F05ONHO - CHE140 Ferrence Oxidation numbers the actual...

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CHE140 Ferrence Oxidation numbers – the actual charge of a monoatomic ion, or the hypothetical charge assigned to an atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion. Often referred to as oxidation state. D. Rules for assigning oxidation number (BLB, p139) 1. For an atom in its elemental form, the oxidation number is always zero. a. elemental Fe, Mg, Si, C all have an oxidation number of zero b. elements which exist as molecules with more than one atom also have oxidation numbers equal to zero i.e. H 2 , N 2 , S 8 , P 4 , C 60 , graphite, diamond 2. For any monoatomic ion, the oxidation number equals the charge on the ion. a. Li + has an oxidation number of +1 as do the other alkali metal ions. b. S 2- has an oxidation number of -2 as do the other chalcogenide ions. c. Fe 3+ has an oxidation number of +3 while Fe 2+ has an oxidation number of +2. 3. Nonmetals usually have negative oxidation numbers, although they can sometimes be positive. a. The oxidation number of oxygen is usually –2 in both ionic and molecular compounds
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