Final Exam 2 - Advanced Placement Program AP® Psychology...

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Unformatted text preview: Advanced Placement Program AP® Psychology Practice Exam The questions contained in this AP® Psychology Practice Exam are written to the content specifications of AP Exams for this subject. Taking this practice exam should provide students with an idea of their general areas of strengths and weaknesses in preparing for the actual AP Exam. Because this AP Psychology Practice Exam has never been administered as an operational AP Exam, statistical data are not available for calculating potential raw scores or conversions into AP grades. This AP Psychology Practice Exam is provided by the College Board for AP Exam preparation. Teachers are permitted to download the materials and make copies to use with their students in a classroom setting only. To maintain the security of this exam, teachers should collect all materials after their administration and keep them in a secure location. Teachers may not redistribute the files electronically for any reason. © 2008 The College Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, SAT, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. PSAT/NMSQT is a registered trademark of the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. Contents Directions for Administration ............................................................................................ ii Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions ................................................................................ 1 Section II: Free-Response Questions .............................................................................. 17 Student Answer Sheet for Multiple-Choice Section ...................................................... 20 Multiple-Choice Answer Key........................................................................................... 21 Free-Response Scoring Guidelines.................................................................................. 22 The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 5,000 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, the College Board serves seven million students and their parents, 23,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges through major programs and services in college admissions, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT®, the PSAT/NMSQT®, and the Advanced Placement Program® (AP®). The College Board is committed to the principles of excellence and equity, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.com. AP Central is the official online home for the AP Program: apcentral.collegeboard.com. -i- AP® Psychology Directions for Administration The AP Psychology Exam is two hours in length and consists of a multiple-choice section and a free-response section. • The multiple-choice section is 1 hour and 10 minutes and contains 100 questions, accounting for twothirds of the final grade. • The free-response section is 50 minutes and contains 2 questions, accounting for one-third of the final grade. Students should be given a 10-minute warning prior to the end of each section of the exam. A 10-minute break should be provided after Section I is completed. The actual AP Exam is administered in one session. Students will have the most realistic experience if a complete morning or afternoon is available to administer this practice exam. If a schedule does not permit one time period for the entire practice exam administration, it would be acceptable to administer Section I one day and Section II on a subsequent day. Many students wonder whether or not to guess the answers to the multiple-choice questions about which they are not certain. It is improbable that mere guessing will improve a score. However, if a student has some knowledge of the question and is able to eliminate one or more answer choices as wrong, it may be to the student’s advantage to answer such a question. • The use of calculators, or any other electronic devices, is not permitted during the exam. • It is suggested that the practice exam be completed using a pencil for Section I and a pen for Section II to simulate an actual administration. • Teachers will need to provide paper for the students to write their free-response answers. Teachers should provide directions to the students indicating how they wish the responses to be labeled so the teacher will be able to associate the student’s response with the question the student intended to answer. • Remember that students are not allowed to remove any materials, including scratch work, from the testing site. -ii- Section I Multiple-Choice Questions -1- PSYCHOLOGY SECTION I Time—1 hour and 10 minutes 100 Questions Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and place the letter of your choice in the corresponding box on the student answer sheet. 4. Which psychologist reported that infant attachment to another goes beyond the satisfaction of the need for nourishment? 1. When asked which of two countries has a larger population, participants are likely to judge the country that is more familiar to them as being more populous. Which of the following best explains this finding? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) A means-end analysis The representativeness heuristic The availability heuristic Algorithms Inductive reasoning 5. Edward L. Thorndike argued that responses that lead to satisfying outcomes are more likely to be repeated, and that responses followed by unpleasant outcomes are less likely to be repeated. This became known as the law of 2. An individual with damage to Wernicke’s area is most likely to have difficulty (A) identifying an object held in the hand but not seen (B) planning what to wear to a party (C) remembering the name of a person in a photograph (D) comprehending a spoken request for information (E) distinguishing between red and green (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) reinforcement associations punishment effect outcomes 6. When trying to solve a problem, Bret uses a logical, step-by-step formula called 3. The psychoanalytic concept of repression suggests a difficulty in the functioning of which aspect of memory? