Week 2 Lectures - Chem 139

Week 2 Lectures - Chem 139 - Chemistry 139 / Fall 2009...

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry 139 / Fall 2009 Fundamental Units SI System Examp les: Mass (weight): Length: Temperat ure: Time: Pressure: Other measurement units are derived from the base units; accordingly, they are called Der ived Units Kilogram (kg) Meter (m) Kelvin (K) Second (s) Pascal (Pa) Chemistry 139 / Fall 2009 Mass vs. Weight Weight = mass x acceleration due to gravity Mass Weight! Chemistry 139 / Fall 2009 Length leads to Volume Fundamental Unit of Length = 1 meter Defined as distance traveled by light in 1 / 299,792,468 second 1 / 100 of a meter is a centimeter (cm) A cube of water that is 1 cm on a side has a volume of 1 cm3 This volume of water is one milliliter (ml) 1 ml = 1 cm3 (remember this!) It has a mass of 1 gram at 4C thus, 1 ml (of water ) weighs 1 gram at 4C. 1000 ml = 1 liter; how much does this weigh? 1 liter = 1 dm3 (handy to know) 1 cubic meter has 1000 liters . How much does this weigh? Chemistry 139/ Seattle Central Fall 2009 44 Temperature http://climate.uvic.ca/climate-lab/front_page_pics/temperat http://www.sensorprod.com/dynamic/temperature_mappin 3/14/10 Chemical Potential Energy Petr ucci, Fig. 7.9 Electr ostatic bonds contain ener gy Ener gy fr om for ming/br eaking chemical bonds Ener gy in inter actions between Chemistry 139/ Seattle Central Fall 2009 Chemical Potential Energy Chemical potential energy can be transformed into any of the other five forms of energy: H eat energy ? Nuclear energy ? Li-ion battery in cameras Raising a piston in a car engine Match the form of energy to the example Chemistry 139/ Seattle Central Fall 2009 Kinetic-Molecular Theory All matter is made of tiny, moving particles. These particles have mass and velocity. Mass and velocity give the particles kinetic ener gy : And WOW! According to this theory Temper atur e is just Kinetic Ener gy!! In Plain English: Temperature = Movement of Particles Vibr ating Rotating Tr anslating (moving) Chemistry 139/ Seattle Central Fall 2009 88 Fig. 3-8, p. Note that the size of a degree is different in the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales. F = 9/5*C + 32 The Celsius and Kelvin scales have the same degree size. K = C + 273 http://www.sizes.com/units/te mperature_Fahrenheit.htm Chemistry 139 / Fall 2009 Temperature Conversions 1. Convert 38 F to Celsius. 2. Convert 295 K to Celsius. 3. Convert 58 F to Kelvin. 3/14/10 Chemical Kinetic Petr ucci, Fig. 7.9 How do molecules move around? Tr anslation: motion through space Rotation : motion about the center of mass Vibr ation: motion directed through chemical bonds Chemistry 139 / Fall 2009 Kinetic Molecular Theory Temperature = movement of particles Hot objects have (fast/slow) _______moving particles Cold objects have (fast/slow) _______moving particles Increasing the speed of particles & (increases/decreases) __________ temperature Only temperature without particle movement is ___________________________ How do particles in a solid move vs. in a liquid or gas? Chemistry 139/ Seattle...
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Week 2 Lectures - Chem 139 - Chemistry 139 / Fall 2009...

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