L28_Vertebrate A&P-09 - 11/2/09
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Unformatted text preview: 11/2/09
 InteMed and Free Clinic Initiative presents… What: Wednesday, November 4th Speaker Presentation by Ithaca Free Clinic Coordinator Sadie Hays & Acupuncturist Anthony Fazio
 4:00 - 5:30pm 216 Stimson
 When: Come check out volunteering opportunities and learn about a local free clinic! Wednesday November 4th 5:45 p.m. – 6:45 p.m. Where: For more information contact crp34@cornell.edu or xp26@cornell.edu Funded
in
part
by
the
SAFC
and
open
to
the
entire
Cornell
Community 
 Goldwin Smith 142
 Cornell Cardiology Interest Group proudly presents Exam
review
sessions
 Monday
7:30
–
9:00pm,
Morison
Room
(A106),
Corson‐Mudd
Hall
 Tuesday
4:20
–
5:50,
G1
Stimson
Hall
 Other
resources
 Office
hours
 Learning
Strategies
Center
 Previous
exams
 Web
quizzes
 The Cardiology Lecture Series! Veterinary Cardiologist Dr. Bruce Kornreich, of Cornell University Hospital for Animals will be discussing the ionic basis of the cardiac action potential and the electrocardiogram. Date: Thursday November 5th, 2009 Time: 5:30pm Location: Rockefeller 105 Join us for an informative and leisurely afternoon! cornellcardiologyinterestgroup@gmail.com BIOLOGY DINING DISCUSSIONS Fall 2009 – Cornell University Monday,
2
Nov.
2009
 Vertebrate
organ
system
 Guest:
Dr.
Laurel
Southard
 Director
of
Undergraduate
Research
 Room
302AB
APPEL
DINING
HALL
 5:45
PM
 Meeting
place:

West
Entrance
to
Appel
Center
at
5:45pm
 1
 11/2/09
 Most
vertebrates
are
fishes
 From
Pough,
F.
H.,
Janis,
C.
M,
and
Heiser,
J.
B.
(
2002).
Vertebrate
Life
(6th
ed.).
 Pierre
Belon,
1555
 •  History
of
vertebrate
study
 •  Vertebrate
phylogeny
 •  Vertebrate
physiology
and
adaptation
 Biogenetic
Law
 •  Proposed
by
German
biologist
Ernst
Haekel
in
1866
 •  Stating
that
the
development
of
“advanced”
species
 goes
through
morphological
phases
that
look
like
 adults
of
less
advanced
species.
 Rebuttal
of
Biogenetic
Law
 • 
Drawings
are
highly
stylized
to
fit
his
hypothesis
 • 
Later
studies
suggest
otherwise
 Lamprey
 Ray
 Sturgeon
 A
 B
 C
 D
 E
 Pond
turtle
 Australian
Opossum
 Domestic
cat
 Adapted
from
Kardong,
K.
V.
(2006).
Vertebrates:
Comparative
anatomy,
function,
evolution
(4th
ed.).

 2
 11/2/09
 Evidence
of
relationship
from
embryonic
 development
 •  All
vertebrates
show
a
similar
architectural
 pattern
of
structural
and
development
 • 

Karl
Ernst
von
Baer ’s
Law
 (1828):
Features
common
to
 members
of
a
group
develop
 earlier
in
life
than
the
special
 features
that
distinguish
this
 group
from
other
groups
 Chordate
(contains
all
vertebrates)
body
plan
 Muscle
 segments
 Notochord
 Dorsal,
 hollow
 nerve
cord
 Mouth
 Muscular,
 post‐anal
tail
 Anus
 Pharyngeal
 slits
or
clefts
 