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Albert Bandura Jean Piaget Harry Harlow Erik Erikson Konrad Lorenz (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Encoding Short-term memory Procedural memory Explicit memory Retrieval a heuristric incubation insight priming an algorithm GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -2- 10. Researchers find that there is a significant, positive correlation between the number of hours students sleep and their grades. The researchers would be justified in concluding that 7. It is well established that certain autonomic responses such as heart rate, perspiration, and respiration change under stress. In view of the fact that people generally have stronger autonomic responses when lying than when telling the truth, it follows that the polygraph would be a foolproof approach to lie detection. Which statement best explains why the polygraph is not more widely used in courtrooms and in testing of job applicants? (A) earning good grades causes people to sleep more (B) sleeping more causes students to perform better in school (C) students who earn good grades tend to sleep more than those who do not (D) more sleep has a beneficial impact on students’ grades (E) sleep deprivation has no impact on school performance (A) Most people can avoid detection when they lie. (B) Physiological arousal is much the same for several emotions, so the polygraph cannot always reliably distinguish guilt from other reactions. (C) A significant number of people show paradoxical autonomic reactions, responding more strongly when telling the truth than when lying. (D) In controlled studies, the polygraph has correctly identified guilty individuals in only a small percentage of cases. (E) The polygraph has been shown to be reliable only in highly emotional cases, such as child abuse and spying. 11. In phase one of a study, a researcher classically conditions a dog to salivate to the ringing of a bell. In the second phase, the researcher pairs a flashing light with the ringing of the bell. After several pairings of the light and the bell, the dog will (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 8. The principles of operant conditioning are best illustrated by 12. Jason is attending a parade that features the local high school band. Jason’s friend Brent plays the trombone in the band. It is difficult for Jason to hear Brent play at the parade. Which of the following would best allow Jason to hear Brent’s trombone? (A) exposing a client to anxiety-provoking stimuli (B) replacing a response to a stimulus with an alternative response (C) deep relaxation techniques (D) a token economy to reinforce adaptive behaviors (E) development of intrinsic motivation (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 9. A man is feeling depressed about his inability to support his family after losing his job. The fact that the patient is currently unemployed is coded on which axis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) no longer salivate when the bell is rung only salivate when the bell is rung salivate when the light is flashed stop salivating when the light is flashed salivate when the researcher comes into the room Sensory adaptation Selective attention Perceptual constancy Weber’s law Functional fixedness Axis I Axis II Axis III Axis IV Axis V GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -3- 16. A statistical technique that would allow a researcher to cluster such traits as being talkative, social, and adventurous with extroversion is called Questions 13-15 refer to the information below. A psychologist describes the following steps to a client, while the client is practicing relaxation techniques, in order to treat the client’s psychological disorder: (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 1. 2. 3. 4. You are entering a large building. You are pressing a button for an elevator. You are stepping into an elevator. You are watching the doors close after entering the elevator. 5. You are traveling five floors on the elevator. 17. Ralph is aware that smoking is harmful to his health, but he continues to smoke. According to cognitive dissonance theory, it is most likely that Ralph will (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 13. Which of the following categories would most likely represent the diagnosis associated with this set of behaviors? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Mood disorder Anxiety disorder Dissociative disorder Schizophrenic disorder Somatoform disorder gather information on the dangers of smoking start smoking more frequently argue that his friends should stop smoking focus on the social advantages to smoking experience no tension 18. Curare blocks action at acetylcholine synapses and causes paralysis. This drug is an example of an (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 14. What type of treatment technique is described above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) a case study meta-analysis statistical significance factor analysis z score Aversion therapy Systematic desensitization Extinction Flooding Punishment antagonist agonist inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) excitatory neurotransmitter 15. Which type of therapy is most closely associated with the technique used in this method? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Psychoanalytic Behavioral Biomedical Cognitive Client centered GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -4- 19. Which of the following graphs shows the most desirable test-retest correlation? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 22. Which theoretical perspective in psychology attempts to characterize the way in which humans store and process sensory information? 20. Which of the following is a type of medication that has been linked to the side effect of tardive dyskinesia? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Antidepressants Benzodiazepines Neuroleptics Anxiolytics Tricyclics 23. Gestalt psychology is concerned primarily with understanding which of the following? 21. A researcher surveyed social adjustment in the same group of 20 people from early childhood through adulthood. In this example, the group of 20 people surveyed was the study’s (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Behavioral Psychodynamic Evolutionary Cognitive Sociocultural (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Sample Population Operational definition Control group Randomization Learning Motivation Development Sensation Perception GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -5- 24. During the night, Alicia stops breathing repeatedly, frequently gasps for air, and snores loudly at regular intervals. Alicia is most likely suffering from which of the following conditions? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 28. Which of the following statements best describes the role of biological processes in classical conditioning? (A) A biologically-based unconditioned stimulus (UCS) must immediately follow a conditioned stimulus (CS) for learning to occur. (B) Any novel or familiar stimulus could serve as a CS because the biological mechanisms underlying learning are very powerful. (C) Because all animals share a common cellular history, the laws of classical conditioning apply to all species. (D) Certain species are biologically predisposed to learn particular associations that enhance their survival. (E) Biological reinforcers foster learning more quickly than do environmental reinforcers. Sleep apnea Narcolepsy Insomnia Night terrors The REM rebound effect 25. All summer Thomas hears the sound of the icecream truck approaching before his brother Oscar hears it. Thomas most likely has which of the following? (A) A lower absolute threshold for hearing than Oscar (B) A greater difference threshold for hearing than Oscar (C) A deficit in a sensory system other than hearing (D) A greater amount of experience with approaching ice-cream trucks than Oscar (E) A tendency for confabulation 29. Respondents to surveys and questionnaires often report that they are healthier, happier, and less prejudiced than would be expected based on the results of other types of research. This finding can best be explained by which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 26. A therapist who emphasizes helping clients to identify and change irrational beliefs that underlie feelings of anxiety is using which therapeutic technique? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Client-centered therapy Rational-emotive behavior therapy Aversion therapy Psychoanalytic therapy Social-learning therapy 30. Synesthesia is a phenomenon that has been estimated to occur in only a few people in a million. Because of its rarity, researchers are likely to choose which research method to study it? 27. Julio has fragmented thinking and distorted false beliefs. Which of the following psychological disorders is Julio most likely experiencing? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Sampling bias Experimenter bias The social desirability bias The bystander effect The placebo effect (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Simple phobia Somatization disorder Antisocial personality disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder Schizophrenia Naturalistic observation Correlational research Survey research Case study Experimental research GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -6- 35. In a classic study, a group of rats learned to run through a maze to obtain food, and another group of rats explored the maze without receiving food. Some time later, the researcher compared the two groups of rats to determine if both groups would find the food at the end of the maze. According to the researcher, the untrained rats found the food at the end of the maze as quickly as the trained rats as a result of 31. Paula lacks self-confidence. She has a difficult time expressing disagreement with others, and she usually lets friends make decisions for her. Others have commented that they do not know who the “real” Paula is. With which of the following personality disorders might Paula be diagnosed? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Histrionic Borderline Dependent Passive-aggressive Narcissistic (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 32. Chuck recalls the day last summer when he fell off his bicycle and scraped his knee. This is an example of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 36. During a psychology experiment, a researcher uses a probe to lesion the ventromedial nucleus of a rat’s hypothalamus. After the procedure the rat most likely will iconic memory procedural memory semantic memory episodic memory short-term memory (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 33. Researcher Renee Baillargeon found that four-month-old infants will look longer at a ball if it appears to roll through a solid barrier, demonstrating that babies seem to grasp basic physical laws intuitively. Which of the following theories does this finding challenge? become less aggressive become more aggressive eat more and gain weight stop eating and lose weight experience a loss of coordination and muscular control 37. When a person is suffering from severe pain, the type of drug that will best help alleviate that pain is (A) Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development (B) Lev Vygotsky’s social cognition learning model (C) Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (D) Mary Ainsworth’s findings from the Strange Situation (E) Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) an opiate an amphetamine a depressant a hallucinogen a stimulant 38. The defense mechanism of projection is best illustrated by which of the following examples? (A) When scolded by his parents, a college student reverts to childlike behavior to gain sympathy. (B) A soccer player who does not have much athletic skill constantly criticizes other athletes’ performances. (C) A young man who is shy becomes the center of attention at a party given by friends. (D) After exams were graded and returned, a college student looked at his low grade and decided that the test was unfair and difficult. (E) After a fight with her boyfriend, a woman yells at her roommate for sitting in her favorite chair. 34. In vision, transduction occurs within the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) latent learning observational learning avoidance learning counterconditioning aversive conditioning optic nerve visual cortex retina lens cornea GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -7- 43. Certain cultures often place more emphasis on collective than on personal achievement. One result of this may be that people of these cultures are more likely to develop which type of selfsystem? 39. Damage to the occipital lobe would most likely affect a person’s (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) balance ability to develop plans vision fine motor movements language processing (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 40. James was born with a condition that makes it impossible for him to metabolize certain proteins. Due to early screening and a special diet, he was able to avoid developing potentially serious symptoms. Which of the following disorders does James have? 44. A basic assumption underlying short-term memory is that it is (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) Down syndrome Autistic disorder Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (E) Phenylketonuria (PKU) 60 56 41 58 76 62 35 61 65 59 10% 25% 40% 60% 85% Set B 60 42. After staring at a green, black, and orange “American flag” for about a minute, an individual will see a red, white, and blue flag afterimage. Which of the following explains this phenomenon? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) limited in capacity unlimited in capacity long-lasting not under conscious control resistant to decay Set A 41. Stanley Milgram’s classic research on obedience showed that approximately what percentage of participants administered the highest voltage shock? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Interdependent Interrelated Independent Integrated Inner-directed 50 45. Which of the following is true of the two sets of scores above? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Trichromatic theory Opponent-process theory Retinex theory Color constancy Convergence Set A has a larger standard deviation. Set B has a larger standard deviation. The range is the same for both distributions. Set A has a lower median score than set B. The mean score is the same for both distributions. