Chapter 1 - Introduction to I/O Psychology 1 What is I/O Psychology • A branch of psychology that applies the • • principles of psychology to

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to I/O Psychology 1 What is I/O Psychology? • A branch of psychology that applies the • • principles of psychology to the workplace (Aamodt, 2007) The specialty area within the broad field of psychology that studies human behavior in work settings (Riggio, 2000) Industrial­organizational psychologists are able to apply psychological theories to explain and enhance the effectiveness of human behavior in the workplace (Canadian Psychological Association) 2 Fields of I/O Psychology • • • Personnel Psychology Organizational Psychology Human Factors/Ergonomics 3 Employment Settings of I/O Psychologists Employment Setting Education Private sector Public sector Consulting Other Medsker, Katkowski & Furr (2005) Highest Degree M.A. 0.8 44.0 10.5 37.3 7.4 Ph.D. 40.0 23.3 8.2 25.0 3.5 4 Difference Between I/O and MBA Programs Typical I/O Courses Statistics Experimental methodology Psychometric theory Employee selection and placement Organizational psychology Employee training and development Performance appraisal Job analysis Typical MBA Courses Statistics Business research Organizational behavior Administrative policy Managerial economics Financial management Marketing management Managerial accounting 5 I/O Graduate Programs Characteristic Average GRE Score Average GPA Years to complete Internship Dissertation Degree M.A. 1,084 3.41 2 Yes No Ph.D. 1,237 3.58 5 Yes Yes 6 History of I/O Psychology 1900 ­ 1920 1903 Walter Dill Scott publishes The Theory of Advertising 1913 Hugo Munsterberg publishes Psychology and Industrial Efficiency 1917 Journal of Applied Psychology first published 7 History of I/O Psychology World War I • Selection of Soldiers • John Watson developed tests for pilots • Henry Gantt increased cargo ship efficiency – Army Alpha – Army Beta 8 History of I/O Psychology 1920 ­ 1940 1921 First Ph.D. in I/O Psychology awarded to Bruce Moore and Merrill Ream at Carnegie Tech First I/O text book written by Morris Viteles Hawthorne Studies published American Association for Applied Psychology Established 1932 1933 1937 9 Year Division 14 History Member Event s 130 American Association for Applied Psychology formed Society for Industrial and Business Psychology established as Division 14 of APA Marion Bills elected first woman president of Division 14 700+ Renamed “Society for Industrial Psychology” First edition of The Industrial­Organizational Psychologist published 1,800+ Renamed “Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology” SIOP conference held separately from APA 2,500+ 10 10 1937 1945 1951 1960 1964 1982 1986 1990 11 11 Why Should I Care About Research? • • • Answering questions and making decisions We encounter research every day Common sense is often wrong 12 12 • Ideas • Hypotheses ­ well thought­out suggestions or • ideas Theories ­ systematic sets of assumptions regarding the nature and cause of particular events How Do I Know What to Research? 13 13 Idea It seems that people don’t work as hard in a group as when they are alone Hypothesis When pulling on a rope, a person working by himself will exert more force than a person working in a group Social Loafing Example Theory 1. Sucker 2. 3. effect Free­rider Individual effort will not be noticed 14 14 Idea Does all this noise affect my employees’ performance? Hypothesis High levels of noise will increase the number of errors made in assembling electronic components Noise Example Theory Noise causes a distraction making it difficult to concentrate 15 15 Idea What employee recruitment source is best? Hypothesis Employee referrals will result in employees who stay with the company longer than will the other recruitment methods Theory 1. Realistic job preview 2. Differential source 3. Personality similarity 4. Socialization Recruitment Example 16 16 Idea Hypothesis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Theory It seems that There will be a poor people are correlation more violent between than rich income and the people number of times arrested for being violent Aggression Example 17 17 How Do I Find Previous Research? • Written sources – – – – – – – – Journals Trade Magazines Bridge publications Magazines Books First Search Psych Info Info Trac • Electronic Resources • The Web 18 18 Where Will I Conduct Research? • Locations – – – Laboratory Field Office • Issues – External validity (generalizability) – Control 19 19 What Research Method Should I Use? Research Methods • Experiment – – – independent variable is manipulated {and} Subjects are randomly assigned to conditions dependent variable • Quasi­experiment • • • • Case study Survey Interview Natural observation – Independent variable is not manipulated {or} – Subjects are not randomly assigned