 Fig.
34‐3
 ANCESTRAL
 DEUTEROSTOME
 Notochord
 Common
ancestor
 of
chordates
 Chordate
phylogeny
 Lancelets
 Tunicates
 Hagfishes
 Head
 Vertebral
column
 (sister
group
t Fig.
34.2
Chordate
phylogeny
o
chordates)
 Chordates
 Echinodermata
 Chordate
phylogeny
 Lancelets
 Notochord
 Common
ancestor
 of
chordates
 Head
 Vertebral
column
 Jaws,
mineralized
skeleton
 Lungs
or
lung
derivatives
 Lobed
fins
 Fig.
34.2
Chordate
phylogeny
 Tunicates
 Hagfishes
 Lampreys
 Chordates
 Craniates
 Craniates
 Lampreys
 Sharks,
rays,
skates,
etc.
 Ray‐finned
fishes
 Coelacanths
 Lungfishes
 Amphibia
(frogs,
 salamanders)
 Legs
 Tetrapods
 Lobe‐fins
 Gnathostomes
 Osteichthyans
 Vertebrates
 Vertebrates
 Gnathostomes
 Osteichthyans
 Jaws,
mineralized
skeleton
 Lungs
or
lung
derivatives
 Lobed
fins
 Ray‐finned
fishes
 Coelacanths
 Lungfishes
 Amphibia
(frogs,
 salamanders)
 Legs
 Tetrapods
 Lobe‐fins
 http://haysvillelibrary.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/tiktaalik‐3.jpg
 Reptilia
 Fig.
34‐2
 Amniotic
egg
 Milk
 (turtles,
snakes,
 crocodiles,
birds)
 Reptilia
 Amniotes
 Amniotes
 Mammals
 Fig.
34‐2
 Amniotic
egg
 Milk
 (turtles,
snakes,
 crocodiles,
birds)
 Mammals
 ANCESTRAL
 DEUTEROSTOME
 Notochord
 Common
ancestor
 of
chordates
 Chordate
phylogeny
 Lancelets
 Tunicates
 Hagfishes
 Head
 Vertebral
column
 (sister
group
t Fig.
34.2
Chordate
phylogeny
o
chordates)
 Chordates
 Echinodermata
 Amniotes
are
the
first
land‐exclusive
dwellers
 Extraembryonic membranes Craniates
 Lampreys
 Sharks,
rays,
skates,
etc.
 Ray‐finned
fishes
 Coelacanths
 Lungfishes
 Amphibia
(frogs,
 salamanders)
 Legs
 Tetrapods
 Lobe‐fins
 Gnathostomes
 Osteichthyans
 Amnion Allantois Chorion Yolk sac Vertebrates
 Embryo Amniotic cavity with amniotic fluid Yolk (nutrients) Jaws,
mineralized
skeleton
 Lungs
or
lung
derivatives
 Lobed
fins
 Shell Albumen Reptilia
 Amniotes
 Fig.
34‐2
 Amniotic
egg
 Milk
 (turtles,
snakes,
 crocodiles,
birds)
 Mammals
 Fig.
34‐25,
p.
715
 3
 11/2/09
 Vertebrae
of
young
trout
 Human
embryo
 Fig.
46.17

 From
Kent,
G.
(1991).
Comparative
anatomy
of
the
vertebrates
(7th
ed.).
 ‐ Notochord
is
made
up
of
fluid‐filled
cells

 ‐ Notochord
in
the
head
becomes
part
of
skull
 ‐ Notochord
in
the
trunk
and
tail
becomes
surrounded
by
cartilaginous
or
bony
vertebrae

 From
Kent,
G.
(1991).
Comparative
anatomy
of
the
vertebrates
(7th
ed.).
 Body
sectional
terms
 Primary
tissue
classes
in
vertebrates
 •  Epithelial:
tissue
composed
of
layer
of
 closely
spaced
cells
that
cover
organ
 surfaces
and
serve
for
protection,
 secretion
and
absorption
 •  Connective:
tissue

with
more
matrix
than
 cell
volume,
often
specialized
to
support,
 bind
together,
and
protect
organs
 •  Nervous:
excitable
cells
for
rapid
 transmission
of
nerve
impulses
to
other
 cells
 •  Muscular:
elongated
cells
for
contraction
 From
Kardong,
K.
V.
(2006).
Vertebrates:
Comparative
anatomy,
function,
evolution
(4th
ed.).

 Organ
systems
 Cell

Tissue
Organ

Organ
system
 Bone
 •  Calcium
phosphate
as
main
mineral
component
 •  Evolved
first
probably
as
mineral
storage,
not
as
 support
 •  Structural
component
includes
minerals
and
collagen
 From
Saladin,
K.
(2001).
Anatomy
and
physiology
(2nd
ed.).
 4
 11/2/09
 Digestive
Tract
in
Bird
 •  Vertebrate
digestive
system
 •  Vertebrate
respiratory
system
 Mouth
 Esophagus
 Crop
 Stomach
 Gizzard
 Intestine
 Anus
 Fig.
41‐9c
 Human
digestive
system
 Carnivore
 Tongue
 Salivary
glands
 Oral
cavity
 Pharynx
 Esophagus
 Liver
 Ascending
 portion
of
 large
intestine
 Sphincter
 Mouth
 Esophagus
 Sphincter
 Stomach
 Gall‐
 bladder
 Pancreas
 Small
 intestine
 Large
 intestine
 Anus
 Gall‐
 bladder
 Salivary
 glands
 Digestive
system
in
other
mammals
 Herbivore
 Stomach
 Small
intestine
 Cecum
 Stomach
 Small
 intestine
 Large
 intestine
 Rectum
 Anus
 Small
intestine
 Small
 intestine
 Rectum
 Appendix
 Cecum
 Duodenum
of
 small
intestine
 Liver
 Pancreas
 A
schematic
diagram
of
the
 human
digestive
system
 Colon
 (large
 intestine)
 Fig.
41.19
 Countercurrent
Exchange
of
Gas
in
Fish
 Fluid
flow
 through
 gill
filament
 Lamella
 Gill
filament
 organization
 Blood
 vessels
 Operculum
 Water
flow
 between
 lamellae
 Blood
flow
through
 capillaries
in
lamella
 •  Vertebrate
digestive
system
 •  Vertebrate
respiratory
system
 Anatomy
of
gills
 Gill
 arch
 Oxygen‐poor
blood
 Oxygen‐rich
blood
 Gill
 arch
 Water
 flow
 Countercurrent
exchange
 PO 
(mm
Hg)
in
water
 150
120
 90
 60
 30
 Gill
filaments
 Fig.
42‐22
 Net
diffusion
 of
O2from
water
 to
blood
 140
 110
 80
 50
 20
 PO 
(mm
Hg)
in
blood
 2 2 5
 11/2/09
 Mammalian
respiratory
surfaces
 Branch
of
 pulmonary
vein
 (oxygen‐rich
blood)
 Branch
of