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -8- 51. People who are color blind most likely have deficiencies in their 46. Carol Gilligan, in her criticism of Lawrence Kohlberg, proposed that the moral reasoning of males is primarily based on (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) male repression of females, whereas the moral reasoning of females is based on economics (B) rational abstract principles, whereas the moral reasoning of females is based on relationships and the social context (C) legalistic ideals, whereas the moral reasoning of females is based on more humanistic ideals (D) observational learning, whereas the moral reasoning of females is genetically determined for the most part (E) physical strength, whereas males start developing morally later than females but surpass them soon afterward 52. Research on human mating preferences suggests that men place greater value on physical attractiveness and youthfulness, whereas women place greater value on social status and financial resources. Which of the following psychological points of view best explains this behavior? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 47. Which process transfers information from sensory memory to short-term memory? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Humanistic Behavioral Gestalt Cognitive Psychodynamic 55. An image projected to the left visual field of a split-brained person will be processed in the Blaming the victim Cognitive dissonance The need for power Bystander apathy Groupthink (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 50. Which of the following is a binocular cue for depth perception? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) appeared early in the list appeared near the end of the list appeared in the middle of the list were very unlike the rest of the words were randomly dispersed throughout the list 54. Which of the following perspectives argues that every person has the potential to become self-actualized? morpheme phoneme lexicon syntax language acquisition device (LAD) 49. The just-world hypothesis would best explain which of the following phenomena? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Collectivistic Individualistic Psychoanalytic Evolutionary Humanistic 53. If Juan tried to learn a long list of words, he would be most likely to forget words that Attention Cognition Differentiation Perception Sensation 48. When the word “walk” is changed to “walked,” the suffix “ed” is an example of a (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) rods cones lens optic nerve occipital lobe left visual cortex right visual cortex right side of the left retina left side of the right retina sensory cortex Linear perspective Texture gradient Interposition Retinal disparity Motion parallax GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -9- 60. Which of the following assessment tools explores individuals’ personalities by asking them to examine a series of inkblots and describe what they see in the inkblot? 56. A researcher is training laboratory rats to run a complex maze. Each time the rats learn a new part of the maze, they are rewarded with a pellet of food. Within a few hours, the rats have learned the entire maze. Which of the following did the researcher use to teach the rats the maze? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) Thematic Apperception Test (B) Rorschach Test (C) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (D) Halstead-Reitan Battery (E) Bender-Gestalt II Shaping Generalization Negative reinforcement A fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement Spontaneous recovery 61. Which of the following neurotransmitters has been linked to Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia? 57. Martha is an undergraduate student who is interested in pursuing a career in psychology. She wants to use her knowledge of psychology to help employees become more productive in the workplace. Which field of psychology should Martha select in graduate school? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Physiological Cognitive Educational Clinical Industrial-organizational 62. According to Sigmund Freud, our sexual and aggressive instincts are located primarily in the (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 58. Although he finds it to be difficult and not much fun, Tomas puts in long hours practicing field hockey in the hope of getting an athletic scholarship to college. This best illustrates the idea of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Acetylcholine Dopamine Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Norepinephrine Serotonin frontal lobes ego superego id latent stage 63. Charles Spearman’s concept of g is most accurately defined as homeostasis attribution theory catharsis extrinsic motivation arousal theory (A) a specific type of performance that is affected by intelligence (B) one of seven fundamental abilities that determine behavior (C) a single, underlying intellectual capacity measured by intelligence tests (D) the ability to create novel solutions to complex situations (E) the storehouse of knowledge and facts that we accumulate during our adult years 59. The term group polarization refers to the tendency for (A) two opposing factions to emerge within a group (B) the prevailing opinion within a group to become more extreme after discussion (C) a single leader to eventually dominate most groups (D) one or more group members to eventually have their opinions disregarded (E) democratic leadership to decrease as the length of meetings increases GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -10- 69. While grocery shopping, John heard voices that seemed to be narrating his every action. The voices made statements such as “Now he is picking up the bread” and “Now he is putting the bread in his shopping cart.” No one else heard the voices. John has heard voices narrating his behavior on several other occasions. What is John experiencing? 64. Which of the following studies demonstrates a cross-sectional research design? (A) Testing the first graders, and testing them again when they are in third grade (B) Testing first graders at the end of the school year (C) Testing first, third, and fifth graders at the beginning of the school year (D) Observing first graders as they test in two different subject areas (E) Observing first graders as they interact with either third graders or fifth graders (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Illusions Delusions Hallucinations Hypnosis Grandiosity 65. Which type of therapy uses free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of transference? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Questions 70-72 are based on this scenario. Cognitive-behavioral Humanistic Behavioral Psychodynamic Client-centered A researcher randomly assigned boys and girls to each of two groups. One group watched a violent television program while the other group watched a nonviolent program. The children were then observed during a period of free play, and the incidence of aggressive behavior was recorded for each group. 