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IR Notes Lecture 18

IR Notes Lecture 18 - IR Notes Lecture The Use of Force I...

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IR Notes Lecture 18—March 21, 2007 The Use of Force I. Uses of Force a) Defense b) Destruction c) Coercion i) Types of Coercion ii) Requirements for Coercive Success iii) Mechanisms of Coercive Violence II. The Future of the Use of Force I. Why need to use force a) As long as int’l politics is anarchic, force is the final arbiter in disputes b/w actors b) But force can be most effective when it’s not used—threat is an equally effective tool i) Don’t have to pay heavy costs of using force, also attractive to target obviously because not attacked c) Raises several questions and problems i) Is necessary for resolving certain conflicts (WWII for example) ii) But also necessarily incurs certain risks, it’s a gamble (1) Carter’s rescue mission in Iran was a disaster (2) Somalia, early 1990s—heavy cost in lives and material factors iii) Ethical, moral, normative dimensions of using military force (1) Almost always involves killing people, including innocent civilians II. 3 Categories on how force is used a) Defense i) To resist any physical attack against your territory or interests ii) To defeat aggression, success depends on relative balance of capabilities usually iii) Also used in more aggressive way to get actors to do things that they otherwise would not do b) Destruction i) Destroy capabilities of adversary so they can no longer do things adverse to your interests ii) Fairly common at the tactical level, but as a strategic goal it is used much less common (1) Extremely costly to implement (2) Somebody has to deal with aftermath, rebuilding c) Coercion i) The use of threatened force or in some cases, the limited use of actual force, to induce an adversary to behave differently than he otherwise would ii) Even limited force usually used as a threat of what could be down the road iii) The key is that coercive violence is usually latent, hold it in reserve and use it as a threat against an adversary
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iv) Involves discouraging the enemy from taking any enemy by posing to them the potential of cost and risk that outweighs the potential benefits v) So cost is either to completely avert violence or prevent the escalation of violence in a way already underway vi) Much more nuanced than destruction (1) May use violence, but goal is not sheer destruction; rather, the extent you use force is to produce some other outcome, convince adversary that resistance is futile (2) Destruction is a means to an end rather than an end itself
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IR Notes Lecture 18 - IR Notes Lecture The Use of Force I...

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