Hobbes_Reading_Questions_II - Reading Questions II on...

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Reading Questions II on Hobbes Leviathan Second installment Read: Ch. 14, 15, 17 Chapter 14 1. What is the right of nature? Liberty? A law of nature? How are laws of nature discovered? How are laws of nature related to the right of nature? Right of nature = the liberty each man has to use his own power as he will himself for the preservation of his own nature, his own life. Liberty = absence of external impediments that take away part of a man’s power to do what he would Law of nature = general rule where a man is forbidden to do that which is destructive to his life or takes away the means of preserving the same. Laws of nature are found out by REASON. Right still includes the liberty to do; Law binds man to one action (same as obligation and liberty) 2. What does the right of nature imply about what one may do in a state of nature? How does this lead to the first law of nature? Because the condition of man is a condition of war of everyone against everyone, every man has a right to everything, even to one another’s body because everyone is governed by their own reason. Therefore, there can be no security of any man. Therefore, every man ought to endeavor peace; when he cannot obtain it, seek war. 3. Why does the second law of nature require that we be willing to "lay down" all rights and "be contented with" only as much liberty as we would allow to all others? Does Hobbes' argument here seem convincing? 2 nd law: contract in the way of peace; a man be willing when others are so too. If every man holds onto the right of doing whatever he likes to do, then men will always be in a state of war. However, if the others will not lay down their right, then you have no reason to do so either lest you be exposed as prey to the others. 4. What does it mean to "lay down" a right? Why do obligations of justice arise from the laying down of rights? “To lay down a man’s right to anything is to divest himself of the liberty of hindering another of the benefit of his own right to the same.” This is because when one lays down his rights, he is not giving his rights to another person; he is merely stepping out of the way so that the others can enjoy their rights without his hindrances. Rights are laid down either by renouncing or transferring. In both cases, he who has laid down his
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2010 for the course PHIL 256 taught by Professor C. during the Winter '10 term at Bates.

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Hobbes_Reading_Questions_II - Reading Questions II on...

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