66. Which of the following psychometric properties is used to assess the extent to which the items on an intelligence test measure a person’s intelligence? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Internal consistency Split-half reliability Standardization Construct validity Predictive validity 70. What is the dependent variable in this study? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 67. Marc performs poorly on a psychology exam and explains his failure by saying, “That test was so hard no one could pass it.” This explanation illustrates (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 71. What is the independent variable in this study? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) reciprocal determinism self-serving bias the fundamental attribution error the representativeness heuristic the just-world hypothesis Incidence of aggressive behavior Type of television program viewed Sex of the children Number of groups Duration of free play 72. This research method is best characterized as 68. Martin fell off his skateboard and badly bruised his elbow. He immediately began rubbing the area around the bruise until the pain subsided. This method of reducing pain can be explained by which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Sex of the children Duration of free play Type of television program viewed Level of televised violence Incidence of aggressive behavior (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Gate-control theory Opponent-process theory Trichromatic theory Expectancy theory Phantom pain experimental correlational longitudinal naturalistic observation case study GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -11- 73. John is completing a lengthy test in which he must indicate whether various written statements are true or false about himself. He is most likely taking which of the following? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 77. A teacher finds the distribution of scores on a final exam to be positively skewed with low variability. On the basis of this information, the teacher would be most justified in concluding that (A) a small number of students in the class did poorly on the exam (B) the students in her classroom have a very wide range of intellectual abilities (C) the exam was too difficult (D) the exam is not a reliable assessment tool (E) most of her students are of above average ability A personality inventory A projective test An achievement test An intelligence test A neuropsychological test 74. Damage to which of the following brain structures may cause the inability to detect the emotional significance of facial expressions, especially those demonstrating fear? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 78. In which of the following techniques do researchers inject a harmless, radioactive substance into the living human brain to examine activity? Hippocampus Thalamus Cerebellum Hypothalamus Amygdala (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 75. Of the following cognitive milestones, which ability tends to be acquired last? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Telegraphic speech Use of schemas Object permanence Hypothetical thinking Assimilation 79. An individual who stomps angrily out of a restaurant after being kept waiting five extra minutes for a reserved table may be exhibiting symptoms of (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 76. Paul Ekman found that when Japanese students watched films of surgery, they masked their expressions of disgust with a smile when an authority figure entered the room but not when alone. American students maintained their expressions of disgust both alone and in the presence of an authority figure. Ekman’s findings illustrate what he calls (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Lesioning Electroencephalogram (EEG) Computerized axial tomography (CAT) Positron-emission tomography (PET) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) schizophrenia antisocial personality disorder avoidant personality disorder dependent personality disorder narcissistic personality disorder 80. Students who enjoyed solving a puzzle were rewarded for doing so. Later, they played less with the puzzle than did their counterparts who were not rewarded for the same task. This illustrates which of the following principles? the facial feedback hypothesis display rules phlegmatic personalities the two-factor theory adaptation-level phenomenon (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Latent learning Self-fulfilling prophecy Intermittent reinforcement The overjustification effect The law of effect GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -12- 85. Which procedure can reduce problems associated with the use of deception by a researcher? 81. Jim is better at computer games when his friends are watching than when he plays alone. Researchers would explain Jim’s behavior using which of the following theories? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Social facilitation Social loafing Group polarization Groupthink Normative social influence 86. Psychologists from which of the following perspectives of personality are most interested in assessing a person’s locus of control? 82. Which of the following theories suggests that a physiological need creates a state of tension that motivates an organism to satisfy the need? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Opponent-process Drive-reduction Incentive Arousal Gate-control Psychoanalytic Cognitive Evolutionary Humanistic Gestalt 87. Elizabeth picks up the clothes from her bedroom floor and puts them away to avoid her mother’s repeated nagging. Elizabeth’s behavior is being influenced by 83. According to Jean Piaget, children cease to exhibit egocentrism during which of the following stages? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Debriefing Random sampling Random assignment Using only single-blind studies Using only double-blind studies (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operational Post-conventional Pre-conventional classical conditioning positive reinforcement negative reinforcement extinction punishment 88. The diathesis-stress approach would likely support which of the following statements about psychological disorders? 84. The fundamental attribution error occurs when individuals do which of the following? (A) Disorders are a result of the social and economic situations in which people live. (B) Disorders are a result of unresolved, unconscious conflicts between the id and the superego. (C) Disorders are a result of negative events that trigger irrational thoughts. (D) Disorders are a result of whether or not showing emotions is accepted by the individual. (E) Disorders are a result of predisposed, biological factors triggered by the environment. (A) Mold their interpretations of the past to fit how events actually turned out (B) Incorrectly assume that virtually all behavior is determined by genetic factors (C) Underestimate the influence of unconscious motivation when trying to explain their own behavior (D) Overestimate the influence of personal qualities relative to situational factors when trying to explain the behavior of others (E) Assume that very attractive people tend to be more intelligent and more competent than people who are somewhat less attractive GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -13- 92. When given a drug that produced general arousal, research participants placed in a room with a happy confederate described their emotional state as happy, while those placed in a room with an angry confederate described their emotional state as angry. Which theory of emotion best explains these results? 