to conditions 20 20 Independent and Dependent Variables • Independent Variable • Dependent Variable – Experimental group – Control group 21 21 A researcher thinks that smaller groups will be more cohesive than larger groups Independent variable = Group size Dependent variable = Level of cohesion Number of Group Members 35 7 9 11 13 Cohesiveness 87 77 65 60 60 58 rating 22 22 A researcher thinks that setting goals will increase the number of orders that are “upsized” at McBurger King Independent variable = Setting of goals (yes or no) Dependent variable = # of upsized orders Experimental Condition No Goals Goals # of upsized 18 79 orders 23 23 Identify the Independent and Dependent Variables • Are employees in large organizations more likely to miss work than those in small organizations? • Will taking a practice test increase scores on the an employment test? • Will making “to do” lists decrease the stress of managers? 24 24 Identify the Independent and Dependent Variables • A researcher found that employees with customer service training have fewer customer complaints than employees who haven’t been trained A researcher found that employees on the night shift make more errors than those on the day shift A researcher found that employees paid on commission were more productive but less satisfied than employees paid an hourly rate 25 25 • • Quasi­Experiments • Used when experiments are not practical or when manipulating a variable may not be ethical • A study is a quasi­experiment rather than an experiment when The independent variable is not manipulated {or} Subjects are not randomly assigned to • Can not determine cause­effect relationships 26 26 conditions Example New Child Care Center • 2000 Employee absenteeism rate = 5.09% • 2001 On­site child­care center established • (Jan 1) 2001 Employee absenteeism rate = 3.01% 27 27 Date 1/00 2/00 3/00 4/00 5/00 6/00 7/00 8/00 9/00 10/00 11/00 Absenteeis m % 2.8 3.1 4.7 4.7 4.8 6.7 6.5 4.9 4.5 4.4 8.7 External Factor Internal Factor Unemployment rate at 4.1% Main highway closed Highway reopens Terrible snowstorm 28 28 Date 1/01 2/01 3/01 4/01 5/01 6/01 7/01 8/01 9/01 10/01 11/01 Absenteeism % 5.3 5.2 5.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.1 4.0 External Factor Internal Factor Child care center started Flextime program started Unemployment rate at 9.3% Wellness program started New attendance policy Mild weather 29 29 Surveys • • • • • • • • Mail Phone Face­to­face Magazine E­mail Internet “Call in” Fax 30 30 Does Method Matter? • Mail Responses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Roanoke Times 1998 Survey of Best Motion Pictures Gone with the Wind Sound of Music Wizard of Oz It’s a Wonderful Life To Kill a Mockingbird • Email Responses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gone with the Wind Star Wars Schindler’s List Wizard of Oz Shawshank Redemption 31 31 Increasing Response Rates Mail Surveys • • • • • Include a small token of appreciation (25¢ or a pen) Precontact participants Use a first­class stamp (15% more likely to be opened) Send follow­up letters These factors don’t affect response rates – – – – Survey length Personalization Deadlines Promising anonymity 32 32 Increasing Response Rates Email Surveys • Compared to regular mail, email – – – Faster Cheaper (5­20% of regular mail cost) Results in longer, more candid open­ended responses – Has similar response rates (about 30%) • Survey length does not affect response rates 33 33 Increasing Response Rates Phone Surveys • Immediately identify self and affiliation • Provide a phone number if participant is • • • • suspicious Stress the importance of the information Keep the interview short Limit the number of response options Speak clearly 34 34 Question Considerations • Will the participant understand the question? • Will the question itself change the way a • • person thinks? Do the response options cover the construct? What are we going to do with the data? – – • Does the format increase or decrease the probability of responding? What question are we trying to answer? How much time, effort, and money are we willing to spend in coding and analyzing responses? 35 35 Question Types • Open­ended items • Restricted items – Provide richer quality – Difficult to analyze – Easier to analyze – May limit responses 36 36 Open v. Categorical Questions • Age _____ • Age a) b) c) d) e) f) Under 21 21 – 25 26 – 30 31­ 40 41 – 50 Over 50 37 37 What is Wrong With These Questions? • In the past year, how many times did you play golf? • How many times per week do you drink alcohol? 38 38 A statistical method for cumulating studies Meta­Analysis Meta­Analysis 39 39 Why is Meta­Analysis Better Than Traditional Reviews? 