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Chapter 14

# Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Fluids What is a fluid A substance...

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Chapter 14 Fluids

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What is a fluid A substance that can flow Liquids (difficult to compress) Gases (easy to compress) Basic properties: Fluids take the form of the container. When shear stress is applied they flow. The molecules in fluids are in constant random motion (Brownian motion). The field of science that describes the fluid motion is called “Fluid Mechanics”
Density Mass per unit volume. Unit kg/m 3 . The density can be different at each point of the fluid. An object is uniform if the density is constant at any point of the body A fluid is incompressible if the density does not change as a result of an applied pressure. ρ = m V

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Some examples Interstellar space 10 -20 kg/m 3 Laboratory vacuum 10 -17 kg/m 3 Air (1 atm 20C) 1.21 kg/m 3 Ice 0.917x10 3 kg/m 3 Water 0.998x10 3 kg/m 3 Seawater 1.024x10 3 kg/m 3 Earth 5.5x10 3 kg/m 3 Neutron star 10 18 kg/m 3
Pressure Force per unit area (the force is perpendicular to the surface) Scalar : the pressure has the same value in all directions! Units: 1Pa=1N/1m 2 . Other popular units 1 atm = 1 bar = 1.01x10 5 Pa = 760 torr = 14.7 lb/in 2 p = F A

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Some Examples Sea level atm. pressure 10 5 Pa Bottom of the ocean 1.1x10 8 Pa Center of the Earth 4x10 11 Pa Center of the Sun 2x10 16 Pa
Fluids at rest Static equilibrium F 2 = F 1 + mg F 1 = p 1 A F 2 = p 2 A p 2 A = p 2 A + ρ Vg V = A ( y 1 - y 2 ) p 2 = p 1 + g ( y 1 - y 2 ) p = p 0 + gh Hydrostatic pressure

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Absolute pressure = total pressure Gauge pressure = total - atmospheric The atmospheric pressure on the free surface of a liquid is often neglected. p
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Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Fluids What is a fluid A substance...

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