10 Skocpol - France, Russia, China:A Structural France,...

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Unformatted text preview: France, Russia, China:A Structural France, Russia, China:A Structural France, Russia, China:A Structural France, Russia, China:A Structural France, Russia, China:A Structural France, Russia, China:A Structural Analysisof Social Revolutions Analysisof Social Revolutions Analysisof Social Revolutions Analysisof Social Revolutions Analysisof Social Revolutions Analysisof Social Revolutions THEDA THEDA THEDA THEDA THEDA THEDA SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL Harvard University University University University University University 'A revolution', writes Samuel P. Huntington in Political Order in ChangChangChangChangChangChangrevolution', revolution', revolution', revolution', revolution', Huntington Huntington Huntington Huntington Huntington ing Societies, ing Societies, ing Societies, ing Societies, ing Societies, ing Societies, 'is a rapid, fundamental, and violent domestic change in change change change change change rapid, fundamental, rapid, fundamental, rapid, fundamental, rapid, fundamental, rapid, fundamental, the dominant values and myths of a society, in its political institutions, myths myths myths myths myths society, society, society, society, society, political institutions, political institutions, political institutions, political institutions, political institutions, social structure, leadership, and government activities and policies'.' In structure, leadership, structure, leadership, structure, leadership, structure, leadership, structure, leadership, government government government government government policies'.' policies'.' policies'.' policies'.' policies'.' The Two Tactics of Social Democracy in the Democratic Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, of of of of of Democracy Democracy Democracy Democracy Democracy Lenin provides a different, but complementary perspective: 'Revoludifferent, different, different, different, different, provides provides provides provides provides festivals festivals festivals festivals festivals the the the the the and the and the and the and the and the At At At At At tions', tions', tions', tions', tions', tions', he says, 'are the festivals of the oppressed and the exploited. At no other time are the masses of the people in a position to come forward other time are the masses of the other time are the masses of the other time are the masses of the other time are the masses of the other time are the masses of the in a in a in a in a in a to come forward to come forward to come forward to come forward to come forward so so so so so so actively as creators of a new social order'.2 as creators of a new social order'.2 as creators of a new social order'.2 as creators of a new social order'.2 as creators of a new social order'.2 as creators of a new social order'.2 these two these two these two these two these two delineate the distinctive features of social delineate the distinctive features of social delineate the distinctive features of social delineate the distinctive features of social delineate the distinctive features of social Together these two quotes delineate the distinctive features of social revolutions. As revolutions. As revolutions. As revolutions. As revolutions. As revolutions. As Huntington points out, social revolutions are rapid, basic social revolutions are rapid, basic social revolutions are rapid, basic social revolutions are rapid, basic social revolutions are rapid, basic social revolutions are rapid, basic transformations of transformations of transformations of transformations of transformations of transformations of socio-economic and political institutions, and-as political political political political political Lenin so vividly Lenin so vividly Lenin so vividly Lenin so vividly Lenin so vividly Lenin so vividly reminds us-social revolutions are accompanied and in accompanied accompanied accompanied accompanied accompanied part part part part part part effectuated through class upheavals from below. It is this combinathrough through through through through upheavals upheavals upheavals upheavals upheavals tion of thoroughgoing structural transformation and massive class upthoroughgoing thoroughgoing thoroughgoing thoroughgoing thoroughgoing upupupupupheavals that sets social revolutions apart from coups, rebellions, and even apart apart apart apart apart coups, rebellions, coups, rebellions, coups, rebellions, coups, rebellions, coups, rebellions, political political political political political political revolutions and national independence movements. independence independence independence independence independence If one adopts such a specific definition, then clearly only a handful of adopts adopts adopts adopts adopts specific definition, specific definition, specific definition, specific definition, specific definition, clearly only clearly only clearly only clearly only clearly only successful social revolutions have ever occurred. France, 1789, Russia, France, 1789, Russia, France, 1789, Russia, France, 1789, Russia, France, 1789, Russia, France, 1789, Russia, most dramatic and clear-cut most dramatic and clear-cut most dramatic and clear-cut most dramatic and clear-cut most dramatic and clear-cut 1917, 1917, 1917, 1917, 1917, 1917, and China, 1911-49, are the most dramatic and clear-cut inChina, 1911-49, China, 1911-49, China, 1911-49, China, 1911-49, China, 1911-49, stances. Yet these momentous upheavals have helped shape the fate of Yet these momentous Yet these momentous Yet these momentous Yet these momentous Yet these momentous have have have have have the fate of the fate of the fate of the fate of the fate of the majority of mankind, and their causes, consequences, and potenof mankind, and their causes, of mankind, and their causes, of mankind, and their causes, of mankind, and their causes, of mankind, and their causes, and and and and and This article represents a shortened and revised version of a paper presented at represents represents represents represents represents paper presented paper presented paper presented paper presented paper presented the Session on Revolutions of the 1973 Meetings of the American Sociological AsMeetings Meetings Meetings Meetings Meetings Sociological Sociological Sociological Sociological Sociological sociation. For criticism, advice (not all of it heeded), intellectual stimulation and and and and and and criticism, criticism, criticism, criticism, criticism, (not (not (not (not (not heeded), heeded), heeded), heeded), heeded), encouragement encouragement encouragement encouragement encouragement encouragement offered to the author in the long course of preparing this paper, long long long long long preparing preparing preparing preparing preparing paper, paper, paper, paper, paper, thanks go to: Daniel Bell, Mounira Charrad, Linda Frankel, George Homans, go go go go go Bell, Bell, Bell, Bell, Bell, Charrad, Charrad, Charrad, Charrad, Charrad, Frankel, George Homans, Frankel, George Homans, Frankel, George Homans, Frankel, George Homans, Frankel, George Homans, S. M. Lipset, Gary Marx, John Mollenkopf, Barrington Moore, Jr., Bill Skocpol, Lipset, Gary Marx, Lipset, Gary Marx, Lipset, Gary Marx, Lipset, Gary Marx, Lipset, Gary Marx, Mollenkopf, Barrington Moore, Jr., Bill Mollenkopf, Barrington Moore, Jr., Bill Mollenkopf, Barrington Moore, Jr., Bill Mollenkopf, Barrington Moore, Jr., Bill Mollenkopf, Barrington Moore, Jr., Bill Sylvia Thrupp Sylvia Thrupp Sylvia Thrupp Sylvia Thrupp Sylvia Thrupp Sylvia Thruppand Kay Trimberger. Kay Trimberger. Kay Trimberger. Kay Trimberger. Kay Trimberger. Kay Trimberger. Yale University Press, 1968), p. 264. 2 StephanT. Possony, ed., The Lenin Reader (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, Lenin Reader (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, Lenin Reader (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, Lenin Reader (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, Lenin Reader (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, Lenin Reader (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, StephanT. Possony, ed., StephanT. Possony, ed., StephanT. Possony, ed., StephanT. Possony, ed., StephanT. Possony, ed., 1966), p. 349. 1966), p. 349. 1966), p. 349. 1966), p. 349. 1966), p. 349. 1966), p. 349. 