40 40 Meta­Analysis Steps • • • • • • Obtain relevant studies Convert test statistics into effect sizes Compute mean effect size Correct effect sizes for sources of error Determine if effect size is significant Determine if effect can be generalized or if there are moderators 41 41 Finding Studies • Establish time frame for • studies Sources – – – – – – Journals Dissertations Theses Technical reports Conference presentations File cabinet data 42 42 Finding Studies Methods • Search Engines – – – – – Infotrac PsychInfo Lexis­Nexis Dow Jones Interactive World Cat • • • • Internet Bibliographies from studies Phone calls List serve calls for help 43 43 Finding Studies Deciding Which Studies to Use • Must be empirical • Must have the appropriate statistic • • to convert to an ‘r’ or a ‘d’ Must have complete set of information Must be accurate 44 44 Converting Test Statistics into Effect Sizes • Two common effect sizes • Conversion Types – Correlation (r) – Difference (d) – Directly using means – Formulas to convert t, F, X2, r, and d 45 45 (Mexp – Mcontrol) ÷ SDoverall Identify the Research Method Exercise 1­1 46 46 47 47 Study A B C D Type Correlation Archival Survey Quasi­experiment IV Satisfaction Sex None Wall color DV Days missed Salary Willingness to use center Days missed 48 48 Study E F G H Type Meta­analysis Survey Archival Experiment IV Incentives None Education Training DV Performance Work attitude Performance Ability to detect deception 49 49 Where Do I Get My Subjects? Who Will Participate? • Size • Students vs. “real world” Does it Matter? If you were investigating whether the length of time it took for an employee to report sexual harassment (1 day versus 3 months) influenced jurors decisions, would students as subjects be different from having people from the community? 50 50 Where Do I Get My Subjects? Sampling • Types of Samples – – – – – – Random Representative Non­random/representative Random selection Convenience Random assignment • Sampling Methods 51 51 What Type of Sampling Method is Being Used? • A researcher has the students in her classes fill out a • • questionnaire A researcher gives $6 to people who will participate in his study. As the people arrive, he flips a coin to see if they will be in the experimental or the control condition. A manager wants to see if a training program will increase performance. She selects every third name from the company roster to participate. Employees with an odd number at the end of their social security number are given one training program and those with an even number are given another. 52 52 Where Do I Get My Subjects? Inducements to Participate • • • • Extra credit Money Intrinsic reasons Ordered to participate Does it Matter? Would the inducement used affect the type of person agreeing to participate? In what ways? 53 53 Where Do I Get My Subjects? Informed Consent • Ethically required • Can be waived when – – Research involves minimal risk Waiver will not adversely affect rights of participants – Research could not be done without the waiver 54 54 Is Informed Consent Needed? • An experimenter wants to study the effects of • • electric shock on reducing patients’ depression levels A researcher wants to conduct a telephone survey in which she asks people their five favorite TV shows. She will then determine if males and females like different shows. A researcher wants to determine the types of people who litter. He plans to hide above a road and record information about the people who litter or don’t litter (e.g., age, sex, type of car). 55 55 Running the Study • • • Informed consent Instructions Task completion – Deception? • Debriefing 56 56 Designing a Study Exercise 1-2 57 57 Reviewing Research Articles Exercise 1.3 58 58 59 59 • Introduction • Method • Results – – – – Old references: Article was published in 2006 yet most recent cite is 1978 – Article stated that other studies “have shown no improvement” but did not cite them Small sample size No description of participant characteristics Subjective dependent variable – Significance levels were ignored – Inferred “cause” in a correlational study 60 60 How Do I Analyze My Data? Concept • Numbers will always be • • different Are they different by chance or by something true? Probability levels (p < .05) 61 61 How Do I Analyze My Data? Types of Statistics • Descriptive Statistics • Statistics showing – – – – – Mean Median Mode Frequencies Standard deviation differences – – – t­tests Analysis of variance Chi­square 62 62 Statistics Showing Relationships Correlation • Does not show • causation Correlation coefficient – Direction • Positive • Negative – Magnitude • Distance from zero • Comparison to norms – Type of Relationship • Linear • Curvilinear 63 63 Correlation of .50 Salary Time in Job 64 64 Correlation of .20 Salary Time in Job 65 65 Ethics • Informed consent • Debriefing • Research Review Boards 66 66 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2010 for the course PSYC 170 at San Jose State University .

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