Adelaide and Canberra - Adelaide History of Adelaide:...

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History of Adelaide: Originally called Tandanya (“Place of the Red Kangaroo” and inhabited by the Kaurna people, a nomadic people who lived in large family groups ≈ 30 Small population of aborigines due to smallpox British Captain Matthew Flinders and French Captain Nicolas Baudin charted southern coast of Australia and in 1802 noticed the area, in 1830 Charles Sturt noted the city; more notice was taken in 1831 by Collet Barker who was killed by natives Sturt in 1833 reported that the area had rich soil and many pastures; its between Lake Alexandrina and ranges of the St. Vincent Gulf Group led by Edward Wakefield wanted to start a free colony where land should be bought instead of given to ensure that the people coming over weren’t criminals or paupers. This would also ensure that the workers were invested in the colony, avoiding a labor shortage. In 1834 his plan was supported by the South Australian Association and then approved by British Parliament through the South Australian Colonization Act. King William IV wanted the colony named after his consort, Queen Adelaide. Interesting: Largest buyer of land was South Australia Company who bought land so that the colony could be created because King William IV made the condition that in order for the colony to be created 3,500 pounds worth of land must be sold. This meant South Australia Company would have a lot of influence on this colony. Surveyor William Light found a site with a harbor and fresh water and building materials, which is present day Adelaide. City divided into North and South Adelaide by the Torrens River. North Adelaide had Wellington Square and South Adelaide had Victoria Square and the city was made in grid format. Sheep were brought over so farming and wool industry made up large part of economy. 1 st governed by Hindmarsh. 2 nd governor Gawler was enstated in 1838. He came to a situation of little public finance and settlers still living in temporary homes. He set up a police force and paid officials higher wages. He built a governor’s house, a jail, police station, a hospital and a wharf. Crop failure and British interest in New Zealand caused economy to go down. Gawler made up the difference to prevent economic collapse, but this resulted in bankruptcy. London was fed up and replaced Gawler with Grey. Grey lowered public spending, but silver and copper were discovered and Adelaide had good harvests. Adelaide exported meat, wool, wine, fruit, and wheat. Economy boomed and Grey left to govern New Zealand in 1845. Workers left Adelaide when gold was discovered in Victoria (1851). Labor shortage was created, though wheat still helped economy. Trade established with Victoria and New South Wales through River Murray.
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Adelaide and Canberra - Adelaide History of Adelaide:...

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