Chapter 2Job Analysis

Chapter 2Job Analysis - Job Analysis 1 Importance of Job...

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Unformatted text preview: Job Analysis 1 Importance of Job Analysis Writing job Writing descriptions descriptions Employee selection Training Personpower planning Performance appraisal Job classification Job evaluation Job design Compliance with legal Compliance guidelines guidelines Organizational Organizational analysis analysis 2 Job Description Sections Job Title Brief summary Work activities Tools and equipment used Work context Work performance Compensation information Job Competencies 3 Job Description Sections Job Title Title Describes the nature of the job Assists in employee selection and Assists recruitment recruitment Affects perceptions of job worth and Affects status status – Job evaluation results – Employees feelings of personal worth Affects clarity of resumes 4 Would you like to upsize that Would title? title? Traditional Title Writer Waiter Garbage Man Secretary File Clerk Receptionist Grave Digger Upsized Title Sentence Engineer Customer-Chef Intermediary Sanitation Engineer Power Behind the Throne Data Storage Specialist Director of First Impressions Cadaver Disposal Facilitator 5 Window Washer Optical Illuminator Enhancer Job Description Sections Brief Summary Useful for recruitment advertising Should be written in an easy to Should understand style understand Jargon and abbreviations should not be Jargon used used 6 Job Description Sections Work Activities Organize by dimensions – Similar activities – Similar KSAOs – Temporal order 7 Job Description Sections Work Activities Task statements – List only one activity per statement – Statements should be able to “stand alone” – Should be written in an easy to understand Should style style – Use precise rather than general words “Responsible for” “Oversees” “Handles accounts” 8 Job Description Sections Work Context Work schedule Degree of supervision Ergonomic information – Physical and Psychological Stress – Indoors v. outdoors – Lighting/heat/noise/physical space – Clean v. dirty environment – Standing/sitting/bending/lifting 9 Job Description Sections Work Performance Describes how performance is Describes evaluated evaluated This section might include – Standards used – Frequency of evaluation – Evaluation dimensions – The person doing the evaluating 10 10 Job Description Sections Compensation Information Job evaluation Job dimensions dimensions Exempt status Pay grade Job group EEO-1 Category 1. Officials and managers 2. Professionals 3. Technicians 4. Sales workers 5. Office and clerical 6. Craft workers 7. Operatives 8. Laborers 9. Service workers 11 11 Job Description Sections Job Competencies Common Names – Job competencies – Knowledge, skill, ability, and other Knowledge, characteristics (KSAOs) characteristics – Job specifications Competencies should be separated – Those needed before hire – Those that can be learned after hire 12 12 Critiquing Job Descriptions Exercise 2.1 13 13 14 14 The verbs at the beginning of the sentences are not The parallel (e.g., takes v. inspect) parallel Under food preparation, “Handle problems” is too Under vague vague Under cleaning, “RK-9” and “10-6” are jargon and Under wouldn’t make sense to a person unfamiliar with the job job Under tools, a cash register is listed yet there are no Under tasks reported that involve a cash register tasks Under job context, lifting 80-pound crates is Under mentioned. There are no tasks involving lifting crates. mentioned. Personal Requirements – “Be flexible” is vague. Are we talking about physical Be flexibility or interpersonal flexibility? flexibility – “No mental or physical problems” is a violation of the ADA. – Counting back change is listed but there are no tasks listed Counting that involve counting back change. that 15 15 Writing a Job Description Exercise 2.2 16 16 Internal Department – – – – Human resources Compensation Training Engineering Preparing for a Job Analysis Who Will Conduct the Job Who Analysis? Analysis? Internal task force Supervisors Employees Consultants Interns/class projects 17 17 Preparing for a Job Analysis Choices – – – – – – – – – Which Employees Should Which Participate? Participate? All employees Random sample Representative sample Convenience sample Job competence Race Gender Education level Viewpoint 18 18 Potential Differences Preparing for a Job Analysis Types of Requirements – Formal – Informal What Type of Information Should be What Gathered? Gathered? Level of Specificity – – – – – – – Job Position Duty Task Activity Element Sub element key key Loan officer Loan officer at the Boone branch Approval of loans Investigates loan history to determine if Investigates applicant has bad credit applicant Runs credit histories on credit machine Enters applicant’s SSN into credit machine Elevates finger 30 degrees before striking Elevates 19 19 Conducting a Job Analysis Basic Steps Step 1: Identify tasks performed Step 2: Write task statements Step 3: Rate task statements Step 4: Determine essential KSAOs Step 5: Select tests to tap KSAOs 20 20 Conducting a Job Analysis Step 1: Identify Tasks Performed Gathering existing information Interviewing subject matter experts (SMEs) – – – Individual interviews SME Conferences Ammerman Technique Observing incumbents Job participation 21 21 Conducting a Job Analysis Step 2: Write Task Statements Required elements to a task statement – Action – Object Optional elements – – – – Where the task is done Where the How it is done Why it is done When it is done 22 22 Conducting a Job Analysis Step 2: Write Task Statements Characteristics of well-written task statements – – – – – One action and one object Appropriate reading level The statement should make sense by itself All statements should be written in the same tense Should include the tools and equipment used to Should complete the task complete – Task statements should not be competencies – Task statements should not be policies 23 23 Poorly written task statement Sends purchase requests Drives Properly written task statement Sends purchase requests to the purchasing department using campus mail Drives a five-speed truck to make food deliveries within the city of Toledo Uses master key to lock hall doors at midnight so that nonresidents cannot enter the residence hall 24 24 Locks hall doors What is Wrong with these Task What Statements? Statements? Handles customer complaints Type, files, and distributes correspondence Utilizes decision-making skills and abilities In charge of the copy machine Uses the computer to balance department budget Responsible for opening and closing the office Greets visitors Examines supervisor’s daily schedule Oversees the office 25 25 To practice writing task statements, write To 10 task statements for your current job or one that you have had recently one 26 26 Conducting a Job Analysis Step 3: Rate Task Statements Tasks can be rated on a variety of scales – – – – – – – Importance Part-of-the-job Frequency of performance Time spent Relative time spent Complexity Criticality Research shows only two scales are necessary – Frequency – Importance 27 27 Rating Scale Frequency 0 1 2 3 Importance 0 1 2 Unimportant. There would be no negative consequence if the task were not performed or not performed properly Important: Job performance would be diminished if task were not completed properly Essential: The job could not be performed effectively if the incumbent did not properly complete this task Task is not performed as part of this job Task is seldom performed Task is occasionally performed Task is frequently performed 28 28 Using the Ratings Create a chart summarizing the ratings Add the frequency and importance Add ratings to form a combined rating for each task task Include the task in the final task inventory Include if: if: – Average rating is greater than .5 for both Average frequency and importance {or} frequency – Combined rating is 2.0 or higher 29 29 Raters Scully Mulder Combined Average Task # 1 2 3 4 F 2 2 0 3 I 0 2 0 2 CR 2 4 0 5 F 3 2 0 3 I 0 1 0 2 CR 3 3 0 5 F 2.5 2.0 0.0 3.0 I 0.0 1.5 0.0 2.0 CR 2.5 3.5 0.0 5.0 30 30 Conducting a Job Analysis Step 4: Determine Essential KSAOs Knowledge A body of information needed to perform a task Skill The proficiency to perform a certain task Ability A basic capacity for performing