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Course_Outline - Mendel’s Experiments – particulate...

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Unformatted text preview: Mendel’s Experiments – particulate nature of heredity Mendel’s first Law – alleles at a locus segregate randomly into gametes Mendel’s Second Law – alleles at different loci segregate independently (unless linked) Probability – Product & Sum Rules Pedigree Analysis Modification of Mendelian Ratios Single Loci Multiple Loci (epistasis etc.) Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance (Mitosis & Meiosis) Sex linkage Linkage X – linkage Autosomes 3 ­point testcrosses Tetrad Analysis Chi ­square Test Mutation Types Detection & Quantification Mutagenesis Population Genetics Allele & Genotype Frequencies Hardy ­Weinberg Natural Selection Multiple Alleles Mating Patterns Molecular Genetics Transcription (Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic) Initiation RNA polymerase & Promotors mRNA grows 5’ ­>3’ Termination Post ­transcription modification in Eukaryotes (5’, 3’, introns) Translation Deciphering the Genetic Code Codon is more than one nucleotide Code is non ­overlapping Code is degenerate Code is a triplet Synthetic mRNA & in vitro translation system Fixed starting point (UAG), N ­terminus to C ­terminus t ­RNA Ribosomes Genomics Deconstructing the Genome Cloning DNA fragments Rebuilding the Genome Cloning of expressed genes (cDNA) Measures of differential gene expression Gene Regulation (Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic) Prokaryotic Lac Operon Promotor/Operator Trp Operon & Repressor gene + inducer (lactose) Repressor + corepressor (tryptophan) Arabinose Operon AraC  ­ Activator & Repressor Protein Attenuation Catabolite Repression (Glucose inhibits the expression of Lac Operon) Global Repression – Heat Shock Eukaryotic Multiple RNA polymerases Cis & Trans Regulation Cis (Promotor/Enhancer/Locus Control Regions (LCRs)) Trans – Basal factors/Activators/Repressors Repressors – Quenching (two types) & Competition Post ­transcriptional Regulation (Stability of mRNA/Untranslated Regions (UTR) How to Study – Reporter Genes (LacZ/GFP) Identification of cis ­regulatory regions Examples Yeast GAL Myc ­Max Drosophila Sex Determination Micro ­RNAs and RNA interference Developmental Genetics History/Location/Neighbors In situ hybridization (localization of gene expression) History – maternal effects Location – Asymmetries (Morphogen gradients) Neighbors – Delta ­Notch proteins Cascade of effects Bicoid/Caudal & Hunchback/Nanos Gap Genes  ­> Pair ­Rule Genes  ­> Segment Polarity Genes Molecular Evolution Null Hypotheses Molecular Clocks Parsimony (Reconstructing Evolutionary History) Detecting Selection (Ka/Ks or dn/ds) Genome Evolution Duplications Gene duplication allows new functions to evolve Parts of genes (cis ­regulatory elements, exons) Transposons Unequal Crossing Over Whole Genome Duplication ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2010 for the course EEMB 129 taught by Professor Ajnarivera during the Spring '09 term at UCSB.

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