53. 1102 Euk Gene Exp 2010

53. 1102 Euk Gene Exp 2010 - gene expression in eukaryotes...

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Unformatted text preview: gene expression in eukaryotes Comparing a liver cell nucleus to a lens cell nucleus, which of the following would be different? A) Genes for albumin and crystallin B) general transcription factors C) TATA boxes for albumin and crystallin genes D) Amino acid sequence of the RNA polymerase II used to transcribe the albumin and crystallin genes E) activators needed for transcription of the albumin and crystallin genes Points where eukaryotic genes can be regulated Comparing a liver cell nucleus to a lens cell nucleus, which of the following would be different? A) Genes for albumin and crystallin B) general transcription factors C) TATA boxes for albumin and crystallin genes D) Amino acid sequence of the RNA polymerase II used to transcribe the albumin and crystallin genes E) activators needed for transcription of the albumin and crystallin genes * Upstream control elements may be far upstream close to the promoter some control elements are found in introns also Activator (or repressor) proteins recognize enhancer elements in the DNA, and mediator proteins cell-specific activation of specific genes there are relatively few enhancer (DNA) elements, but the number of combinations is large Combinatorial control is achieved using relatively few distal control elements (cis elements) Promoters of plant genes induced by dehydration, salinity or cold contain a G-ACCGAC motif Finding the control elements for the GAS gene Brian Ayre Functional analysis of control sequences: by truncation -3000 -1800 -1250 -1000 -750 -100 35 mutations were created, 3 sites are important 132 T CTAA TCGN TATG AAA CTTC AAAT T AAAC CAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AAT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TTCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 AGAA AAAG CCGG TGTC TAAA TTTA AA ATTA TTCT AATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TTA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C -3080 - +12 -1764 - +12 -1078 - +12 35S (-60) -1816 - -123 -1334 - -123 -1816 - -634 -1816 - -1149 -1334 - -634 -678 - -123 -1334 - -1031 -1334 - -985 -1334 - -775 -1200 - -634 131 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT CTTC AAAT T AAAC CAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TTCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAA TTTA AA ATTA TTCT AATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 130 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT CTTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAA TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 129 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT CTTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT ACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAA TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CATT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 128 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC TCAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AAT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATT TTCA CATT TAA AAAT TAT GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTC ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGA TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTC AATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TTA ATAT ATAT TAAT AGCT TTAT GAAT TGCA ACAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT TAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT TCAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C 127 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TTCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGA TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT AATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT TCAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C 126 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TTCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT AATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 125 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT CTTC AAAT T AAAC CAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAA TTTA AA ATTA TTCT AATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 124 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AAT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATT TTCA CATT TAA AAAT TAT GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT ACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TTA ATAT ATAT TAAT AGCT TTAT GAAT TGCA ACAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CATT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 123 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AAT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TTCA CATT TAA AAAT TAT GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TTA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCT TTAT GAAT TGCA ACAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 122 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TTCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC CCA CAGA CTTC TGAT ACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC TGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCCA CAAT CAAA CATT CATT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AATC CACA GAAC C 121 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT ACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CATT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 120 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT CTTC AAAT T AAAC CAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAA TTTA AA ATTA TTCT AATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C 119 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 118 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 117 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT ACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CATT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 116 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AAT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATT TTCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC CCA CAGA CTTC TGAT ACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC TGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TTA ATAT ATAT TAAT AGCT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCCA CAAT CAAA CATT CATT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AATC CACA GAAC C 115 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTC ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGA TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT TAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT TCAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C 114 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 113 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT CTTC AAAT T AAAC CAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAA TTTA AA ATTA TTCT AATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C 112 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT ACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CATT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 111 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC CCA CAGA CTTC TGAT ACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCCA CAAT CAAA CATT CATT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 110 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C 109 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCT TTAT GAAT AAAT TAT GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTC ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TTCA CATT TAA TGCA ACAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT TAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 108 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAA CTTC AAAT T AAAC CAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TTCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC TAAA TTTA AA ATTA TTCT AATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C 107 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC CCA CAGA CTTC TGAT ACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC TGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCCA CAAT CAAA CATT CATT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AATC CACA GAAC C 106 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC CCA CAGA CTTC TGA TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCCA CAAT CAAA CATT TCAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 105 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C 104 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC CCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCCA CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 103 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC CCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCCA CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AAT CACA GAAC C 102 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TAT GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA ACAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCC ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG CGCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C 101 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TTCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA GAAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT AATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAA CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C 100 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT TTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT ATAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT TACC TT AATC TCTT TTC CTGT ATTT ATAC 4 GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAAC TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CAT T ATCG AAAT TCCC CAAT CACA GAAC C 994 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT CTTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT ATAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT ACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC TGT ATTT ATAC GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAA TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CATT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AATC CACA GAAC C 984 TA CTAA TCGN TATG AAAT CTTC AAAT T AAAC CAAA ATAG AAAA AAAT AATT A ATAT ATAT TAAT GCTT TTAT GAAT AAAT TATA AAT TAAT AGAA GTTT TTT TCA TGTG GGCT CTCT TAT TTCG TGTA CTT ATCC ACCA CAGA CTTC TGAT ACC TT AATC TCTT TTCC TGT ATTT ATAC GAA AAAG CCGG TGTC AAA TTTA AA ATTA TTCT ATA GAAA AGAA TTCA TA TAT ATAT ATTG ATTA TCA CATT TAA TGCA CAAG CGAA GTGG AGTA TCCT ACTT TAGA AAGT AAAA TGGC ACTT TTGG GCC CAAT CAAA CATT CATT T ATCG AAAT TCCC AATC CACA GAAC C Minimal sequence sufficient and necessary for minor vein expression Combinatorial control at defined sites Phylogenetic Footprinting in the Cucurbitaceae Conserved blocks after ~40 myr divergence All veins - Major veins = Minor veins High Medium None Repressor in major veins Positive factors for all veins -2792 Cucumis 3204 Citrullus 2893 Luffa 3257 Trichosanthes 2471 Cucurbita 1809 -2341 -1334 -985 -590 +1 ATG | -1304 | -1254 | -1204 | -1154 | -1114 | -1054 | | -1014 -985 Minor Vein Minor and Major Vein 35s -60 GUS Reporter n = 6 to 20 Alternative RNA splicing to create different proteins with different functions Controlled degradation of proteins by ubiquitin tagging (turnover is the rule in biology) purified proteasomes microRNAs control gene expression by selective degradation of specific mRNAs RNAi: a powerful new tool in molecular biology (and medicine?) fragments about 20 nucleotides long synthesize a hairpin loop of the gene you want to downregulate. inject it (or introduce it genetically) into a cell. the mRNA will be degraded. This system might have evolved from a virus defense system (or the other way around!) Downregulation of raffinose and stachyose synthesis by RNAi Proc Natl Acad Sci 104: 19619 (2007) Sarah and Ashlee V. phoeniceum transports raffinose and stachyose in the phloem is raffinose and stachyose synthesis part of the phloem transport mechanism in this plant? Have a fine weekend ...
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