1 Samuel P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies P. P. P. P. P. Political Political Political Political Political (New Haven: 175 175 175 175 175 175 176 THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL tials have preoccupied many thoughtful people since the late eighteenth preoccupied many thoughtful people preoccupied many thoughtful people preoccupied many thoughtful people preoccupied many thoughtful people preoccupied many thoughtful people eighteenth eighteenth eighteenth eighteenth eighteenth century. century. century. century. century. century. social scientists have evidenced little interest in social scientists have evidenced little interest in social scientists have evidenced little interest in social scientists have evidenced little interest in social scientists have evidenced little interest in Nevertheless, recently, social scientists have evidenced little interest in the the the the the the study of social revolutions as such. They have submerged revolutions of social revolutions as such. of social revolutions as such. of social revolutions as such. of social revolutions as such. of social revolutions as such. revolutions revolutions revolutions revolutions revolutions have have have have have within more within more within more within more within more within more general categories-such as 'political violence', 'collective 'collective 'collective 'collective 'collective 'collective as as as as as or 'deviance'-shorn of historical or 'deviance'-shorn of historical or 'deviance'-shorn of historical or 'deviance'-shorn of historical or 'deviance'-shorn of historical and and and and and behavior', 'internal behavior', 'internal behavior', 'internal behavior', 'internal behavior', 'internal behavior', 'internal war', or 'deviance'-shorn of historical specificity and concern with concern with concern with concern with concern with concern with large-scale social change.3 The focus has been mostly on social social social social social on on on on on The focus has been The focus has been The focus has been The focus has been The focus has been of behavior common to wide of behavior common to wide of behavior common to wide of behavior common to wide of behavior common to wide of collective incidents of collective incidents of collective incidents of collective incidents of collective incidents styles of behavior common to wide ranges of collective incidents (ranging from riots to from riots to from riots to from riots to from riots to from riots to coups to revolutions, from panics to hostile outbursts to to to to to to from panics to hostile outbursts to from panics to hostile outbursts to from panics to hostile outbursts to from panics to hostile outbursts to from panics to hostile outbursts to 'value-oriented 'value-oriented 'value-oriented 'value-oriented 'value-oriented 'value-oriented and from and from and from and from and from sects to sects to sects to sects to sects to movements', and from ideological sects to revolutionary of which of which of which of which of which parties), any of which might occur in any type of society at any time or might might might might might any type society any type society any type society any type society any type society any time or any time or any time or any time or any time or place. place. place. place. place. place. Revolutions tend increasingly to be viewed not as 'locomotives of increasingly increasingly increasingly increasingly increasingly history', history', history', history', history', history', but as extreme forms of one or another sort of behavior that social scientists, along with established authorities everywhere, find probscientists, along scientists, along scientists, along scientists, along scientists, along probprobprobprobprobeverywhere, everywhere, everywhere, everywhere, everywhere, lematic and perturbing. perturbing. perturbing. perturbing. perturbing. perturbing. avoidance by avoidance by avoidance by avoidance by avoidance by Why Why Why Why Why Why this avoidance by social science of the specific problem of social revolution? Ideological bias might be invoked as an explanation, but even bias bias bias bias bias be invoked as an be invoked as an be invoked as an be invoked as an be invoked as an if it were involved, it would not suffice. An earlier generation of American it were involved, it would not suffice. An earlier it were involved, it would not suffice. An earlier it were involved, it would not suffice. An earlier it were involved, it would not suffice. An earlier it were involved, it would not suffice. An earlier of of of of of social scientists, social scientists, social scientists, social scientists, social scientists, social scientists, certainly no more politically radical than the present no more no more no more no more no more radical than the radical than the radical than the radical than the radical than the to to to to to the 'natural the 'natural the 'natural the 'natural the 'natural handfuls handfuls handfuls handfuls handfuls generation, employed the 'natural history' approach to analyze handfuls of cases of of cases of of cases of of cases of of cases of of cases of great revolutions.4 In large part, present preoccupation with with with with with with revolutions.4 In revolutions.4 In revolutions.4 In revolutions.4 In revolutions.4 In broader broader broader broader broader broader categories can be understood as a reaction against this natural this natural this natural this natural this natural this natural can be understood as a reaction can be understood as a reaction can be understood as a reaction can be understood as a reaction can be understood as a reaction its critics too 'historical' and 'a-theoretical'. its critics too 'historical' and 'a-theoretical'. its critics too 'historical' and 'a-theoretical'. its critics too 'historical' and 'a-theoretical'. its critics too 'historical' and 'a-theoretical'. deemed deemed deemed deemed deemed history approach, deemed by its critics too 'historical' and 'a-theoretical'. In the 'Introduction' to a 1964 book entitled Internal War, Harry EckHarry Harry Harry Harry Harry stein defines 'a theoretical subject' as a 'set of phenomena about which subject' subject' subject' subject' subject' phenomena phenomena phenomena phenomena phenomena one can develop informative, testable generalizations that hold for all indevelop informative, develop informative, develop informative, develop informative, develop informative, generalizations generalizations generalizations generalizations generalizations stances of the subject, and some of which apply to those instances alone'.5 subject, subject, subject, subject, subject, apply apply apply apply apply He goes on to assert that while 'a statement about two or three cases is goes goes goes goes goes certainly generalization certainly generalization certainly generalization certainly generalization certainly generalization certainly a generalization in the dictionary sense, a generalization in the dictionary sense, generalization dictionary sense, generalization dictionary sense, generalization dictionary sense, generalization dictionary sense, generalization more; ought more; ought more; ought more; ought more; ought methodological methodological methodological methodological methodological methodological sense must usually be based on more; it ought to cover usually usually usually usually usually a number of cases large enough for certain rigorous testing procedures large enough large enough large enough large enough large enough rigorous testing procedures rigorous testing procedures rigorous testing procedures rigorous testing procedures rigorous testing procedures like statistical analysis to be used'.6 Even many social scientists who are social scientists social scientists social scientists social scientists social scientists analysis be analysis be analysis be analysis be analysis be not statistically oriented would agree with the spirit of this statement: oriented would oriented would oriented would oriented would oriented would with the with the with the with the with the this this this this this 3 For 3 For 3 For 3 For 3 For 3 For see: Ted Robert see: Ted Robert see: Ted Robert see: Ted Robert see: Ted Robert Men Rebel Men Rebel Men Rebel Men Rebel Men Rebel important examples see: Ted Robert Gurr, Why Men Rebel (Princeton, New New New New New New CollecCollecCollecCollecCollecPrinceton Princeton Princeton Princeton Princeton Neil J. Neil J. Neil J. Neil J. Neil J. Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1970); Neil J. Smelser, Theory of Collective Behavior tive Behavior tive Behavior tive Behavior tive Behavior tive Behavior (New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1963), and Harry Eckstein, and and and and and York: The Free York: The Free York: The Free York: The Free York: The Free of of of of of 'On the 'On the 'On the 'On the 'On the 'On the Etiology of Internal Wars', History and Theory 4(2) (1965). of of of of of 4 Crane Brinton, The Anatomy of Revolution (New York: Vintage Books, 1965; Brinton, Brinton, Brinton, Brinton, Brinton, Anatomy of Anatomy of Anatomy of Anatomy of Anatomy of (New (New (New (New (New Vintage Books, 1965; Vintage Books, 1965; Vintage Books, 1965; Vintage Books, 1965; Vintage Books, 1965; original edition, 1938); Lyford P. Edwards, The Natural History of Revolution original edition, 1938); Lyford P. Edwards, The Natural History of Revolution original edition, 1938); Lyford P. Edwards, The Natural History of Revolution original edition, 1938); Lyford P. Edwards, The Natural History of Revolution original edition, 1938); Lyford P. Edwards, The Natural History of Revolution original edition, 1938); Lyford P. Edwards, The Natural History of Revolution in 1927); in 1927); in 1927); in 1927); in 1927); (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971; originally (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971; originally (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971; originally (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971; originally (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971; originally (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971; originally publishedin 1927); George and Brothers, 1938); and Brothers, 1938); and Brothers, 1938); and Brothers, 1938); and Brothers, 1938); Sawyer Petee, The Process of Revolution (New York: Sawyer Petee, The Process of Revolution (New York: Sawyer Petee, The Process of Revolution (New York: Sawyer Petee, The Process of Revolution (New York: Sawyer Petee, The Process of Revolution (New York: Sawyer Petee, The Process of Revolution (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1938); and Rex D. and Rex D. and Rex D. and Rex D. and Rex D. and Rex D. Hopper, 'The Revolutionary Process', Social Forces 28 (March, 1950): 'The 'The 'The 'The 'The Process', Social Forces 28 Process', Social Forces 28 Process', Social Forces 28 Process', Social Forces 28 Process', Social Forces 28 270-9. 