Chapter%2017%20Nuclear%20Chemistry - Chapter 17: Nuclear...

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Chapter 17: Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry: the study of chemical consequences of changes that a nucleus undergoes Nuclear Fission – the fragmentation of large nuclei into smaller nuclei Nuclear Fusion – the merging of small nuclei into larger ones Nuclear Decay – the spont particle break up of a nucleus due to cramped space of protons in an atom the repulsions between protons overcomes the force holding the nucleus together Nuclear Reaction – change in the composition of a nucleus Daughter Nucleus: nucleus left behind after radioactivity Radioactivity – spontaneous change in nuclei which emits radiation Nuclear Transmutation – conversion of one element into another Z: Atomic number - # of protons A: mass number - # of protons & neutrons Nuclear Reaction α Alpha β Beta γ Gamma α Alpha highly positively charged, slow captures e - from surroundings stopped by first layer of skin or paper He 2+ α negatively charged, fast molecule penetrates aluminum sheet not toxic as alpha no charge, no mass, attracted to nothing, high frequency most penetrating, high in energy photons unwanted reactions Nuclear Reaction Balancing Event Symbol Δ in Z Δ in A Example α emission -2 -4 + β emission +1 0 + Positron -1 0 + Electron capture -1 0 + Neutron 1 0 2
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Chapter%2017%20Nuclear%20Chemistry - Chapter 17: Nuclear...

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