lecture15

lecture15 - Appeal to Unreliable Authority Although on many...

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    Appeal to Unreliable Authority Although on many occasions, it is reasonable to believe something on someone else’s say- so, it is not always. An appeal to unreliable authority occurs when an arguer cites as good evidence for a conclusion C the fact that some other person said or thinks that C, but this person is not a reliable authority concerning C.
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    Examples of reliable  authority Example of reliable authority: In a panel discussion three Nobel Laureates in economics were all in agreement that Bush’s tax policies won’t have the effect he says they’ll have. These economists disagreed with one another about a lot of things. I think we should have serious doubts about Bush’s tax policies.
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    Examples of unreliable authorities . Celebrities in advertisements telling you to buy stuff…(Roger Federer on Gillette shaving products, Jessica Simpson on acne medication, etc) Note that sometimes the person in question will be an expert on the subject but be biased for other reasons (Tiger Woods advertising Nike golf products). People who are experts on one thing being cited as authorities concerning other things (Einstein on nuclear disarmament or the existence of God)
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    Proofs We have the following rules of implication: MP p → q MT p → q HS p → q DS p v q p ~q q → r ~p q ~p p → r q Conj p Add p Simp p ● q CD p v q q p v q p p → r p ● q q → s r v s In constructing a proof we show how a conclusion follows from a set of premises by legitimate applications of these rules.
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    Examples (E v F) → ~G, ~H, H v K, (K v L) → E .˙. ~G ~F v ~G, ~F → Z, ~G → ~R, (Z v ~R) → (U → P), ~P .˙. ~U
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lecture15 - Appeal to Unreliable Authority Although on many...

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