Psych2 - Psy101)2of3 12:49:00 Neonatal Period birth to...

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Psy 101 (02/07/08) 2 of 3 05/02/2008 12:49:00 Neonatal Period: birth to fourth week of life Infancy: end of fourth week to one year Childhood: one year to puberty Adolescence: puberty to adulthood Adulthood: adolescence to old age Senescence: old age to death Physical Development: Younger animals have: o Larger head to body ratios o Larger eye to head ratios o More rounded features o Exception: mickey mouse has grown younger and younger looking as he’s grown older; used to slyer now more infantile Sensory Development: Visual Cliff exp: Experiment where there is clear plastic ramp and a high area made to look as though there is an actual depth disparity between them; do babies understand depth: yes baby’s understand depth but they don’t have experience w/it, don’t understand significance of depth Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development Started looking at his own children and saw disparities in understanding with age Cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating Schema: a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information; come with experience Assimilation: interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas Accommodation: adapting one’s current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information Adaptation: Assimilation and Accommodating working to change Cognition Sensorimotor Period o Birth - 2 o Infant experiences the world through senses and actions o Object permanence: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived; lasts til about 8 months according to Jean Piaget; video lady say 3 and ½ months o Stranger anxiety (by 8 months they begin to identify themselves w/a particular family and don’t like strangers)
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o Play = primacy of assimilation over accommodation o Imitation = primacy of accommodation over assimilation o Sensorimotor intelligence = balance between assimilation and accommodation Attachment o An emotional tie w/another person o Shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and displaying distress on separation Preoperational Stage o 2-6 years o child represents things with words and images but cannot reason with logic o Conservaton: principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects o Egocentrism: the inability of the preoperational child to take another’s point of view o Theory of Mind: people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict Concrete Operational Stage: o 7-12 years o Child thinks logically about concrete events o Can use mental reversing actions; shows conservation skills o Logical reasoning replaces intuitive reasoning; but only in concrete circumstances o No abstracts (can’t imagine steps in algebraic equation, for example) o Classification skills – can divide things into sets and subsets
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Psych2 - Psy101)2of3 12:49:00 Neonatal Period birth to...

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