chapter_03

15 figure 316 earths surface has efficient

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Unformatted text preview: 3.15 Figure 3.16 Earth's surface has efficient radiational cooling, which creates a Earth's temperature inversion that may be diminished by winds. temperature Evening length, water vapor, clouds, and vegetation affect earth's nighttime cooling. earth's Cold Dense Air Cold Figure 3.17 Nighttime radiational cooling increases air density. On hill slopes, denser air settles to the valley bottom, creating a thermal belt of warmer air between lower and upper cooler air. thermal Protecting Crops from Below Protecting Figure 3.18 Figure 3.19 Impacts of radiational cooling can be diminished by orchard Impacts heaters creating convection currents to warm from below and by wind machines mixing warmer air from above. wind Protecting Crops from Above Protecting Crops subjected Crops to below freezing air are not helped by convection or mixing, but by spraying water. spraying The cold air uses much of its energy to freeze the water, leaving less to take temperatures below 0° C that damage the crop. damage Figure 3.20 Controls of Temperature Controls Earth's air temperature is governed by length of day Earth's and intensity of insolation, which are a function of: and 1) latitude Additional controls are: Additional 2) land and water 3) ocean currents 4) elevation January Isotherms January Latitude Latitude determines that earth's air temperatures are warmer at the equator than at the poles, but land and water, ocean currents, and elevation create additional variations. variation...
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