IR Notes Lecture 4

IR Notes Lecture 4 - IR Notes Lecture State Strategies in...

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IR Notes Lecture 4—January 25, 2007 State Strategies in an Archaic World I. The Menu of Strategies for States a) Checking power: balancing, buck-passing b) Increasing power: conquest c) Ceding power: appeasement, bandwagoning II. A systemic Theory of IR a) The logic of Waltz’s argument III. Defensive vs. Offensive Neorealism IV. Power Transition Theory V. Critiques of Neorealism I. The Menu of Strategies a) Checking Power: for most realists, these are the strategies they think will be most common i) Balancing: most common strategy, states act to prevent any one state from becoming a hegemon because that threatens their survival (1) So states balance against threats from other states by forming alliances (2) States can balance in two different ways (a) Internal balancing: can build up their own forces in order to convince another state not to attack or check another state’s power (i) Attractive: only relying on yourself, but sometimes it’s just to draining to do so (b) External Balancing: forming alliances whose power and resources can help you against another state (i) Alliance: formal or informal arrangement sovereign states enter into in order to ensure mutual security of alliance partners ii) Buckpassing: the attempt to get other states to bear the burden of balancing against another state (1) Example is European powers in 1930s facing Germany—no state wanted to pay the heavy price of balancing against Germany so tried to others to b) Increasing power i) Conquest: invading another state, capturing their resources, putting them to work for your own national goals (1) Debate over whether conquest pays and how common it is c) Ceding Pore i) Cooperation (appeasement): placating another state (1) Avoiding a threat by making concessions in order to modify their behavior (2) Problem is that it might whet, no shrink, the appetite of an adversary ii) Bandwagoning: rather than balancing against a threat or building up forces against it, you jump on that threat’s bandwagon by cooperating or allying with it (1) May be used to forestall an attack on yourself, or attempt to capture spoils of victory
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iii) Realists believe that these aren’t common, most likely to balance the threat than to cooperate with the threat II. Waltz’s Systemic Theory of IR (1979) a) Waltz sought to shift understanding of IR from individual level of classical realism to the systemic level b) He thought individual or state level explanations (first or second image) were
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IR Notes Lecture 4 - IR Notes Lecture State Strategies in...

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