89. John regularly stops at the pharmacy to collect pamphlets that list symptoms of different illnesses, because he is worried about his health. Each day he carefully monitors his vital signs, and he also frequently meets with a physician. On his most recent visit, the physician suggested that John was perfectly healthy. With which of the following psychological disorders might John be diagnosed? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Somatization disorder Conversion disorder Hypochondriasis Generalized anxiety disorder Dissociative disorder 93. Under hypnosis, Jerry is able to withstand pain without showing any outward signs of discomfort. However, when asked to signal if some part of his consciousness is aware of the pain, he raises his hand. Which of the following is a theory that best explains Jerry’s behavior? 90. The Psychology Aptitude Test (PAT) was administered to incoming college psychology majors. Their scores were later compared to their performance in the introductory psychology course, and high scores on the PAT were related to high grades in the course. Therefore, the PAT has (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) adequate standardization internal consistency face validity predictive validity content validity Dissociation State Role Social influence Age regression 94. A person eats a hamburger at a restaurant and develops a very bad stomachache after finishing eating. As a result of the sudden illness, the person cannot eat hamburgers anymore. Just thinking about them makes the person feel sick to the stomach. In this scenario, the thought of a hamburger is 91. Joseph never sleeps through the night. He wakes up at least once per hour to check all the doors and windows in his house to make sure they are locked and to check the stove to make sure it is turned off. Joseph’s behavior would be classified as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) James-Lange Ekman Cannon-Bard Schachter-Singer Opponent-process (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) an obsession an avolition a fixation a panic attack a compulsion an unconditioned stimulus an unconditioned response a conditioned stimulus a conditioned response a negative reinforcer GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -14- 97. Which of the following is the best example of a homeostatic process? 95. Research on stereotype threat indicates that students might not do as well as they can on a test if (A) Manny decides that he is overweight and goes on a diet. (B) Cathy drinks a large amount of water to reduce thirst after a long race. (C) Bert eats nothing but fruits and grains for a week before a huge holiday dinner. (D) Edesa stays up later than normal to study for a test. (E) Lian becomes angry after sitting in traffic for an hour and a half. (A) they are informed that people of their ethnicity, age, or gender usually do not perform well on the tests (B) the group taking the test is not ethnically diverse (C) they are forced to take a test that is known to have low test-retest reliability (D) other students perceive them to be of a minority ethnic group (E) the test does not have standardized administration or scoring procedures 98. Brad hears a report on the evening news that diets low in carbohydrates are beneficial to one’s health. Considering this advice, he begins such a diet. Later he hears another report condemning low-carbohydrate diets as harmful to one’s health. Based upon research on belief perseverance, how would Brad respond to this new information? 96. When parents set few controls on their children’s television viewing, allowing the children freedom to set individual limits, make few demands, and do not punish for improper television viewing, the parents exemplify a parenting style referred to as (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (A) Decide to begin a low-calorie diet and increase his physical activity (B) Believe the second news story and discontinue his diet (C) Study low-carbohydrate diets on his own (D) Continue to believe in the beneficial effects of low-carbohydrate diets (E) Decide to try a high-carbohydrate diet instead permissive authoritative authoritarian rejecting-neglecting pessimistic GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -15- 99. Which of the following brain regions is indicated by the arrow? Questions 99-100 refer to the illustration below. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Cerebellum Amygdala Hypothalamus Hippocampus Pons 100. What is the primary function of the brain region indicated by the arrow? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Memory formation Sleeping, waking, and dreaming Problem solving Regulation of body temperature Emotional responses END OF SECTION I IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION. DO NOT GO ON TO SECTION II UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. -16- Section II Free-Response Questions -17- PSYCHOLOGY SECTION II Time—50 minutes Percent of total grade—33 1 3 Directions: You have 50 minutes to answer BOTH of the following questions. It is not enough to answer a question by merely listing facts. You should present a cogent argument based on your critical analysis of the questions posed, using appropriate psychological terminology. 1. The goal of a psychology class project is to have students teach a course concept to their classmates as a review for a later examination. Students in the class have been randomly assigned to work in small groups on the project. Each group’s grade for the project will be based on how well the entire class performs on the exam section that tests knowledge of the concepts each group respectively presents. A. Explain how each of the psychological concepts below may affect the development of student projects. • Social loafing • Mental set • Self-fulfilling prophecy • Extrinsic motivation B. Explain how each of the following concepts might influence the class’s ability to retain the information presented by the groups. • Proactive interference • Absolute threshold GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE. -18- 2. James was the lead in the school play. It was opening night. Mr. Ramirez, the director, asked James if he was ready to go on and reminded him about a few last-minute changes in the script. A number of thoughts and feelings came over James as the curtain went up. James became