270-9. 270-9. 270-9. 270-9. 270-9. 5 5 5 5 5 5 Harry Eckstein, ed., Internal War (New York: The Free Press, 1964), p. 8. 1964), p. 1964), p. 1964), p. 1964), p. 1964), p. 6 Ibid., p. 10. Ibid., p. 10. Ibid., p. 10. Ibid., p. 10. Ibid., p. 10. Ibid., p. 10. A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 177 OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 177 OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 177 OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 177 OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 177 OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 177 general phenomgeneral phenomgeneral phenomgeneral phenomgeneral phenomtheory theory theory theory theory theory in social science should concern itself only with general phenomonly only only only only ena; the 'unique' should be relegated to 'narrativehistorians'. 'unique' 'unique' 'unique' 'unique' 'unique' relegated relegated relegated relegated relegated Apparently directly Apparently directly Apparently directly Apparently directly Apparently directly Apparently it directly follows that no theory specific to social revolutheory specific theory specific theory specific theory specific theory specific tion is possible, that the explanandum of any theory which sheds light on explanandum any theory explanandum any theory explanandum any theory explanandum any theory explanandum any theory light light light light light possible, possible, possible, possible, possible, social revolutions must be something more general than social revolution something something something something something general general general general general itself. Hence the efforts to conceptualize revolution as an extreme inconceptualize conceptualize conceptualize conceptualize conceptualize stance of patterns of belief or behavior which are also present in other other other other other other patterns patterns patterns patterns patterns present present present present present situations or events. This approach, however, allows considerations of technique to define to define to define to define to define to define however, allows considerations of however, allows considerations of however, allows considerations of however, allows considerations of however, allows considerations of substantive substantive substantive substantive substantive Revolutions are not Revolutions are not Revolutions are not Revolutions are not Revolutions are not extreme forms of extreme forms of extreme forms of extreme forms of extreme forms of away substantive problems. Revolutions are not just extreme forms of individual or collective behavior. individual or collective behavior. individual or collective behavior. individual or collective behavior. individual or collective behavior. individual or collective behavior. They are distinctive conjunctures of are distinctive are distinctive are distinctive are distinctive are distinctive of of of of of socio-historical structures and socio-historical structures and socio-historical structures and socio-historical structures and socio-historical structures and socio-historical structures and processes. One must comprehend them as One must One must One must One must One must them as them as them as them as them as wholes-however few the cases-or not at all. wholes-however few the cases-or not at all. wholes-however few the cases-or not at all. wholes-however few the cases-or not at all. wholes-however few the cases-or not at all. complex wholes-however few the cases-or not at all. social science is not devoid of a social science is not devoid of a social science is not devoid of a social science is not devoid of a social science is not devoid of a of of of of of this this this this this Fortunately social science is not devoid of a way of confronting this kind of kind of kind of kind of kind of kind of problem. Social revolutions can be treated as a 'theoretical subSocial revolutions can be treated as a 'theoretical subSocial revolutions can be treated as a 'theoretical subSocial revolutions can be treated as a 'theoretical subSocial revolutions can be treated as a 'theoretical subSocial revolutions can be treated as a 'theoretical subTo test To test To test To test To test about about about about about the the the the the one one one one one ject'. To test hypotheses about them, one may employ the comparative with national historical with national historical with national historical with national historical with national historical as the units of as the units of as the units of as the units of as the units of method, with national historical trajectories as the units of comparison. As As As As As As students of students of students of students of students of have have have have have many students of society have noted, the comparative method is nothcomparative method is nothcomparative method is nothcomparative method is nothcomparative method is nothcomparative method is nothbut that mode of but that mode of but that mode of but that mode of but that mode of ing but that mode of multivariate analysis to which sociologists necesanalysis analysis analysis analysis analysis sociologists sociologists sociologists sociologists sociologists resort resort resort resort resort sarily resort when experimental manipulations are not possible and when experimental manipulations experimental manipulations experimental manipulations experimental manipulations experimental manipulations possible possible possible possible possible there are there are there are there are there are there are 'too many variables and not enough cases'-that is, not enough many many many many many enough enough enough enough enough enough enough enough enough enough cases for statistical testing of hypotheses.7 According to this method, one method, method, method, method, method, testing hypotheses.7 According testing hypotheses.7 According testing hypotheses.7 According testing hypotheses.7 According testing hypotheses.7 According looks for concomitant variations, contrasting cases where the phenomena variations, contrasting variations, contrasting variations, contrasting variations, contrasting variations, contrasting phenomena phenomena phenomena phenomena phenomena in which one is interested are present with cases where they are absent, absent, absent, absent, absent, absent, present present present present present they they they they they can, by can, by can, by can, by can, by controlling controlling controlling controlling controlling controlling in the process for as many sources of variation as one can, by process process process process process many many many many many contrasting positive contrasting positive contrasting positive contrasting positive contrasting positive contrasting positive and negative instances which otherwise are as similar negative negative negative negative negative as possible. possible. possible. possible. possible. possible. occurrence occurrence occurrence occurrence occurrence Thus, my inquiry Thus, my inquiry Thus, my inquiry Thus, my inquiry Thus, my inquiry Thus, in my inquiry into the conditions for the occurrence and shortterm outcomes of the great historical social revolutions in France, Russia revolutions in France, Russia revolutions in France, Russia revolutions in France, Russia revolutions in France, Russia revolutions in France, Russia great great great great great and China, I have employed the comparative historical method, specifihistorical method, historical method, historical method, historical method, historical method, China, China, China, China, China, employed employed employed employed employed cases with (a) instances of non-social revocases with (a) instances of non-social revocases with (a) instances of non-social revocases with (a) instances of non-social revocases with (a) instances of non-social revocally contrasting cally contrasting cally contrasting cally contrasting cally contrasting cally contrasting the positive cases with (a) instances of non-social revoand Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia lutionary modernization, such as occurred in lutionary modernization, such as occurred in lutionary modernization, such as occurred in lutionary modernization, such as occurred in lutionary modernization, such as occurred in lutionary modernization, such as occurred in Japan, Germany and Russia in in in in in 1904), and with (b) instances of abortive social 1904), and with (b) instances of abortive social 1904), and with (b) instances of abortive social 1904), and with (b) instances of abortive social 1904), and with (b) instances of abortive social (up (up (up (up (up (up to 1904), and with (b) instances of abortive social revolutions, in in 1848. These comin 1848. These comin 1848. These comin 1848. These comin 1848. These comparticular Russia in 1905 and particular Russia in 1905 and particular Russia in 1905 and particular Russia in 1905 and particular Russia in 1905 and particular Russia in 1905 and Prussia/Germany in 1848. These comme to understand those me to understand those me to understand those me to understand those me to understand those of events and of of events and of of events and of of events and of of events and of parisons have parisons have parisons have parisons have parisons have parisons have helped me to understand those aspects of events and of structures and structures and structures and structures and structures and structures and processes which distinctively rendered the