a wide range if different tasks, acquiring a knowledge, or developing a skill Other Personal factors such as personality, willingness, characteristics interest, and motivation and such tangible factors as licenses, degrees, and years of experience 31 31 Identifying KSAOs Exercise 2.3 32 32 33 33 Competency 1. Typing speed 2. Finger dexterity 3. Driving a car 4. Traffic rules 5. A driver’s license 6. A friendly personality 7. Ten years of experience 8. Basic intelligence KSAO Skill Ability Skill Knowledge Other Other Other Ability 34 34 Competency 9. Physical strength 10. Color vision 11. Being a nonsmoker 12. Customer service experience 13. Use of PowerPoint 14. Willingness to work weekends 15. Spelling and grammar 16. Writing reports KSAO Ability Ability Other Other Skill, knowledge Other Skill, knowledge Skill 35 35 Structured Job Analysis Methods General Information about Worker Activities Position Analysis Questionnaire – 194 Items – 6 main dimensions Information input Mental processes Work output Relationships with others Job context Other – – – Easy to use Standardized Difficult to read for average employee 36 36 Structured Job Analysis Methods General Information about Worker Activities Job Structure Profile – Designed as a replacement for the PAQ – Easier to read than the PAQ – Good reliability Job Elements Inventory – – – – – – 153 items 10th grade readability level Correlates highly with PAQ Data People Things 37 37 Functional Job Analysis Structured Job Analysis Methods Information about KSAOs Job Components Inventory – 400 questions – 5 main categories Tools and equipment used Perceptual and physical Perceptual requirements requirements Mathematical requirements Communication requirements Decision making and Decision responsibility responsibility Threshold Traits Analysis – 33 items – 5 main categories Physical traits Mental traits Learned traits Motivational traits Social traits – Good reliability – Reliable – Short and quick to use 38 38 Structured Job Analysis Methods Information about KSAOs Job Adaptability Inventory – 132 items – 8 adaptability dimensions Handling emergencies Handling work stress Solving problems creatively Dealing with uncertainty Learning Interpersonal adaptability Cultural adaptability Physically orienting adaptability 39 39 Structured Job Analysis Methods Information about KSAOs Personality-Related Position Requirements Personality-Related Form Form – 107 items items – 12 personality dimensions Fleishman Job Analysis Survey – 72 abilities – Good reliability 40 40 Structured Job Analysis Methods Information about KSAOs Critical Incident Technique Critical – Job incumbents generate incidents of excellent and Job poor performance poor – Job experts examine each incident to determine if it Job is an example of good or poor performance is – 3 incumbents sort incidents into categories – Job analyst combines and names categories – 3 iincumbents resort incidents into combined ncumbents categories categories – Number of incidents per category provides an idea Number of the importance of each category of 41 41 Category Interest in residents Availability Responsibility Fairness Self-adherence to rules Social skills Programming Self-confidence Rule enforcement Authoritarianism Counseling skills Self-control Confidentiality Excellent 31 14 12 18 0 19 13 12 4 1 12 5 1 Poor 19 27 20 10 28 7 7 8 4 16 4 2 2 Total 50 41 32 28 28 26 20 20 18 17 16 7 3 42 42 Job Evaluation Determining the Worth of a Job 43 43 The Ideal Compensation System Will attract and retain Will desired employees desired Will motivate current Will employees while also providing security providing Is equitable Is in compliance with Is legal guidelines legal 44 44 Humor Break Reaching the end of a job interview, the HR manager asked a young applicant fresh out of business school, “And what starting salary are you looking for?” The applicant said, “In the neighborhood of $125,000 a year, depending on the benefits package.” The interviewer said, “Well what would you say to a package of 5 weeks of vacation, 14 paid holidays, full medical and dental, company matching retirement fund to 50% of salary, and a company care leaded every two years – say a red Corvette?” The applicant sat up straight and said, “Wow! Are you kidding?” The interviewer replied, “Yeah, but you started it.” 45 45 Determining Internal Pay Equity Determine Assign points to Determine Assign compensable factors each level within a compensable factor factor Determine levels for Determine Assign points to jobs each factor each Assign weights to Run regression to Assign Run each factor determine how well each points predict salary Convert weights to Convert midpoints midpoints points for each factor factor 46 46 Step 1: Determining Compensable Step Factors Factors Compensable Factors Examples – – – – – responsibility complexity/difficulty skill needed physical demands work environment 47 47 What factors make one job worth more than another? 48 48 Step 2: Determine Levels for Each Step Compensable Factor Compensable Education – – – – – – – – High school degree or less Two year college degree Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree Makes no decisions Makes decisions for self Makes decisions for 1-5 employees Makes decisions for more than 5 employees Responsibility Physical demands – Lifts no heavy objects – Lifts objects between 25 and 100 pounds – Lifts objects more than 100 pounds 49 49 Step 3: Determine Factor Weights Factor Education Responsibility Physical demands Safety Experience Total Weight 20 30 15 10 25 100% Points 200 300 150 100 250 1000 50 50 Step 4: Assign Points to Each Level Responsibility Makes no decisions Makes decisions for self Makes decisions for 1-5 employees Makes decisions for > 5 employees Total Points 75 150 225 300 300 51 51 Determining Factor Weights Exercise 2.5 52 52 Step 5: Assign Points to Each Job Position: Production Supervisor Factor Points Education Responsibility Physical demands Safety Experience Total 200 300 150 100 250 1000 53 53 Computing a Wage Trend Line Exercise 2.6 54 54 55 55 Job Computer Operator Computer Programmer Tape Librarian Secretary I Secretary II Computer Analyst Clerk Supervisor Account Representative Customer Service Points 450 550 400 500 450 600 350 650 500 550 Salary $18,000 $26,000 $16,000 $17,000 $15,000 $28,000 $16,000 $32,000 $18,000 $25,000 56 56 34,000 33,000 32,000 Supervisor 31,000 30,000 29,000 28,000 CA 27,000 26,000 CP 25,000 CSA 24,000 23,000 22,000 21,000 57 57 Job Computer Operator Computer Programmer Tape Librarian Secretary I Secretary II Computer Analyst Clerk Supervisor Account Representative Customer Service Agent Points 450 550 400 500 450 600 350 650 500 550 Predicted Salary $21,250 $27,950 $17,900 $24,600 $21,250 $31,300 $14,550 $34,650 $24,600 $27,950 Salary $18,000 $26,000 $16,000 $17,000 $15,000 $28,000 $16,000 $32,000 $18,000 $25,000 Difference -$3,250 -$1,950 -$1,900 -$7,600 -$6.250 -$3,300 +$1,450 -$2,650 -$6,600 -$2,950 58 58 Determining External Pay Equity Worth based on Worth external market external Determined through Determined salary surveys salary Information obtained – – – – salary range starting salary actual salaries paid benefits 59 59 Salary Survey Example # of org s # of emp Weighte d Average Salary Range Median Low Q1 Q3 High Production Foreperson Machinist Planner Production Quality Ins Maintenance Janitor Maint A Mechanic 10 17 11 322 112 382 $ 7.08 $13.90 $14.80 5.27 7.05 8.25 6.48 9.62 10.93 7.62 11.26 12.41 8.34 13.79 14.33 12.72 16.65 16.05 60 60 18 9 9 15 10 286 419 36 3,48 7 45 $18.85 $13,83 $15.73 $13.91 $12.24 9.50 9.00 7.02 6.00 7.00 13.24 11.63 10.28 7.71 8.00 16.45 14.67 11.67 10.47 9.93 20.10 15.36 17.41 13.68 13.38 27.51 19.97 28.36 15.30 15.30 Potential Salary Survey Problems Response rate – organization conducted – trade group conducted Finding comparable jobs Do salary surveys Do perpetuate discrimination? perpetuate Do salary surveys “fix” Do salaries at low levels? salaries 61 61 Will an $8 million settlement reduce future pay discrimination at Coca-Cola? (2002, May 25). Coca-Cola settle lawsuit over salary discrimination against female workers. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. 62 62 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/12/2010 for the course PSYC 170 at San Jose State.

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