IR Notes Lecture 3

IR Notes Lecture 3 - IR Notes Lecture 3January 23, 2007...

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IR Notes Lecture 3—January 23, 2007 Realism, I—Power Politics and the Security Dilemma I. Realism a) Depicts IR as a struggle for power among self-interested states, is generally pessimistic about prospects for eliminating conflicts b) Classical: sees root of problem as human nature within anarchic system c) Neo-realists: root of problem is distribution of power within anarchic nature of the int’l system d) Emphasize the continuity of historical experience in IR and skeptical of efforts to transcend competitive nature of IPOL e) History i) Trace back to Thucidides (1) History of the Peloponnesian War (a) Milion Dialogue: b/w Athens, Sparta, and Milos (i) Seen as classic statement of realism (ii) Defining dictum: The strong do what they can, the weak suffer what they must ii) Power is key independent variable iii) Machiavelli: better to be feared than loved iv) Hobbes: life in the state of nature as poor, brutish, and short v) Bismarck vi) Kissinger vii)Popular during Cold War because provided simple explanation of alliances, effort to capture parts of 3 rd world, failure of dialogue (1) Emphasis of competition seen as explaining the Cold War II. Variations of Realism a) Classical Realism: argue that states, like humans, have an innate desire to dominate others, leading them into conflict i) Focus on human nature, so individual level, first image explanation of IPOL ii) Most famous is Hans Morgenthau iii) In early cold war, these realists were writing about int’l breakdown leading to WWII (1) Looked at history preceding WWII, and saw collapse of idealist edifice built up after WWI (2) These idealist beliefs reflected in League for example iv) Natural harmony of views among states, and war led to misconception or miscalculation, not any willful drive toward war v) Idealists (1) This can be solved by creating institutions like League (2) In addition, idealists saw a universal morality that was out there to which states should aspire and adhere (3) And objective morality out there to be discovered and reality by states b) Morgenthau’s Six POlitcal Principles (1) Politics governed by objective laws rooted in human nature
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(2) Interests among states are defined in terms of power (a) Power is an end that states seek (3) Power is a universal and objective concept measurable at all times among all states (4) Political acts are morally significant, but no universal moral
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IR Notes Lecture 3 - IR Notes Lecture 3January 23, 2007...

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