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Chapter 33c

# Chapter 33c - Chapter 33 Electromagnetic Waves...

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Ch. 33: Electromagnetic Waves - Part C 1 November 16, 2009 1 Chapter 33: Electromagnetic Waves ! Electromagnetic waves. ! Reflection and refraction. ! Chromatic dispersion. ! HITT question. ! Total internal reflection. ! Polarization by reflection.

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Ch. 33: Electromagnetic Waves - Part C 2 November 16, 2009 2 The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave ! For a wave traveling toward point P in the +x direction: sin( ) ω =− ym EE k xt sin( ) zm BB k x t A snapshot of an EM wave. ! ω is the angular frequency, and k is the angular wave number. ! The speed of a wave is . ! The speed of the EM wave is . ! All electromagnetic waves have the same speed c in vacuum. where / ,2 / vk k ωπ λ == m/s 8 00 1/ 3.0 10 c µε × m m E E c
Ch. 33: Electromagnetic Waves - Part C 3 November 16, 2009 3 The Traveling Electromagnetic Wave ! For a wave traveling toward point P in the +x direction: sin( ) m y EE k x t ω = sin( ) m z BB k x t = ! If an EM wave has: sin( ) m y k x t + = +y , +z , +x (RHR) EB × ! ! The direction of the travel is -x . sin( ) z m k t x −+ = sin ) ˆ ( m B x Bt k k = !

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Ch. 33: Electromagnetic Waves - Part C 4 November 16, 2009 4 Energy Transport ! The rate of energy transport per unit area is described by the Poynting vector S . 0 1 SE B µ ! !! ! The intensity of the EM wave is: Unit is W/m 2 . 22 00 11 2 µµ == = avg rms m IS E E cc power area 2 4 s P I r π (isotropic source with power P s , emitting light at a distance r ) gives the EM wave direction of the travel. ! S
Ch. 33: Electromagnetic Waves - Part C 5 November 16, 2009 5 Radiation Pressure ! Electromagnetic waves have linear momentum as well as energy. ! EM waves can exert pressure, a radiation pressure, on an object, as we shine light on it. ! The radiation pressure (unit pascals, Pa), is: = r I p c 2 = r I p c (total absorption) (total reflection back along path)

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Ch. 33: Electromagnetic Waves - Part C 6 November 16, 2009 6 Polarization of EM Waves ! The plane containing the E vectors is called the plane of oscillation of the wave. The wave is plane-polarized in the y direction. ! Randomly polarized or unpolarized EM waves (Sun, el. bulb). The electric field changes direction randomly, while still perpendicular to the direction of wave travel.
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Chapter 33c - Chapter 33 Electromagnetic Waves...

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