lecture6 - Appeal to Force Layman 4.1.3 An appeal to force...

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Appeal to Force. Layman 4.1.3 An appeal to force occurs when someone defends a conclusion by threatening anyone who doesn’t accept it. E.g. Jon to Dan: Look, Dan, Christina Aguilera is better than Britney Spears, and if you don’t agree, you might find yourself having a nasty accident. Secretary to boss: I deserve a raise – after all, you wouldn’t want your wife to find out what you’ve really been up to during those ‘late nights at the office’ In neither case is the threat relevant to the truth of the conclusion.
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Appeal to the People. Layman 4.1.4 This fallacy occurs when the arguer tries to get the reader/listener to accept a conclusion by appealing to the desire to be accepted, admired, valued or respected by other people. This fallacy has two types: The direct approach – this occurs when the arguer is speaking to a large group of people and by appealing to their enthusiasm attempts to incite some sort of mob mentality. This occurs often at political conventions. The indirect approach – this occurs when the arguer aims their appeal to individuals separately and attempts to persuade them by relating them to others.
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Bandwagon Arguments The indirect approach comes in three main forms. The first is a bandwagon argument , where the implicit claim is that you should do or accept something just because everbody else does. Exs. Don’t you think the war in Iraq was a mistake? After all, most Americans think so. “Do you not consider yourself already refuted, Socrates, when you put forward views that nobody would accept? Why, ask anyone present!” Plato, The Gorgias
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Appeal to Vanity The second type of indirect approach is called appeal to vanity . This occurs when the arguer associates acceptance of the conclusion with a desirable trait which is really irrelevant to the conclusion. This is a favorite among advertisers. Ex. Tom Cruise. Katie Holmes. John Travolta. The beautiful people of Hollywood are all scientologists. Don’t you want to be one too?
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Appeal to Snobbery The last kind of indirect approach is called appeal to snobbery. This occurs when an arguer attempts to persuade you of a conclusion by arguing that everyone in some elite group accepts it, and so you should accept it too. Ex. How can you think Bush and Blair thought Iraq had WMD? Everyone who knows anything knows that it was always just about oil.
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Appeal to the People The basic pattern with the appeal to the people fallacy is as follows: You want to be loved/one of us/one of the elite, etc So, you should accept conclusion C However the desire appealed to is typically irrelevant to the truth of the conclusion being argued for.
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Arguments in ordinary language The arguments we’ve seen so far have been highly idealized. In particular, premises and conclusion have been made explicit.
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