16a lecture slides

16a lecture slides - AGRICULTURAL MODERNIZATION AND THE...

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Unformatted text preview: AGRICULTURAL MODERNIZATION AND THE GREEN REVOLUTION Lecture 15 I. ROOTS OF THE GREEN REVOLUTION • Appropriation of exotic germplasm from tropics/TW ! Colonial botanical gardens ! US germplasm collection (1800s) • Farm-based plant breeding (“simple mass selection” ) • Beginning of state-sponsored agr. science in US ! Morrill Act (1862): Land-grant universities ! USDA created ! Hatch Act (1887): Federal support for agricultural experiment stations • Seeds privatized; growth of seed companies and agribusiness companies • US agricultural revolution GEOGRAPHY OF CROP DIVERSITY • Plant genetic diversity is concentrated in the tropics and sub-tropics • Aquisition of plant genetic resource from the colonized tropics was critical to the development of agriculture in Europe and in the United States. that it was in Europe.” (p.157) • Agricultural modernization led to mass simpli¡cation, loss of crop varieties. • Remaining sources of diversity for most major staple crops are in the landraces still cultivated in more remote parts of tropical Third World. • The rest is in seed banks. THE DOOMSDAY SEED VAULT “It just happens that natural history rendered those areas of the world that now contain the advanced capitalist nations ‘gene-poor.’ While … nearly every crop of signiFcant economic importance – and indeed agriculture itself – originated in what is now called the Third World. … The development of the advanced capitalist nations has been predicated on transfers of plant germplasm from the periphery …. taken at little cost and with no direct Fnancial beneFts to the countries where it originated. ... [Now], new plant varieties that incorporate that genetic information are sold back to Third World nations as commodities.” J. KLOPPENBURG, FIRST THE SEED THE US ‘AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION’ 1930 S • Shift from selection to hybridization • 1935 introduction of hybrid corn • Institutionalization: Process becomes too complex for farmers to perform in Felds ! Public sector develops improved “lines” for crossing ! Private sector produces commercial seed or sale • Bankhead-Jones Act (1935) $20 million for agr. research RESULTS Increased yields of wheat, corn, soybeans, cotton 1935 - 1970 CHANGES IN COMPOSITION OF AGRICULTURAL CAPITAL (US 1870- 1970) Compare Labor/Capital ratio in 1870s vs 1970s CHANGES IN FARM INPUTS (US 1935 -1977) Non-purchased inputs - 44% Purchased inputs + 256% Farm labor- 76% Machinery + 362% Agrichemicals +1,887% Farm productivity + 207% (average) !"#$%&’( *+#’(,- .$/% # 0$/-1*2&3, 0$/*,44 2+#2 /$&(&’#2,- %/42 /. &24 /5’ &’0124 6666 2/ # 0$/*,44 2+#2 0#44,4 %#2,$&#74 #’- ,’,$(8 2+$/1(+ .$/%/5’ &’0124 6666 2/ # 0$/*,44 2+#2 0#44,4 %#2,$&#74 #’- ,’,$(8 2+$/1(+ ....
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2010 for the course DEV STD C 1 taught by Professor Trist during the Fall '09 term at Berkeley.

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16a lecture slides - AGRICULTURAL MODERNIZATION AND THE...

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