 pulmonary
artery

 (oxygen‐poor
blood)
 Mammalian
respiratory
surfaces
 Terminal
 bronchiole
 Pharynx
 Larynx
 (Esophagus)
 Trachea
 Right
lung
 Bronchus
 Bronchiole
 Diaphragm
 Left
 lung
 Nasal
 cavity
 Alveoli
 Bulk
flow
 Diffusion
 Heart
 SEM
 Colorized
 50
µm
 SEM
 50
µm
 From
Hill,
R.
W.,
Wyse,
G.
A.,
&
Anderson,
M.
(2008).
Animal
physiology
(2nd
ed.).

 Bird
respiration
 Anterior
 air
sacs
 Posterior
 air
sacs
 Trachea
 Lungs
 Lungs
 Air
 Air
 Simple
reptilian
lung
 • 
Many
lizard
species
have
a
simple,
one‐cavity
lung,
called
 unicameral
lung
where
gas
exchange
concentrated
at
anterior
 • 
Multicameral
lung
evolved
in
monitor
lizards.
 Air
tubes
 (parabronchi)
 in
lung
 INHALATION
 Air
sacs
fill
 Air
sacs
empty;
lungs
fill
 1
mm
 EXHALATION
 Fig.
42.26.
 From
Hill,
R.
W.,
Wyse,
G.
A.,
&
Anderson,
M.
(2008).
Animal
physiology
(2nd
ed.).

 Negative
pressure
in
breathing
 Rib
cage
 expands
as
 rib
muscles
 contract
 Air
 inhaled
 Rib
cage
gets
 smaller
as
 rib
muscles
 relax
 Air
 exhaled
 Breathing
in
Frog
 a.  Glottis
closed,
nares
 open,
buccal
floor
 lowered
 b.  Glottis
open,
Thorax
 compressed
 c.  Glottis
stays
open,
 throat
elevated,
nares
 closed
 d.  Glottis
closed
 Lung
 Diaphragm
 INHALATION
 Diaphragm
contracts
 (moves
down)
 EXHALATION
 Diaphragm
relaxes
 (moves
up)
 From
Kardong,
K.
V.
(2006).
Vertebrates:
Comparative
anatomy,
function,
evolution
(4th
ed.).

 6
 11/2/09
 Adaptation
of
cutaneous

breathing
 100
 90
 80
 70
 60
 50
 40
 30
 20
 10
 0
 100
 90
 80
 70
 60
 50
 40
 30
 20
 10
 0
 Frog
Respiration
 Lungs
 O2
uptake
(%)
 Gills
 Skin
 Aquatic
Tadpoles
 CO2
excretion
(%)
 Airbreathing
 tadpoles
 Forglets
 Adults
 Skin
 skin
 Lungs
 Lungs
 Gills
 Gills
 Aquatic
 Tadpoles
 Airbreathing
 tadpoles
 Forglets
 Adults
 The
development
of
external
respiration
in
bullfrog
Lithobates
catesbeianus

 From
Kardong,
K.
V.
(2006).
Vertebrates:
Comparative
anatomy,
function,
evolution
(4th
ed.).

 Data
from
Hill,
R.
W.,
Wyse,
G.
A.,
&
Anderson,
M.
(2008).
Animal
physiology
(2nd
ed.).

 Cat
shark
 Brown
trout
 Goldfish
 Flatfish
 European
eel
 Mudpuppy
 Bullfrog
(larva)
 Bullfrog
(adult)
 Hellbender
salamander
 Lungless
salamander
 Sea
snake
 Boa
constrictor
 Southern
musk
turtle
 Red‐ear
turtle
 Green
lizard
 Chuckwalla
 Big
brown
bat
 Human
 Skin
Respiration
 ‐ 
In
fishes,
little
CO2
elimination
through
 skin,
but
various
degree
of
O2
absorption
 ‐ 
In
amphibians,
various
degree
of
O2
and
 CO2
exchange
through
skin,
but
overall
 higher
than
non‐amphibians
 Temperature
coefficient
Q10
 •  Measures
reaction
rate
as
a
function
of
temperature
change
 of
10°C
 •  Can
measure
metabolic
rate
as
a
function
of
temperature
in
 ectotherms
 Q10
=




Rate
at
T
+
10°C 
 



















Rate
at
T
 

 ‐ 
In
reptiles,
overall
low
skin
respiration;
low
 degree
of
O2
uptake
through
skin
but
slightly
 higher
CO2
elimination
through
skin
 ‐ 
In
mammals,
skin
respiration
is
very
low;
O2
 elimination
is
slightly
higher
than
O2
 absorption.
 •  In
biological
system
Q10
often
ranges
from
1
to
3.
 7
 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/13/2010 for the course BIOG 1101 taught by Professor N/a during the Fall '10 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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