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# 9 - Relational Algebra Relational Calculus(Lecture...

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Relational Algebra & Relational Calculus (Lecture Session-10) Chapter 6 Wed, Feb 10, 2010 1 DLPD, BITS-Pilani. Prepared by Dr.R. Gururaj, Asst.Professor of CS

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Wed, Feb 10, 2010 DLPD, BITS-Pilani. Prepared by Dr.R. Gururaj, Asst.Professor of CS 2 1. Relational Algebra Relational operations Set operations Join operations 2. Relational calculus Tuple Relational Calculus Contents
Wed, Feb 10, 2010 DLPD, BITS-Pilani. Prepared by Dr.R. Gururaj, Asst.Professor of CS 3 Relation Algebra Querying means extracting data from the database for the purpose of processing it. Every data model should have some formal query language to manipulate data. Relational Algebra is a formal query language for relational data model. A basic set of relational model operations constitute the relational algebra. These operations enable the user to specify basic data retrieval requests. The result of a relational algebra query is also a new relation which may have been formed from one or more relations. A sequence of relational algebraic operations forms a relational algebraic expression , whose result is also a relation.

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Wed, Feb 10, 2010 DLPD, BITS-Pilani. Prepared by Dr.R. Gururaj, Asst.Professor of CS 4 Relational Algebra Operators A.Set Operations o Union, o Intersection, o Difference, o Cartesian product. A.Relational Operations o Select, o Project, o join, o Division etc.
Wed, Feb 10, 2010 DLPD, BITS-Pilani. Prepared by Dr.R. Gururaj, Asst.Professor of CS 5 Select Operation : is to select subset of tuples that satisfy some selection condition. Symbol used is σ (sigma) Ex: (EMP) The above expression selects all tuples from EMP table, where the value of the column ‘ dno ’ is 4. The general form of ‘ select ’ clause is Projection Operation: Selects certain columns Symbol is π ( pi) (EMP) Selects columns name, age, dno for all tuples from the table EMP 4 dno σ = <select condition> ( ) R σ name, age, dno π

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Wed, Feb 10, 2010 DLPD, BITS-Pilani. Prepared by Dr.R. Gururaj, Asst.Professor of CS 6 Note: We can apply the expressions in sequence or we can nest them in single expression. Ex.: The above expression selects name and age of employees working with dno 5. The above query can also be written as R 1 & R 2 are the names given to intermediate results(relations).
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