Behavioral Genetics

Behavioral Genetics - Behavioral Genetics Prokaryoteno...

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Behavioral Genetics Prokaryote—no internal membrane-bound structures; single, circular chromosome Eukaryote—internal, membrane-bound cell structures; multiple, linear chromosomes Somatic cells—body cells; diploid 2 copies of every chromosome; divide by mitosis Germ cells—only found in gonads; diploid; divide by meiosis Gametes—reproductive cells; haploid; fuse in pairs at fertilization DNA—nucleic-acid, genetic material found in chromosomes Chromosomes—condensed DNA visible during cell division Chromatin—most common, uncondensed form chromosomes take during interphase Genome—haploid chromosome complement Karyotype—visual display of diploid chromosome complement, arranged in homologous pairs Sex chromosomes—genes coded by their DNA are known as sex-linked; XX, XY Autosomes—all other chromosomes that are not X/Y(sex linked (22)); genes encoded are known as autosomal Interphase (G1,S,G2)—where DNA is replicated; normal cell functioning; genes expressed; 90% of cell cycle is spent in this phase M-phase (Mitosis)—division of cell nucleus; separation of sister chromatids Gene—fundamental unit of inheritance, segment of DNA found at a particular location, but functionally very difficult to define Locus—location of a particular DNA sequence in the genome Allele—alternative form of the sequence at a locus Polymorphism—a region of DNA that commonly varies person to person single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Heterozygous—alleles are different on the homologous pair Homozygous—alleles are the same on the homologous pair Genetic markers—loci known to be polymorphic within a species Genotype—the genetic constitution of an individual or the combination of alleles present at a locus Phenotype—expressed trait/characteristic; outcome we can measure; result of genotype and environment Pure (true)-breeding—both alleles same for a trait controlled by one locus homozygous Hybrid—alleles are different at locus for the trait heterozygous
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This note was uploaded on 03/14/2010 for the course SOCIOLOGY 3001 taught by Professor Beach,m during the Spring '10 term at Colorado.

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Behavioral Genetics - Behavioral Genetics Prokaryoteno...

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