IR Notes Lecture 21

IR Notes Lecture 21 - IR Notes Lecture 21April 10, 2007...

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IR Notes Lecture 21—April 10, 2007 Post-Conflict Reconstruction (Nation-building) I. The Challenges of Post-Conflict Reconstruction II. External Actors and PC Reconstruction III. Complex Peacekeeping IV. Military Occupation I. What is PC Reconstruction? a) The process of rebuilding economic, political, and social institutions after both internal conflicts (Rwanda, Bosnia ) and international conflicts (Iraq and Afghanistan) II. Challenges of PC Reconstruction a) Arise in 3 different areas of society i) Political institutions (1) Often destroyed or lacking legitimacy within a country by war (a) Sovereignty: monopoly on legitimate use of force (b) In wake of conflict, governments often lack that legitimacy ii) Economic Institutions (1) Often lack these to begin with, let alone after conflict concludes (2) In many countries, In Colombia and Afghanistan, economy reliant on illicit products that are not looked as legitimate means on which to build an economy (a) But often very profitable, hard to convince people to do something else (3) Sound, legitimate economic institutions must be created iii) Social Institutions (1) Internal conflict in particular, social institutions might be completely destroyed and have to be reconstructed (a) Groups that may have previously been able to cooperate with each other are now bitter (b) Ex: former Yugoslavia under Tito, Croats, Muslims, and Serbs in Bosnia lived together peacefully but in civil war this trust was destroyed (c) Much reconstruction effort has focused on how social networks could be destroyed (d) Truth and reconciliation commissions established in Rwanda to hold those responsible for atrocities to help to heal wounds, rebuilding of trust and social networks iv) Ultimately, this reconstruction has to come from within but outside actors can play a large role III. Role of External Actors in PC Reconstruction a) Forms vary upon 2 major dimensions i) Whether external actor’s presence is consensual or adversarial—welcomed in after conflict to assist, or conqueror?
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ii) Who is conducting the reconstruction—multilaterally under auspices of multinational institutions, or by unilateral state or group of allied states that have intervened in another country? b) Consensual and multilateral usually called complex peacekeeping c) Adversarial, unilateral often called military occupations IV. Complex Peacekeeping a) Traditionally UN peacekeeping took on form of separating two sides with hope that through their presence and keeping two sides separated this would foster peaceful coexistence b) After Cold War, UN has taken on more ambitious peacekeeping now that superpowers agree more on the agenda—this called complex peacekeeping i) Rather than simply keeping combatants separated, UN has taken on more responsibility for fostering reconstruction in countries in which it intervenes c) Advantages i) Most often consensual—population welcomes presence of UN, not continually pushing it to leave ii) Legitimacy of UN imprimatur can lend legitimacy to operation, convincing
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2010 for the course GOVT 006 taught by Professor Wallander during the Spring '08 term at Georgetown.

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IR Notes Lecture 21 - IR Notes Lecture 21April 10, 2007...

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