6 lecture slides - LECTURES SIX & SEVEN The Post-War...

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Date The Post-War Development Project Political Context and Theoretical Debates Date How did we get here? ! Priority readings that go with this lecture: ! ! Potter Ch. 3 (pp. 79-96; 106-112) Ch. 7 (pp. 278-281; 287-295) ! Kothari “From Colonial Admnistration to Development Studies” (at least frst two sections) ! Mitchell “The Object o± Development”* * Essential for discussion sections week of 9/21 Key topics ! The post-WW II economic and political context (Cold War) ! The Bretton Woods institutionss ! The development decades ! Development theories and models ! ISI (import substitution industrialization0
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“‘Underdeveloped’ is not a natural condition, but an unnatural one, a social state which is the product of history; not a passive condition but the consequence of conscious action … something that was done to people by other people.” Peter Worsely, The Three Worlds I. Decolonization and Development ! After colonialism, access to Third World resources and markets was ensured through other means (neo-colonialism): ! political interventions and alliances ! aid ! unequal trade ! Third World countries embarked on new, nationalistic projects of social and economic development. ! They faced many obstacles to development left by colonial rule (see preious lecture). Obstacles to development associated with legacies of colonialism (a review) ! Limited capital ! Uneven infrastructure ! Limited institutions ! Trade dependencies/limited markets ! PCED and declining terms of trade ! rising foreign debts ! and more . ...
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II. Post-WW II Context of Development ! Most colonies independent or soon to become ! Increasing Third World membership in UN ! US emerges as superpower ! The Truman Declaration (1949) ! Reconstruction: Marshall Plan and Bretton Woods Institutions ! The Cold War: Competing Models for Development ! Development aid becomes strategic “weapon” ! US PaciFc policy and rebuilding Japan’s economy ! Keynesian Economics ! Key point one : The major “development institutions” were set up after WWII to help rebuild Europe and stabilize the world economy, NOT to develop Third World countries. ! Key point two : By the late 1950s, decolonization and development were entangled with Cold War politics. ! The US and the USSR vied for in±uence over the emerging new states and their growing populations who were perceived as receptive/susceptible to communist in±uence (precisely because they had been marginalized by the expansion of the capitalist world-system). US as Superpower ! Why did the US emerge from WW II as the most powerful nation? The Truman Proclamation ‘We must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas . The old imperialism – exploitation for foreign profit – has no place in our plans. What we envisage is a program of development based on the concepts of democratic fair dealing.’ President Truman, January 20, 1949
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6 lecture slides - LECTURES SIX & SEVEN The Post-War...

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