Philosophy 100C

Philosophy 100C - Philosophy100C 23:58 IndoEuropean...

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Philosophy 100C 23:58 Indo-European Synchronic vs diachronic Nom Chomsky Poverty of stimulus Universal grammar Benjamin Whorf Whorfin hypothesis Problem with the definitional theory of meaning: Dictionaries are a recent invention Regress Many words are not in dictionary Lots of dictionary entries are laughable What is meaning? Definitional theory o Dictionary A conjunction is true if both conjuncts are true; and it’s false if at least one of  the conjuncts is false A negative is true if the negated statement is false; false of the negated  statement is true Conclusions: o Meaning is very closely connected with reference and truth o Connection between phil of language and logic
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o Definition is not a very useful concept for phil of language Locke Simple ideas o Cannot be broken down any further Complex ideas Theory of ideas o Purpose of language is to transmit ideas between thinkers Meaning is associating words with ideas Sensible ideas o Ideas derived from sensation Association between words and ideas are arbitrary Ideas associated with a word may vary between speakers Frege Criticism of Locke Meaning cannot be a matter of ideas Essence of thought are that they are sharable Locke missing that meanings are shared Ideas cannot be shared Type token o Something that is part of  a bigger whole o Moby Dick in a bookstore in rows of books
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If meanings are ideas then meanings cannot be shared Expands on ideas o Pg36  Same objective thought content persists across different contexts Conclusion: Locke’s theory is overly psychologistic Thoughts are common elements that are shared between people o Agree or disagree, same thought Yes George Bush is president, no he is not president Bedeutung o Reference o Denotation o Nominatum o Designation Informative identity statements o The morning star = the morning star No cognitive value o The morning star = the evening star Contradiction to knowledge o Sense is understood as how a word contributes to the meaning of a  sentence Potential contribution to cognitive value o The MS will appear at 6am
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o The ES will appear at 6am Fregen criterion of cognitive significance o If it’s possible for a rational, competent speaker to believe the thought  expressed by “X is F” w/o believe the thought expressed by “Y is F” then  “X” and “Y” have different senses o Every sense determines exactly one referent if any at all. The same  referent can be determined by many senses o The same sense can attach to two different words o The same word can have two different senses
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2010 for the course PHIL 100d taught by Professor Rescorla during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.

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Philosophy 100C - Philosophy100C 23:58 IndoEuropean...

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