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notes- chris - Mam Fizz 2 (Fall 09) Teaching Assistant...

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Unformatted text preview: Mam Fizz 2 (Fall 09) Teaching Assistant Chris Childers Table of Contents Lecture 2 of 31 Lecture 1 / September 25 th , 2009 Introduction & Overview Respiratory Physiology - Anatomy & Histology - Gas Laws: Poiseuilles, Boyles, Daltons, Henrys, LaPlace, Ficks Ventilation Gas Exchange Gas Transport Regulation Acid/Base Chemistry Exams: Midterm 1: Friday, October 23 rd Midterm 2: Friday, November 20 th Final: Wednesday, December 9 th Sections start 2 nd Week! Suggested Readings: Silverthorn Chapter 17 West Chapters 1, 2, 7 Figure 17-1 Overview of external and cellular respiration - Two types of respiration: o External actual exchange of gases with the outside world (ventilation) o Internal exchange of gases (CO2, O2) between the alveoli and the blood (diffusion) Includes ventilation/perfusion matching Mismatch problems - Gas transportation: o Gases are rather insoluble in water (example: this is why when you warm up a can of soda it loses its carbonation) o CO2 is 20x more soluble than oxygen at body temperature o This serves as a major challenge for gas transportation and requires additional mechanisms (chemical, hemoglobin etc.) beyond simple dissolution o These chemical reactions will create bicarbonate which acts as the main blood pH buffer o As a result, the regulation of extracellular pH is largely controlled by the respiratory system!! - First exchange outside environment and the lungs - Second exchange lungs to the blood - Third exchange between the blood and the cells o A concentration gradient between the blood, cells and lungs will always be maintained during normal physiological conditions Figure 17-2 Anatomy Summary: The lungs & thoracic cavity - Upper Respiratory Tract: Larynx, Pharynx, Oral Cavity, Nasal Cavity (infected during a common cold) 3 of 31- Lower Respiratory Tract: Trachea, Bronchi, Smaller Bronchi, Bronchioles, Alveoli - Diaphragm dome shaped muscle which seperates abdoment from the thorax, contraction flattening increasing the volume of the thorax - Left lung is slightly smaller than the right lung (due to the mass of the heart) o Right lung: three lobes: superior, middle, inferior o Left Lung: two lobs: superior, inferior o Right bronchus has a steeper angle than the left bronchus generally foreign objects will end up in the right lung as a result - Three organs in the thorax each have a connective tissue sack o For the heart pericardium o For the lungs pleura (independent, not connected) o Similar to a balloon, closed spaces filled with small amount of pleural fluid (lubricant and glue) one side of the sack is connected to the thorax, the other is connected to the surface of the lung o Pressure inside the pleural cavity is normally below atmospheric pressure Why? Lungs have enormous amounts of elastic tissue which causes a recoiling force; at the same time, the ribs spring out causing an opposing force. These opposing forces increases the volume inside the pleural space decreasing the pressure. the volume inside the pleural space decreasing the pressure....
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notes- chris - Mam Fizz 2 (Fall 09) Teaching Assistant...

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