Alkane Nomenclature

Alkane Nomenclature - 2.4 Straight-Chain and Branched Chain...

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2.4 Straight-Chain and Branched Chain Alkanes Based on their structure, alkanes can be further classified into 3 types: Straight-chain (linear) alkane Branched alkane Cyclic alkane (cycloalkane) Straight-chain and branched alkanes have the empirical formula C n H 2n+2 . Straight-chain and branched alkanes with the same molecular formula are constitutional isomers (same molecular formula with different connectivity). In general, straight chain alkanes have higher boiling points (bp) and melting points (mp) than its branched isomers because they have stronger van der waals attraction. For the same reason, longer alkanes have higher bp and mp than smaller chains. 2.5 Naming the Alkanes Important Terms : The stem chain is the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms within a molecule. (The stem chain is also called the parent chain or carbon backbone). A substituent is an atom or group of atoms substituted in place of an H atom on the stem chain. A carbon atom can be classified as primary , secondary , tertiary , or quaternary depending on the number of other carbons that it binds to. C C C C C H H H H H H primary secondary tertiary H H H H H H Straight-chain (Linear) Alkanes : All alkanes end with the suffix - ane . Alkanes with one, two, three, or four carbons have trivial names (Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane, respectively). A helpful
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Alkane Nomenclature - 2.4 Straight-Chain and Branched Chain...

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