IR Notes Lecture 22

IR Notes Lecture 22 - IR Notes Lecture 22 Terrorism I....

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IR Notes Lecture 22 Terrorism I. Defining Terrorism II. Potential Causes of “Jihadist” Terrorism a) Poverty b) Identity c) Domestic Problems d) US Foreign Policy III. The “Global War on Terror” a) What is the Goal? b) What are the Available Strategies? I. Terrorism a) What motivates it? b) How to respond? c) How significant is terrorism as a threat to int’l security and what can be done to address that threat II. Terrorism a) Definition: the systematic and unpredictable use of violence against civilians as a means to intimidate or coerce societies or governments i) “against civilians”—many people disagree with this b) Overt purpose is to frighten others into complying with a set of demands c) Defined as a phenomenon i) What is it? Unpredictable use of force against civilians ii) Who does it? Non-state actors and how they employ techniques (1) Trans-national networks with no territorial home is are biggest threats (a) Can operate flexibly in many different states (b) Organization is diffused with many cells, not necessarily hierarchical (c) Few fixed interests—assets or territory—that can be targeted (i) So traditional deterrence doesn’t work very well (2) Doesn’t mean states are irrelevant (a) Important as explicit, or tacit, supporters of terrorism (i) Ex: Afghanistan with Al-Qaeda (b) This mean that states can be held responsible for these groups’ actions iii) Why do they do it? (1) They are not irrational fanatics—often trying to achieve some political interest (2) May be a rational means of actions to achieve their goals (3) Often been used in campaigns of national independence and often a reaction to perceived military occupation and denial of self-determination d) 2 new features of new wave of terrorism i) Evolution of form of terrorism: 9/11 marked a new form integrating 3 forms of political violence (1) Traditional terrorism: political use of violence against civilians
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(2) Combined with resurgence in political suicide after 1979 as a tool of terrorism—Palestinian bombers, Hizbollah attack on US barracks, 9/11 (3) Possibility of mass destruction (a) Spread of WMDs may make this possible combined with first 2 ii) Perpetrators of terrorism: rise of super-empowered angry men who are able through technologies of globalization to due things that previous generations would not have been capable of (1) Using technology to achieve bigger ambitions
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IR Notes Lecture 22 - IR Notes Lecture 22 Terrorism I....

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