anxious when he saw all the faces of the audience members. Then he saw his mother, who is a professional actress, sitting in the front row. James could not relax. At that instant, he saw his psychology teacher in the audience. He knew that he needed to use the concepts learned in her class to make sense of these thoughts, feelings, and surroundings. Describe how each of the following concepts might help James give a strong performance. • State-dependent memory • Arousal theory • Positive reinforcement • Selective attention • Imagery • Social facilitation • Sensory adaptation STOP END OF EXAM -19- Name: ____________________________________ AP® Psychology Student Answer Sheet for Multiple-Choice Section No. 1 Answer No. 31 Answer No. 61 Answer No. 91 2 32 62 92 3 33 63 93 4 34 64 94 5 35 65 95 6 36 66 96 7 37 67 97 8 38 68 98 9 39 69 99 10 40 70 100 11 41 71 12 42 72 13 43 73 14 44 74 15 45 75 16 46 76 17 47 77 18 48 78 19 49 79 20 50 80 21 51 81 22 52 82 23 53 83 24 54 84 25 55 85 26 56 86 27 57 87 28 58 88 29 59 89 30 60 90 -20- Answer AP® Psychology Multiple-Choice Answer Key No. 1 Correct Answer C No. 31 Correct Answer C No. 61 Correct Answer B No. 91 Correct Answer E 2 D 32 D 62 D 92 D 3 E 33 C 63 C 93 A 4 C 34 C 64 C 94 C 5 D 35 A 65 D 95 A 6 E 36 C 66 D 96 A 7 B 37 A 67 B 97 B 8 D 38 B 68 A 98 D 9 D 39 C 69 C 99 E 10 C 40 E 70 E 100 B 11 C 41 D 71 B 12 B 42 B 72 A 13 B 43 A 73 A 14 B 44 A 74 E 15 B 45 B 75 D 16 D 46 B 76 B 17 D 47 A 77 C 18 A 48 A 78 D 19 A 49 A 79 E 20 C 50 D 80 D 21 A 51 B 81 A 22 D 52 D 82 B 23 E 53 C 83 B 24 A 54 A 84 D 25 A 55 B 85 A 26 B 56 A 86 B 27 E 57 E 87 C 28 D 58 D 88 E 29 C 59 B 89 C 30 D 60 B 90 D -21- AP® Psychology Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 The goal of a psychology class project is to have students teach a course concept to their classmates as a review for a later examination. Students in the class have been randomly assigned to work in small groups on the project. Each group’s grade for the project will be based on how well the entire class performs on the exam section that tests knowledge of the concepts each group respectively presents. A. Explain how each of the psychological concepts below may affect the development of student projects. • Social loafing • Mental set • Self-fulfilling prophecy • Extrinsic motivation B. Explain how each of the following concepts might influence the class’s ability to retain the information presented by the groups. • Proactive interference • Absolute threshold Scoring Criteria General Considerations 1. Answers must be presented in sentences, and sentences must be cogent enough for the student’s meaning to come through. Spelling and grammatical mistakes do not reduce a student’s score, but spelling must be close enough so that the reader is convinced of the word. 2. Within a point, a student will not be penalized for misinformation unless it directly contradicts correct information that would otherwise have scored a point. 3. A student can only score points if information is presented in the context of the question. For example, it must be clear to the reader that the student is discussing social loafing to score Point 1. The best way for a student to establish context is to explicitly state it (e.g., “Social loafing may affect the development of student project by…”). In the absence of such language, the reader may infer context if the paragraph structure or order of the answer makes the context clear. However, if a student uses language like, “individual effort is often reduced on a group project” without identifying this concept as social loafing, the point cannot be scored because the reader has no way of knowing for sure that the student understands that this is social loafing. 4. While students may define the concept in question, definitions alone are never sufficient to score the point. For all points, students must make clear their understanding of the concept through their analysis of the application of the concept to the group project example. -22- AP® Psychology Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 (continued) PART A. Psychological concepts that may affect the development of the group projects. All of the psychological concepts in Part A apply to individuals within a group, not to the group as a whole. Do not award the point unless this is clear. Point 1: Social loafing occurs when individual effort is reduced on a group project. • The student must clearly recognize that social loafing would have a negative effect on the group project. Example: “Social loafing would lead to poorer group projects because individual members of the group wouldn’t work as hard.” Point 2: Mental set is the tendency to approach a problem in a specific way, typically in a way that has worked in the past. • Mental set could have either a positive or negative effect on the group project. Example: “The group members assign each member a part of the project to prepare, as they have in the past. When one group member does not prepare and present his or her part of the project, the entire group gets a bad grade. Using an approach that had worked in past projects was ineffective in this case.” (This point only scores if context is established—see general consideration number 3 above.) Point 3: Self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when a person’s expectation of another person leads that person to behave in the expected way. • Self-fulfilling prophecy could have either a positive or negative effect on the group project. Example: “If the leader of a group expected members of the group to do poorly (or well), the members might not do as well because of this self-fulfilling prophecy.” Point 4: Extrinsic motivation occurs when a person has a desire to do something to gain a reward or avoid a punishment. • In this case the reward would be the good grade that would result from effectively teaching the concept assigned to the group. Therefore, extrinsic motivation should have a positive effect on the group project. Example: “A member of the group might work especially hard because she is extrinsically motivated to earn a high grade in the class.” -23- AP® Psychology Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 1 (continued) PART B. Psychological concepts that might influence the class’s ability to retain information. Point 5: Proactive interference occurs when an older memory disrupts the ability to recall a newer memory. • The material presented by an earlier group might make it more difficult for students to remember the material presented by a later group. Therefore, proactive interference would have a negative effect on the group project. Example: “When they take the exam, students in the class might have trouble remembering what a small group presented because something they had learned earlier interferes with the information.” Point 6: Absolute threshold is the minimum stimulus strength necessary for a person to detect a stimulus. • Students in the class must be aware of a small group’s presentation in order to retain