, 2003
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  9 Example Recombinant DNA Molecule
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  10 Applications of Recombinant DNA Recombinant DNA and Genomics, Biology 2601, Mount Allison University, 2003
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  11 Current R&D Frontiers Interaction Between DNA and Proteins What determines whether a given piece of DNA is functioning or not functioning in the cell? How do genes control protein formation? Connection Between DNA and Brain Function How is information stored, retrieved and used? How do genes influence behavior?
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2010 for the course ENGR 183 taught by Professor Weltman during the Winter '08 term at UCLA.

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11 - Engineering the Biosphere-2 - Engineering and Society:...

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