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Chapt19_stu_10ed_07

# Chapt19_stu_10ed_07 - How can you tell if a chemical...

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How can you tell if a chemical process to take place? Many natural processes take place only in one direction: Iron rusts Scrambling an egg Growing older Thermodynamics - the study of the energy transformations that accompany a chemical or a physical change. tries to determine whether or not a process will take place spontaneously.

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Basic Terms - Review (Chapter 5) SYSTEM - the part of the universe being studied SURROUNDINGS - the rest of the universe. STATE FUNCTION - a property of a system that does not depend on the past history of the system. depends on the conditions at that time. A change in a state function is equal to the difference between the final and initial values of that function. For example: T = T final - T initial Given by capital letters T, V, P, E, H
INTERNAL ENERGY - E - represents all of the energy contained within a substance. E = E final - E initial E rxn = E products - E reactants Two ways energy can be changes - HEAT & WORK q - HEAT - not a state function q + heat absorbed by the system q - heat given off by the system

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w- WORK - not a state function two types of work force x distance in chemical reactions = - PV - P V at constant pressure ( open container) electrochemical - next chapter w - NEGATIVE - done by the system on the surroundings w - POSITIVE- when done by the surroundings on the system
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy cannot be created nor destroyed just inter converted between forms. (You Can’t Win) E system + E surroundings = 0 E system = q - w E surroundings = w - q A system can give off heat or do work but what is given off or done is received by the surroundings.

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For most chemical systems w = 0 Pressure-Volume (PV) work only occurs when a gas is either used up or produced.
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