the information from the presentation. If the presentation was too quiet to hear (or if a PowerPoint presentation was not visible to someone in the class), the students would not be able to retain the information because they never had an opportunity to encode it. Example: “Because it was below the student’s absolute threshold, a student in the back of the class couldn’t hear a small group’s presentation. This student couldn’t retain information that he never heard.” -24- AP® Psychology Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 2 James was the lead in the school play. It was opening night. Mr. Ramirez, the director, asked James if he was ready to go on and reminded him about a few last-minute changes in the script. A number of thoughts and feelings came over James as the curtain went up. James became anxious when he saw all the faces of the audience members. Then he saw his mother, who is a professional actress, sitting in the front row. James could not relax. At that instant, he saw his psychology teacher in the audience. He knew that he needed to use the concepts learned in her class to make sense of these thoughts, feelings, and surroundings. Describe how each of the following concepts might help James give a strong performance. • State-dependent memory • Arousal theory • Positive reinforcement • Selective attention • Imagery • Social facilitation • Sensory adaptation Scoring Criteria General Considerations 1. Answers must be presented in sentences, and sentences must be cogent enough for the student’s meaning to come through. Spelling and grammatical mistakes do not reduce a student’s score, but spelling must be close enough so that the reader is convinced of the word. 2. Within a point, a student will not be penalized for misinformation unless it directly contradicts correct information that would otherwise have scored a point. 3. A student can only score points if information is presented in the context of the question. For example, it must be clear to the reader that the student is discussing state-dependent memory to score Point 1. The best way for a student to establish context is to explicitly state it (e.g., “State-dependent memory might help James’s performance in the play because…”). In the absence of such language, the reader may infer context if the paragraph structure or order of the answer makes the context clear. However, if a student uses language like, “James may perform better if he’s feeling the same during the performance as he did during rehearsal” without identifying this concept as state-dependent memory, the point cannot be scored because the reader has no way of knowing for sure that the student understands that this is statedependent memory. 4. While students may define the concept in question, definitions alone are never sufficient to score the point. For all points, students must make clear their understanding of the concept through their analysis of the application of the concept to the school play scenario. -25- AP® Psychology Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 2 (continued) Point 1: State-dependent memory occurs when recall improves when individuals are in the same psychological state they were in when they encoded information. • Here, the student must show how a congruent psychological state (mood, drug state, etc.) during the play would enhance James’s ability to retain information from the play rehearsal. Example: “James will do better if he imagines himself in the same emotional state he was in during rehearsal.” (This point only scores if context is established—see general consideration number 3 above.) Point 2: Arousal theory. For this point, accept any discussion appropriate to arousal theory. This theory dictates that optimum performance occurs with moderate levels of arousal. • The student must relate James’s performance to his arousal level. If he is not sufficiently aroused (“psyched up”), he should increase his arousal to perform well. If he is too aroused (“freaking out”), he should decrease his arousal for optimum performance. Since the question indicates that James “became anxious,” “could not relax,” and “needed to calm his mind,” the student’s answer must recognize the importance of reducing arousal. Example: “James sees that he has become too aroused and must get himself calmed down to give his best performance.” Point 3: Positive reinforcement is any desired consequence of a behavior that increases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future. • The student needs to establish that positive reinforcement for good performance at some point in the past increases the chance that James will do well on opening night. • The student may indicate that positive reinforcement for James’s performance this evening may increase the likelihood that he will participate in a play in the future. Example: “Mr. Ramirez praises James for a good performance during rehearsal. This positive reinforcement should increase the likelihood that James will perform well on opening night.” Point 4: Selective attention is when one focuses on one stimulus to the exclusion of other stimuli. • The student must identify that there are distractions on opening night that might cause James to make mistakes, and recognize that he must selectively attend to the cues and his role to perform well. Example: “James has to block out all of the noise and excitement of opening night and focus on his role. His ability to selectively attend will help him.” -26- AP® Psychology Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Question 2 (continued) Point 5: Imagery is the use of mental pictures. • The student may explain how this technique can be used by James as a method for encoding his lines into memory. • The student may also explain how imagery can be used as a preparation technique for improving performance. Example: “James has been picturing what it would be like to take the stage on opening night. He has been using mental images to rehearse in advance how the performance should go.” Point 6: Social facilitation occurs when the presence of others enhances performance. • The student must recognize that James should do well in a performance situation because the audience would spark social facilitation. Example: “The presence of the audience on opening night will cause James to perform better than he would without the audience.” (This point only scores if context is established—see general consideration number 3 above.) Point 7: Sensory adaptation is when a response to a stimulus decreases with time. • The student must argue that James can adapt to some type of sensory stimulation (e.g, stage lights, audience noise) after being exposed to it for some time. Example: “The stage lights went off at the end of a scene and James could not see in the darkness. After a few moments, he could see well enough to find his next place on the stage.” (This point only scores if context is established—see general consideration number 3 above.) -27- ...
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