French, Chinese which which which which which rendered the rendered the rendered the rendered the rendered the Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese Chinese and Russian Revolutions successful social revolutions. In and Russian Revolutions successful social revolutions. In and Russian Revolutions successful social revolutions. In and Russian Revolutions successful social revolutions. In and Russian Revolutions successful social revolutions. In and Russian Revolutions successful social revolutions. In turn, the abthe abthe abthe abthe abthe abYork: York: York: York: York: York: Hafner PublishingCo., 1950); Marc Bloch, 'Toward a ComparativeHistory Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative of of of of of of European Societies', in Frederic C. Lane and Jelle C. Riemersma,eds., Enterprise Riemersma,eds., Enterprise Riemersma,eds., Enterprise Riemersma,eds., Enterprise Riemersma,eds., Enterprise Riemersma,eds., Enterprise and Secular Change (Homewood, Illinois: The Dorsey Press, 1953), pp. 494-521; Dorsey Press, 1953), pp. Dorsey Press, 1953), pp. Dorsey Press, 1953), pp. Dorsey Press, 1953), pp. Dorsey Press, 1953), pp. William H. Sewell, Jr., 'MarcBloch and the Logic of ComparativeHistory', History Logic ComparativeHistory', History Logic ComparativeHistory', History Logic ComparativeHistory', History Logic ComparativeHistory', History Logic ComparativeHistory', History and Theory 6(2) (1967): 208-18; Neil J. Smelser, 'The Methodology of ComparaSmelser, Smelser, Smelser, Smelser, Smelser, Methodology ComparaMethodology ComparaMethodology ComparaMethodology ComparaMethodology Comparative Analysis', (unpublisheddraft); and S. M. Lipset, Revolution and Counterrevo(unpublisheddraft); (unpublisheddraft); (unpublisheddraft); (unpublisheddraft); (unpublisheddraft); Lipset, Lipset, Lipset, Lipset, Lipset, lution (New York: Anchor Books, 1970), part I. (New (New (New (New (New Books, 1970), part Books, 1970), part Books, 1970), part Books, 1970), part Books, 1970), part 7 See: Ernest Nagel, ed., John Stuart Mill's Philosophy of Scientific Method (New See: Ernest See: Ernest See: Ernest See: Ernest See: Ernest 178 THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL sence of conditions identified as positively crucial in France, Russia and France, France, France, France, France, positively positively positively positively positively China constitutes equally well an explanation of why social revolutions why why why why why explanation explanation explanation explanation explanation equally equally equally equally equally have not occurred, or have failed, in other societies. In this way, hyoccurred, occurred, occurred, occurred, occurred, failed, failed, failed, failed, failed, way, hyway, hyway, hyway, hyway, hycomparative comparative comparative comparative comparative potheses developed, refined, potheses developed, refined, potheses developed, refined, potheses developed, refined, potheses developed, refined, potheses developed, refined, and tested in the comparative historical analpotentially general significance. potentially general significance. potentially general significance. potentially general significance. potentially general significance. ysis ysis ysis ysis ysis ysis of a handful of cases achieve a potentially general significance. EXPLAINING REVOLUTION REVOLUTION REVOLUTION REVOLUTION REVOLUTION REVOLUTION BUREAUCRACIES BUREAUCRACIES BUREAUCRACIES BUREAUCRACIES BUREAUCRACIES BUREAUCRACIES IN IN IN IN IN IN MODERNIZING MODERNIZING MODERNIZING MODERNIZING MODERNIZING MODERNIZING AGRARIAN THE HISTORICAL CASES: Social revolutions Social revolutions Social revolutions Social revolutions Social revolutions Social revolutions in France, Russia and China occurred, during the China occurred, during China occurred, during China occurred, during China occurred, during China occurred, during France, Russia France, Russia France, Russia France, Russia France, Russia bureaucratic bureaucratic bureaucratic bureaucratic bureaucratic earlier world-historical earlier world-historical earlier world-historical earlier world-historical earlier world-historical earlier world-historical phases of modernization, in agrarian bureaucratic of modernization, in of modernization, in of modernization, in of modernization, in of modernization, in or or or or or international fields international fields international fields international fields international fields societies situated societies situated societies situated societies situated societies situated societies situated within, or newly incorporated into, international fields more more more more more dominated dominated dominated dominated dominated dominated by more economically modern nations abroad. In each case, modern nations abroad. In each case, modern nations abroad. In each case, modern nations abroad. In each case, modern nations abroad. In each case, modern nations abroad. In each case, the colthe colthe colthe colthe colsocial revolution was a social revolution was a social revolution was a social revolution was a social revolution was a social revolution was a conjuncture of three developments: (1) the colof three of three of three of three of three or or or or or of central administrative and of central administrative and of central administrative and of central administrative and of central administrative and lapse or incapacitation of central administrative and military machineries; elite elite elite elite elite and and and and and (2) widespread peasant rebellions; and (3) marginal elite political was was was was was movements. What each social revolution movements. What each social revolution movements. What each social revolution movements. What each social revolution movements. What each social revolution movements. What each social revolution minimally 'accomplished' was the the the the the the extreme rationalization and centralization of state the extreme rationalization and centralization of state the extreme rationalization and centralization of state the extreme rationalization and centralization of state the extreme rationalization and centralization of state the extreme rationalization and centralization of state institutions, the class from intermediate class from intermediate class from intermediate class from intermediate class from intermediate removal of a traditional landed removal of a traditional landed removal of a traditional landed removal of a traditional landed removal of a traditional landed removal of a traditional landed upper class from intermediate (regional of the of the of the of the of the and and and and and and local) quasi-political supervision of the peasantry, and the eliminaand the and the and the and the and the quasi-political quasi-political quasi-political quasi-political quasi-political tion or diminution of the economic tion or diminution of the economic tion or diminution of the economic tion or diminution of the economic tion or diminution of the economic tion or diminution of the economic of a landed of a landed of a landed of a landed of a landed power of a landed upper class. upper class. upper class. upper class. upper class. upper class. In the pages that follow, I shall attempt to explain the three great hispages pages pages pages pages great great great great great attempt explain attempt explain attempt explain attempt explain attempt explain torical social revolutions, first, by discussing the institutional characterisrevolutions, first, by discussing revolutions, first, by discussing revolutions, first, by discussing revolutions, first, by discussing revolutions, first, by discussing tics of agrarian states, and their special vulnerabilities and potentialities agrarian states, agrarian states, agrarian states, agrarian states, agrarian states, special special special special special potentialities potentialities potentialities potentialities potentialities second, second, second, second, second, modernization, modernization, modernization, modernization, modernization, during during during during during during the earlier world-historical phases of modernization, and second, phases phases phases phases phases by pointing by pointing by pointing by pointing by pointing by pointing to the peculiar characteristics of old regimes in France, Russia peculiar peculiar peculiar peculiar peculiar regimes France, regimes France, regimes France, regimes France, regimes France, and China, which made them uniquely vulnerable among the earlier modChina, China, China, China, China, among among among among among uniquely uniquely uniquely uniquely uniquely Finally, Finally, Finally, Finally, Finally, ernizing agrarian ernizing agrarian ernizing agrarian ernizing agrarian ernizing agrarian ernizing agrarian states to social-revolutionary transformations. Finally, social-revolutionary social-revolutionary social-revolutionary social-revolutionary social-revolutionary I shall suggest reasons for similarities and differences in the outcomes of suggest suggest suggest suggest suggest the great historical social revolutions. great great great great great An agrarian bureaucracy is an agricultural society in which social conagrarian bureaucracy agrarian bureaucracy agrarian bureaucracy agrarian bureaucracy agrarian bureaucracy agricultural society agricultural society agricultural society agricultural society agricultural society trol rests on a division of labor and a coordination of effort between a semi-bureaucratic state and a landed upper class.8 The landed upper class upper upper upper upper upper typically retains, as typically retains, as typically retains, as typically