12 - Computing and Society I

12 - Computing and Society I - Copyright Gershon Weltman,...

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Unformatted text preview: Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2009 Engineering and Society: Computing and Society I Dr. Gershon Weltman Engineering 183EW, UCLA SEAS Lecture 12 2 Early Recording Calculator: Abacus Earlier versions of this ancient memory device for rapid addition and subtraction go back to the Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Roman eras. “Modern” Chinese Version 3 Ancient Analog Computer (c. 100 BC) The Antikythera Mechanism, discovered off the Greek Island in 1900, is believed to date from the 1 st century BC, to be a computer of astronomical events, and to demonstrate scientifically precise gearing centuries before it was thought possible http://www.astro.rug.nl/~weygaert/antikytheramechanism.html , and New Yorker, May 14, 2007 4 Modern Analog Computer (1930-1960) “Vannevar Bush's Differential Analyzer, the first modern analog computer, used a complex and ingenious system of rotating shafts and gears to produce solutions to differential equations that had previously been prohibitively difficult.” Manhattan Rare Book Company, November 2009 5 Early Digital Computer: Pascaline Pascaline was invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642. The device could add two decimal numbers. Pascal started production of his calculator and about 50 machines were produced, but there was no interest, so he had to stop . 6 Improved Pascaline Computer The Stepped Reckoner, produced by Gottfried Leibnitz in 1673, was much more complex than Pascal's machine and could perform all four of the basic arithmetic functions. It also had a logical design fault in the carry mechanism that was not discovered until many years later .* *http://www.arcula.demon.co.uk 7 Later Mechanical Digital Computers Babbage Analytical Engine In 1822 Charles Babbage proposed a Difference Engine to perform differential equations. Ten years later he proposed a more general-purpose computer featuring program inputs and printed output, and called it an Analytical Engine. Hollerith Tabulating Machine The Herman Hollerith punched card tabulator compiled the 1890 census in 6 months -- 9.5 years faster than the 1880 census – and led to formation of International Business Machines (IBM). 8 Digital Computing Timeline 1600 2000 1500 Leibniz Reckoner Pascal Calculator 1700 1800 1900 Babbage Analytical Engine Ada Lovelace Programs Boolean Logic IBM The ULTRA Machines Mark I ENIAC IBM The ULTRA Machines Mark I ENIAC Hollerith Information Machine 9 Modern Computer Stages Mechanical Devices 1919 IBM Tabulator Electronic Relays 1940 Bell Calculator Model 1 Vacuum Tubes 1943 Colossus (ULTRA project) 1955 IBM 704 Transistor Semiconductors 1959 IBM 7090 1965 DEC PDP-8 Mini-Computer Integrated Circuits 1968 DEC PDP-10 Mini-Computer 1977 Cray 1 Supercomputer 1982-4 IBM - Apple PCs 1993 Pentium Laptop 2003 PowerMac G5 10 Each SAGE computer complex had about 50,000 vacuum tubes taking up 40,000 square feet and consuming 3 million watts of power....
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This note was uploaded on 03/11/2010 for the course ENGR 183 taught by Professor Weltman during the Winter '08 term at UCLA.

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12 - Computing and Society I - Copyright Gershon Weltman,...

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