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Unformatted text preview: BIPN 102, MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY II NAME: Spring 2006 lst MIDTERM EXAM I.D. # April 27, 2006 Page 1 1. (16 points). Fill in the following table by marking an “X” for which muscles are contracting for each set of intrapleural and alveolar pressures, and an “I” or “E” or “0” under airflow to indicate inspiration, expiration or no airflow, respectively. If not possible, briefly indicate why. If abnormal, indicate which condition exists. Assume you are at sea level. PIP = 757 PIP = 757 PIP = 734 PIP = 790 PIP = 760 PIP = 760 PA=761 PA=760 PA=742 PA=797 PA=757 P=760 Diaphragm __ Internal Intercostals External Intercostals — Abdominals Scalenes No muscles contract Not 0 ssible Abnormal Airflow 2. (14 points). The graph below shows spirometer traces for a normal subject and two different patients with advanced pulmonary disease with abnormal lung compliances. Indicate which curve belongs to the normal subject and which curve belongs to the patient with increased compliance and which with decreased compliance, and give an example of a possible cause (not the type of disease) of the abnormal compliances. Inspiration Expiration 3. (12 points). A scuba diver is breathing a mixture of helium and oxygen that reduces the viscosity of the gas to 'A of that of air. The tube he is breathing through increases the total length of his airways to triple the normal length. While diving he develops an asthmatic attack that constricts his bronchioles to/4 of their normal radius. Calculate by what factor his alveolar pressure must chapgetq‘maintainithe same airflow as beforthmatic attackfifiow vour calculations. BIPN 102, MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY II NAME: ANS lst MIDTERM EXAM I.D. # Spring 2006 April 27, 2006 Page 2 4. (14 points). The graph below shows spirometer traces of forced expirations for a normal subject and two different patients with advanced pulmonary disease. Indicate which curve belongs to the normal subject and which curve belongs to the patient witha restrictive disease and which with an obstructive disease, and give an example of a disease that causes each abnormality. FEV FVC FEV FVC FVC l [1 secl Liters l1s°°| 1159c, FEV= 4.0 FEV= 1.3 FEV= 2.8 FVC = 5.0 FVC = 3.1 FVC : 3.1 %= 80 °/o=42 %= 90 5. (12 points). Russell Peters, while hiking, had an anaphylactic reaction to some weird plant in the mountain; his glottis closed and he was given a tracheostomy, thereby decreasing his ded space from 150 mL to 80 mL. His total ventilation before the reaction was 55 L/min and his respiratory frequency was 10/minr A. What will happen to his alveolar P02 and P002 if he maintains the same total ventilation? B. In order to prevent any changes in his alveolar P02 and Pcoz , what must be his new tidal volume if his respiratory frequency remains the same? Show your calculations. BIPN 102, MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY 11 NAME: M’ -c Spring 2006 lst MIDTERM EXAM 1.0. # April 27, 2006 Page 3 6. (14 points). Mr. Climbalot climbed all the way to the top of Mt. Everest where the Pm = 250 mm Hg. A. Calculate his P102 : B. Calculate his PA02, assuming that his PACOz is the same as at sea level,that his diet is only starches (ea. white bread). and his alveolar ventilation is the same as at sea level: C: Calculate his PAOz, assuming that his PAC02 is 15 mm Hg owing to hyperventilation. 7. (16 points). Indicate whether the following would result in constriction (C) or dilation (D) of the pulmonary arterioles or bronchioles: Pulmonary Arterioles Bronchioles Increase In PMz V/Q < 1 At the top of the lung of a person standing up In a section of lung where a tumor decreases blood flow Fill in the blanks: The diameter of bronchioles is also controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Parasympathetic activation results in , via the which releases I on receptors. Bronchioles are not directly innervated by sympathetic nerves, but instead have receptors which bind released from the -, resulting in BIPN 102, MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY 11 NAME: Mam @ Spring 2006 lstMlDTERM EXAM I.D. # April 27, 2006 Page 4 8. (14 points). A patient comes in to your office with the following lab data: Vtidal = 500 mL FRC = 2300 mL Vital Capacity = 3900 mL Residual Volume = 1200 mL Alveolar P02 = 100 mm Hg Arterial P02 = 80 mm Hg a. Which values are abnormal in this patient, if any? b. What is the most likely diagnosis, if the patient is not normal? Why? (Use the data to support your answer.) c. Write Fick’s equation for the flux of gas. Which of the terms in the equation do you expect to change, if any, based on the diagnosis you made above? 9. (10 points) On the hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation graph below, draw the following: a. The normal Hb—O2 dissociation. Label this “Normal”. b. The curve for someone with CO poisoning, where CO occupies 60% of the hemoglobin binding sites. Label this “CO”. c. The curve for someone with anemia. Label this curve “ ”. d. The curve for someone with a metabolic acidosis. (High concentration of H+ in the blood.) Label this e. The curve for fetal hemoglobin. Label this “C”. 100 75 50 7.02% 25 25 50 75 100 P02 (mm Hg) I BIPN 102, MAWALIAN PHYSIOLOGY [1 NAME: A’N fink/15R Spring 2006 lst MIDTERM EXAM I.D. # April 27, 2006 Page 5 10. (14 points). Diagram the pathway, reactions, and ion movements that C02 undergoes upon entering a systemic capillary. Indicate the substrates, products, enzyme and transporter involved. '11. (12 points), A. List the location in the CNS of the following groups of neurons: Inspiratory neurons: Expiratory neurons: Phrenic nerve motoneurons: Pneumotaxic Center: B. What will happen to the respiratory frequency and depth if the pneumotaxic center is destroyed in an anesthetized animal? ...
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