retains, as typically retains, as typically retains, as an adjunct to its landed property, considerable adjunct adjunct adjunct adjunct adjunct in different cases) undifferentiated local and in different cases) undifferentiated local and in different cases) undifferentiated local and in different cases) undifferentiated local and in different cases) undifferentiated local and (though varying in different cases) undifferentiated local and regional of the of the of the of the of the bububububuover the over the over the over the over the The The The The The authority over the peasant majority of the population. The partially bu8 In formulating the 'agrarian bureaucracy' societal type concept, I have drawn I I I I I drawn drawn drawn drawn drawn especially upon the work and ideas of S. N. Eisenstadt in The Political Systems of Empires (New York: The Free Press, 1963); Barrington Moore, Jr., in Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (Boston: Beacon Press, 1967); and Morton H. Fried, 'On the Evolution of Social Stratification and the State', pp. 713-31 in Stanley Diamond, ed., Culture in History (New York: Columbia University Press, 1960). The label 'agrarian bureaucracy' is pilfered from Moore. Clear-cut instances of agrarian bureaucratic societies were: China, Russia, France, Prussia, Austria, Spain, Japan, Turkey. A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 179 reaucratic central state extracts taxes and labor from peasants either inpeasants peasants peasants peasants peasants (at (at (at (at (at directly through directly through directly through directly through directly through directly through landlord intermediaries or else directly, but with (at least directly, directly, directly, directly, directly, minimal) minimal) minimal) minimal) minimal) minimal) reliance upon cooperation from individuals of the landed upper upon cooperation upon cooperation upon cooperation upon cooperation upon cooperation upper upper upper upper upper class. In turn, the landed upper class relies upon the backing of a coercive coercive coercive coercive coercive coercive upon upon upon upon upon turn, turn, turn, turn, turn, backing backing backing backing backing upper upper upper upper upper state to extract rents and/or dues from the peasantry. At the political from from from from from and/or and/or and/or and/or and/or and and and and and (in (in (in (in (in center, autocrat, center, autocrat, center, autocrat, center, autocrat, center, autocrat, center, autocrat, bureaucracy, and army monopolize decisions, yet (in decisions, decisions, decisions, decisions, decisions, and modes) accommodate the and modes) accommodate the and modes) accommodate the and modes) accommodate the and modes) accommodate the and local and local and local and local and local varying degrees and modes) accommodate the regional and local power of the landed of the landed of the landed of the landed of the landed of the landed upper class and (again, to varying degrees) recruit individclass and class and class and class and class and to to to to to recruit individrecruit individrecruit individrecruit individrecruit individual members of this class into ual members of this class into ual members of this class into ual members of this class into ual members of this class into ual members of this class into leading positions in the state system. in the state in the state in the state in the state in the state bureaucracies are bureaucracies are bureaucracies are bureaucracies are bureaucracies are vulnerable to vulnerable to vulnerable to vulnerable to vulnerable to rebellions. rebellions. rebellions. rebellions. rebellions. Agrarian bureaucracies are inherently vulnerable to peasant rebellions. to claims on their to claims on their to claims on their to claims on their to claims on their their their their their their and and and and and landlandlandlandlandSubject to claims on their surpluses, and perhaps their labor, by landlords and state lords and state lords and state lords and state lords and state lords and state agents, peasants chronically resent both. To the extent that resent both. To the extent that resent both. To the extent that resent both. To the extent that resent both. To the extent that resent both. To the extent that the the the the the the agrarian economy is commercialized, merchants are also targets of is is is is is merchants are also merchants are also merchants are also merchants are also merchants are also of of of of of In all In all In all In all In all bureaucracies at all bureaucracies at all bureaucracies at all bureaucracies at all bureaucracies at all and in and in and in and in and in peasant hostility. In all agrarian bureaucracies at all times, and in France, Russia and China in Russia and China in Russia and China in Russia and China in Russia and China in Russia and China in non-revolutionary times, peasants have had grievhave had have had have had have had have had ances ances ances ances ances ances to to to to to and and and and and enough to warrant, and recurrently spur, rebellions. Economic recurrently spur, rebellions. Economic recurrently spur, rebellions. Economic recurrently spur, rebellions. Economic recurrently spur, rebellions. Economic recurrently spur, rebellions. Economic crises crises crises crises crises crises (which are endemic in semi-commercial agrarian economies anyanyanyanyanyanyagrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian way) and/or increased demands from above for rents or taxes might submight might might might might stantially stantially stantially stantially stantially stantially enhance the likelihood of rebellions at particular times. But particular particular particular particular particular such events ought to be treated as short-term precipitants of peasant ought ought ought ought ought peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant precipitants precipitants precipitants precipitants precipitants unrest, not fundamental underlying causes. underlying underlying underlying underlying underlying Modernization is best conceived not only as an intrasocietal process of only only only only only process process process process process economic development accompanied by lagging or leading changes in development accompanied by lagging development accompanied by lagging development accompanied by lagging development accompanied by lagging development accompanied by lagging leading changes leading changes leading changes leading changes leading changes non-economic institutional spheres, but also as a world-historic interspheres, spheres, spheres, spheres, spheres, societal phenomenon. Thus, phenomenon. Thus, phenomenon. Thus, phenomenon. Thus, phenomenon. Thus, phenomenon. Thus, a necessary condition of a society's modernization is its incorporationinto the hisnecessary necessary necessary necessary necessary society's society's society's society's society's incorporationinto the hisincorporationinto the hisincorporationinto the hisincorporationinto the hisincorporationinto the hisnetwork of network of network of network of network of torically unique network of societies that arose first in Western Europe in early modern times and today encompassesenough of the globe's populationfor the world today encompassesenough of the globe's populationfor the world today encompassesenough of the globe's populationfor the world today encompassesenough of the globe's populationfor the world today encompassesenough of the globe's populationfor the world today encompassesenough of the globe's populationfor the world to be viewed for some purposes as if it consisted of a single network of societies.9 Of course, societies have always interacted. What was special about the What was What was What was What was What was about the about the about the about the about the course, course, course, course, course, always always always always always network that arose in network that arose in network that arose in network that arose in network that arose in modern modern modern modern modern modernizing modernizing modernizing modernizing modernizing modernizing intersocietal network that arose in early modern Europe based based based based based trade in commodities and manufactures, trade in commodities and manufactures, trade in commodities and manufactures, trade in commodities and manufactures, trade in commodities and manufactures, was, first, was, first, was, first, was, first, was, first, was, first, that it was based upon trade in commodities and manufactures, as well as upon strategic politico-military competition between indepenbetween between between between between upon strategic upon strategic upon strategic upon strategic upon strategic dent states,10 and, second, that it incubated the 'first (self-propelling) states,10 and, second, that it incubated the 'first states,10 and, second, that it incubated the 'first states,10 and, second, that it incubated the 'first states,10 and, second, that it incubated the 'first states,10 and, second, that it incubated the 'first industrialization' of England after she had gained commercial hegemony commercial commercial commercial commercial commercial England after she had England after she had England after she had England after she had England after she had within the Western European-centered world market."1 world market."1 world market."1 world market."1 world market."1 world market."1 In the wake of that first commercial-industrial breakthrough, modernthat first commercial-industrial that first commercial-industrial that first commercial-industrial that first commercial-industrial that first commercial-industrial modernmodernmodernmodernmodernthe world. In the first the world. In the first the world. In the first the world. In the first the world. In the first izing pressures have reverberated izing pressures have reverberated izing pressures have reverberated izing pressures have reverberated izing pressures have reverberated izing pressures have reverberated throughout the world. In the first phase National Societies', Social Science Information 6 (1967), 39. Information Information Information Information Information (1967), (1967), (1967), (1967), 10 10 10 10 10 10 See Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern W(1967), orld System: Capitalist Agriculture Wallerstein, Wallerstein, Wallerstein, Wallerstein, Wallerstein, System: Capitalist Agriculture System: Capitalist Agriculture System: Capitalist Agriculture System: Capitalist Agriculture System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Centlury (New European World-Economy European World-Economy European World-Economy European World-Economy European World-Economy Centlury (New Centlury (New Centlury (New Centlury (New Centlury (New 9 Terence K. Hopkins and Immanuel Wallerstein, 'The Comparative Study of Wallerstein, Wallerstein, Wallerstein, Wallerstein, Wallerstein, Comparative Study Comparative Study Comparative Study Comparative Study Comparative Study York and London: Academic Press, 1974). Press, 1974). Press, 1974). Press, 1974). Press, 1974). Press, 1974). 11 11 11 11 11 11 E. J. Hobsbawm,Industryand Empire (Baltimore, Md.: Hobsbawm,Industry Hobsbawm,Industry Hobsbawm,Industry Hobsbawm,Industry Hobsbawm,Industry Empire (Baltimore, Md.: Empire (Baltimore, Md.: Empire (Baltimore, Md.: Empire (Baltimore, Md.: Empire (Baltimore, Md.: Penguin Books, 1969). I80 I80 I80 I80 I80 I80 THEDA SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL of world modernization, England's thoroughgoing commercialization, modernization, England's thoroughgoing modernization, England's thoroughgoing modernization, England's thoroughgoing modernization, England's thoroughgoing modernization, England's thoroughgoing (both (both (both (both (both capture capture capture capture capture capture of world market hegemony, and expansion of manufactures (both hegemony, hegemony, hegemony, hegemony, hegemony, expansion expansion expansion expansion expansion before and after the technological Industrial Revolution which began in began began began began began technological technological technological technological technological the 1780s), transformed means and stakes in the traditional rivalries of 1780s), 1780s), 1780s), 1780s), 1780s), reforms, only reforms, only reforms, only reforms, only reforms, only European European European European European European states and put immediate pressure for reforms, if only to faput put put put put pressure pressure pressure pressure pressure cilitate the financing of competitive armies and navies, upon the other navies, upon navies, upon navies, upon navies, upon navies, upon financing financing financing financing financing competitive competitive competitive competitive competitive European European European European European European states and especially upon the ones with less efficient fiscal especially upon especially upon especially upon especially upon especially upon machineries.12 In the second phase, as Europe modernized and further as as as as as its influence around the its influence around the its influence around the its influence around the its influence around the similar similar similar similar similar expanded its influence around the globe, similar militarily compelling to bear on those to bear on those to bear on those to bear on those to bear on those were were were were were societies which societies which societies which societies which societies which pressures were brought to bear on those non-European societies which difdifdifdifdifimmediate immediate immediate immediate immediate the ones with the ones with the ones with the ones with the ones with escaped immediate colonization, usually the ones with pre-existing differentiated and centralized state institutions. ferentiated and centralized state institutions. ferentiated and centralized state institutions. ferentiated and centralized state institutions. ferentiated and centralized state institutions. ferentiated and centralized state institutions. these these these these these of of of of of During these phases of global modernization, independent responses to the dilemmas to the dilemmas to the dilemmas to the dilemmas to the dilemmas to the dilemmas posed by incorporation into a modernizing world were world were world were world were world were world were into a into a into a into a into a and and and and and some some some some some for for for for for elites in elites in elites in elites in elites in possible and (in some sense) necessary for governmental elites in agrarian bureaucracies. Demands for more and more ian bureaucracies. Demands for more and more ian bureaucracies. Demands for more and more ian bureaucracies. Demands for more and more ian bureaucracies. Demands for more and more ian bureaucracies. Demands for more and more efficiently collected taxes; collected collected collected collected collected for better and more generously for better and more generously for better and more generously for better and more generously for better and more generously for better and more generously and continuously financed militaries; and and and and and and continuously financed continuously financed continuously financed continuously financed continuously financed for for for for for for available foravailable foravailable foravailable foravailable for'guided' national economic development, imitating the available fordevelopment, imitating development, imitating development, imitating development, imitating development, imitating eign models, were voiced within these societies especially by bureaucrats especially by especially by especially by especially by especially by and the educated middle strata. The demands were made compelling by compelling by compelling by compelling by compelling by compelling by international military competition and threats. At the same time, governtime, governtime, governtime, governtime, governtime, governmilitary competition military competition military competition military competition military competition mental leaders did have administrative machineries, however rudimenmachineries, machineries, machineries, machineries, machineries, tary, tary, tary, tary, tary, tary, at their disposal for the implementation of whatever modernizing modernizing modernizing modernizing modernizing modernizing disposal disposal disposal disposal disposal implementation implementation implementation implementation implementation reforms seemed necessary and feasible (at given moments in world his(at given (at given (at given (at given (at given necessary necessary necessary necessary necessary tory). tory). tory). tory). tory). tory). And their countries had not been incorporated into dependent incorporated incorporated incorporated incorporated incorporated dependent dependent dependent dependent dependent economic and political positions in a world stratification system domstratification system stratification system stratification system stratification system stratification system inated by a few fully industrialized giants. industrialized industrialized industrialized industrialized industrialized by few by few by few by few by few But agrarian bureaucracies faced enormous difficulties in meeting the bureaucracies faced enormous difficulties in bureaucracies faced enormous difficulties in bureaucracies faced enormous difficulties in bureaucracies faced enormous difficulties in bureaucracies faced enormous difficulties in crises of modernization. Governmental leaders' realm of autonomous accrises of modernization. Governmental leaders' realm of autonomous accrises of modernization. Governmental leaders' realm of autonomous accrises of modernization. Governmental leaders' realm of autonomous accrises of modernization. Governmental leaders' realm of autonomous accrises of modernization. Governmental leaders' realm of autonomous action tended to be tion tended to be tion tended to be tion tended to be tion tended to be tion tended to be severely limited, because few fiscal or economic reforms because few fiscal or economic reforms because few fiscal or economic reforms because few fiscal or economic reforms because few fiscal or economic reforms because few fiscal or economic reforms could be undertaken which did not encroach could be undertaken which did not encroach could be undertaken which did not encroach could be undertaken which did not encroach could be undertaken which did not encroach could be undertaken which did not encroach upon the advantages of the of the of the of the of the of the the the the the the traditional landed traditional landed traditional landed traditional landed traditional landed traditional landed upper classes which constituted the major social base classes which constituted the classes which constituted the classes which constituted the classes which constituted the classes which constituted the social base social base social base social base social base of of of of of of support for the authority and functions of the state in agrarian bureaubureaubureaubureaubureaubureaufor the for the for the for the for the and functions of the state in and functions of the state in and functions of the state in and functions of the state in and functions of the state in cracies. cracies. cracies. cracies. cracies. cracies. Only so much revenue could be squeezed out of the peasantry, so much revenue could be so much revenue could be so much revenue could be so much revenue could be so much revenue could be out of the out of the out of the out of the out of the and and and and and and yet landed upper classes could often raise formidable obstacles to landed landed landed landed landed classes could often raise formidable obstacles to classes could often raise formidable obstacles to classes could often raise formidable obstacles to classes could often raise formidable obstacles to classes could often raise formidable obstacles to rationalization of tax rationalization of tax rationalization of tax rationalization of tax rationalization of tax rationalization of tax systems. Economic development might mean more Economic Economic Economic Economic Economic mean more mean more mean more mean more mean more tax revenues and enhanced tax revenues and enhanced tax revenues and enhanced tax revenues and enhanced tax revenues and enhanced tax revenues and enhanced military prowess, yet it channelled wealth and it channelled wealth and it channelled wealth and it channelled wealth and it channelled wealth and it channelled wealth and from the from the from the from the from the sector. sector. sector. sector. sector. the mobilization of the mobilization of the mobilization of the mobilization of the mobilization of manpower away from the agrarian sector. Finally, the mobilization of for war tended to undermine the for war tended to undermine the for war tended to undermine the for war tended to undermine the for war tended to undermine the mass mass mass mass mass mass popular support for war tended to undermine the traditional, local local local local local local of landlords or landed bureaucrats of landlords or landed bureaucrats of landlords or landed bureaucrats of landlords or landed bureaucrats of landlords or landed bureaucrats which which which which which bureaubureaubureaubureaubureauauthority of landlords or landed bureaucrats upon which agrarianbureaucratic societies cratic societies cratic societies cratic societies cratic societies cratic societies partly relied for the social control of the peasantry. relied for the social control of the relied for the social control of the relied for the social control of the relied for the social control of the relied for the social control of the 12 12 12 12 12 12 and Row, 1963; originally, 1940). Row, 1963; originally, 1940). Row, 1963; originally, 1940). Row, 1963; originally, 1940). Row, 1963; originally, 1940). Row, 1963; originally, 1940). See Walter L. Dorn, Competition for Empire, 1740-1763 Dorn, Competition for Empire, Dorn, Competition for Empire, Dorn, Competition for Empire, Dorn, Competition for Empire, Dorn, Competition for Empire, (New (New (New (New (New (New York: Harper Harper Harper Harper Harper Harper A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ANALYSIS ANALYSIS ANALYSIS ANALYSIS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 181 181 181 181 181 181 Agrarian Agrarian Agrarian Agrarian Agrarian Agrarian bureaucracies could not indefinitely 'ignore' the very specific very specific very specific very specific very specific very specific indefinitely 'ignore' indefinitely 'ignore' indefinitely 'ignore' indefinitely 'ignore' indefinitely 'ignore' crises, particular crises, particular crises, particular crises, particular crises, particular crises, in particular fiscal and martial, that grew out of involvement with martial, martial, martial, martial, martial, grew grew grew grew grew a modernizing world, yet they could not adapt without undergoing fundamodernizing world, yet they modernizing world, yet they modernizing world, yet they modernizing world, yet they modernizing world, yet they undergoing undergoing undergoing undergoing undergoing adapt adapt adapt adapt adapt mental structural changes. Social revolution helped accomplish 'neceschanges. changes. changes. changes. changes. helped accomplish helped accomplish helped accomplish helped accomplish helped accomplish sary' changes sary' changes sary' changes sary' changes sary' changes sary' changes in some but was averted by reform or 'revolution from above' in others. Relative stagnation, accompanied by sub-incorporation into international power spheres, was still another possibility (e.g., PortuPortuPortuPortuPortuPortuwas still another was still another was still another was still another was still another Social revolution was never Social revolution was never Social revolution was never Social revolution was never Social revolution was never 'chosen'. Societies 'chosen'. Societies 'chosen'. Societies 'chosen'. Societies 'chosen'. Societies gal, Spain?). Social revolution was never deliberately 'chosen'. Societies 'backed into' social revolutions. 'backed into' social revolutions. 'backed into' social revolutions. 'backed into' social revolutions. 'backed into' social revolutions. only 'backed into' social revolutions. All All All All All All modernizing agrarian bureaucracies have peasants with grievances with with with with with bureaucracies have bureaucracies have bureaucracies have bureaucracies have bureaucracies have and face the unavoidable and face the unavoidable and face the unavoidable and face the unavoidable and face the unavoidable and face the unavoidable challenges posed by modernization abroad. So, modernization abroad. modernization abroad. modernization abroad. modernization abroad. modernization abroad. in some in some in some in some in some in some sense, potential for social revolution has been built into all modfor social revolution has been built into all modfor social revolution has been built into all modfor social revolution has been built into all modfor social revolution has been built into all modfor social revolution has been built into all modbureaucracies. bureaucracies. bureaucracies. bureaucracies. bureaucracies. a handful have succumbed. a handful have succumbed. a handful have succumbed. a handful have succumbed. a handful have succumbed. ernizing agrarian bureaucracies. Yet, only a handful have succumbed. A A A A A of the of the of the of the of the that 'not that 'not that 'not that 'not that 'not I I I I I lies in the lies in the lies in the lies in the lies in the Why? A major part of the answer, I believe, lies in the insight that 'not of a of a of a of a of a but but but but but oppression, but weakness, breeds revolution'.13 It is the breakdown of a societal mode of social control which allows and prompts social revoluprompts prompts prompts prompts prompts tion to unfold. In the historical cases of France, Russia and China, the unfolding unfolding unfolding unfolding unfolding unfolding of social revolution depended upon the emergence of revoluemergence emergence emergence emergence emergence depended upon depended upon depended upon depended upon depended upon tionary tionary tionary tionary tionary tionary crises occasioned by the incapacitation of administrative and by by by by by incapacitation incapacitation incapacitation incapacitation incapacitation military organizations. military organizations. military organizations. military organizations. military organizations. military organizations. That incapacitation, in turn, is best explained not explained explained explained explained explained incapacitation, turn, incapacitation, turn, incapacitation, turn, incapacitation, turn, incapacitation, turn, as a function of mass discontent and mobilization, but as a function of a mobilization, mobilization, mobilization, mobilization, mobilization, combination of pressures on state institutions from more modernized pressures pressures pressures pressures pressures countries abroad, and (in two cases out of three) built-in structural in(in (in (in (in (in abroad, abroad, abroad, abroad, abroad, three) three) three) three) three) capacities capacities capacities capacities capacities capacities to mobilize increased resources in response to those pressures. response response response response response pressures. pressures. pressures. pressures. pressures. and China were also and China were also and China were also and China were also and China were also France, France, France, France, France, France, Russia and China were also special among all agrarian bureaucracies in that their cracies in that their cracies in that their cracies in that their cracies in that their cracies in that their agrarian institutions afforded peasants not only the institutions afforded institutions afforded institutions afforded institutions afforded institutions afforded not not not not not the the the the the usual usual usual usual usual usual grievances against landlords and state agents but also 'structural landlords and state landlords and state landlords and state landlords and state landlords and state but also 'structural but also 'structural but also 'structural but also 'structural but also 'structural for autonomous collective insurrection. for autonomous collective insurrection. for autonomous collective insurrection. for autonomous collective insurrection. for autonomous collective insurrection. once administraonce administraonce administraonce administraonce administraspace' for autonomous collective insurrection. Finally, once administrabreakdown occurred in breakdown occurred in breakdown occurred in breakdown occurred in breakdown occurred in bureaucracies with such bureaucracies with such bureaucracies with such bureaucracies with such bureaucracies with such tive/military breakdown occurred in agrarian bureaucracies with such could orcould orcould orcould orcould orand and and and and especially insurrection-prone peasantries, then, and only then, could orhave have have have have their societheir societheir societheir societheir socieganized revolutionary leaderships have great impact upon their societies' ties' ties' ties' ties' ties' development-though not necessarily in the ways they originally not not not not not in the in the in the in the in the envisaged. BREAKDOWN BREAKDOWN BREAKDOWN BREAKDOWN BREAKDOWN BREAKDOWN PRESSURES PRESSURES PRESSURES PRESSURES PRESSURES PRESSURES COLLAPSE COLLAPSE COLLAPSE COLLAPSE COLLAPSE COLLAPSE OF OF OF OF OF OF AND AND AND AND AND AND SOCIETAL SOCIETAL SOCIETAL SOCIETAL SOCIETAL SOCIETAL CONTROLS: CONTROLS: CONTROLS: CONTROLS: CONTROLS: CONTROLS: FOREIGN FOREIGN FOREIGN FOREIGN FOREIGN FOREIGN ADMINISTRATIVE/MILITARY If a fundamental cause and the crucial If a fundamental cause and the crucial If a fundamental cause and the crucial If a fundamental cause and the crucial If a fundamental cause and the crucial If a fundamental cause and the crucial trigger for the historical social for the historical social for the historical social for the historical social for the historical social for the historical social revolutions was the revolutions was the revolutions was the revolutions was the revolutions was the revolutions was the incapacitation of administrative and military maof administrative and of administrative and of administrative and of administrative and of administrative and mamamamamachineries in chineries in chineries in chineries in chineries in chineries in modernizing agrarian bureaucracies, then how and why did then how and then how and then how and then how and then how and did did did did did this occur in this occur in this occur in this occur in this occur in this occur in France, Russia and China? What differentiated these agrarRussia and China? What differentiated these Russia and China? What differentiated these Russia and China? What differentiated these Russia and China? What differentiated these Russia and China? What differentiated these 13 Christopher Lasch, The New Radicalism in America (New York: Vintage Christopher Lasch, Christopher Lasch, Christopher Lasch, Christopher Lasch, Christopher Lasch, (New York: Vintage (New York: Vintage (New York: Vintage (New York: Vintage (New York: Vintage Books, 1967), p. Books, 1967), p. Books, 1967), p. Books, 1967), p. Books, 1967), p. Books, 1967), p. 141. 182 182 182 182 182 182 THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL ian bureaucracies which succumbed to social revolution from others which managed to respond to modernizing pressures with reforms from managed managed managed managed managed respond respond respond respond respond modernizing pressures modernizing pressures modernizing pressures modernizing pressures modernizing pressures above? Many writers attribute differences in response to qualities of will Many Many Many Many Many response qualities response qualities response qualities response qualities response qualities or ability in governmental leaders. From a sociological point of view, a view, view, view, view, view, ability governmental ability governmental ability governmental ability governmental ability governmental sociological sociological sociological sociological sociological more satisfying approach might focus on the interaction between (a) the (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) satisfying approach might satisfying approach might satisfying approach might satisfying approach might satisfying approach might on modernizing agraron modernizing agraron modernizing agraron modernizing agraron modernizing agrarmagnitude foreign pressures brought magnitude foreign pressures brought magnitude foreign pressures brought magnitude foreign pressures brought magnitude foreign pressures brought magnitude of foreign pressures brought to bear on a modernizing agrarian bureaucracy, and (b) the particular structural characteristics of such structural characteristics such structural characteristics such structural characteristics such structural characteristics such structural characteristics such (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) bureaucracy, bureaucracy, bureaucracy, bureaucracy, bureaucracy, societies that underlay contrasting performances by leaders responding leaders leaders leaders leaders leaders to foreign pressures and internal unrest. and internal unrest. and internal unrest. and internal unrest. and internal unrest. and internal unrest. on an on an on an on an on an could cut could cut could cut could cut could cut Overwhelming foreign pressures on an agrarian bureaucracy could cut short even a short even a short even a short even a short even a short even a generally successful government program of reforms and successful successful successful successful successful of reforms and of reforms and of reforms and of reforms and of reforms and industrialization 'from above'. Russia is the obvious case in industrialization 'from above'. Russia is the obvious case in industrialization 'from above'. Russia is the obvious case in industrialization 'from above'. Russia is the obvious case in industrialization 'from above'. Russia is the obvious case in industrialization 'from above'. Russia is the obvious case in point. From From From From From From at least the 1890s at least the 1890s at least the 1890s at least the 1890s at least the 1890s at least the 1890s onward, the Czarist regime was committed to rapid the Czarist the Czarist the Czarist the Czarist the Czarist was committed to was committed to was committed to was committed to was committed to out of resources out of resources out of resources out of resources out of resources industrialization, initially government-financed out of resources squeezed from the from the from the from the from the from the peasantry, as the only means of rendering Russia militarily comas the as the as the as the as the means of means of means of means of means of comcomcomcomcomRussia Russia Russia Russia Russia with Western nations. Alexander Gerschenkron with Western nations. Alexander Gerschenkron with Western nations. Alexander Gerschenkron with Western nations. Alexander Gerschenkron with Western nations. Alexander Gerschenkron that initial that initial that initial that initial that initial petitive with Western nations. Alexander Gerschenkron argues that initial to to to to to had succeeded in the had succeeded in the had succeeded in the had succeeded in the had succeeded in the government programs to promote heavy industry had succeeded in the 1890s to such an extent 1890s to such an extent 1890s to such an extent 1890s to such an extent 1890s to such an extent 1890s to such an extent that, when the government was forced to reduce when the when the when the when the when the was forced to reduce was forced to reduce was forced to reduce was forced to reduce was forced to reduce its direct financial and its direct financial and its direct financial and its direct financial and its direct financial and its direct financial and administrative role after 1904, Russia's industrial sector trial sector trial sector trial sector trial sector trial sector was nevertheless capable of autonomously generating further capable capable capable capable capable autonomously generating autonomously generating autonomously generating autonomously generating autonomously generating growth (with growth (with growth (with growth (with growth (with growth (with the aid of foreign capital investments.)14 Decisive steps to foreign capital foreign capital foreign capital foreign capital foreign capital steps steps steps steps steps modernize agriculture and free peasant labor for permanent urban miagriculture agriculture agriculture agriculture agriculture peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant permanent permanent permanent permanent permanent gration gration gration gration gration gration were taken after the unsuccessful Revolution of 1905.15 Had she been able to sit out World War I, Russia might have recapitulated I, I, I, I, I, might might might might might recapitulated recapitulated recapitulated recapitulated recapitulated the German experience of industrialization facilitated by bureaucratic experience experience experience experience experience by by by by by guidance. guidance. guidance. guidance. guidance. guidance. But participation in World War I forced Russia to fully mobilize her fully fully fully fully fully participation participation participation participation participation peasantry. Army peasantry. Army peasantry. Army peasantry. Army peasantry. Army population including population including population including population including population including population including her restive peasantry. Army officers and men were subjected years costly fighting, subjected years costly fighting, subjected years costly fighting, subjected years costly fighting, subjected years costly fighting, subjected to years of costly fighting, and civilians to mounting economic mounting mounting mounting mounting mounting nought. For, given nought. For, given nought. For, given nought. For, given nought. For, given privations-all privations-all privations-all privations-all privations-all privations-all for nought. For, given Russia's 'industrial backwardness . . .enhanced . . .enhanced . . .enhanced . . .enhanced . . .enhanced . . .enhanced by the fact that Russia was very largely blockaded . . .', the fact that Russia was the fact that Russia was the fact that Russia was the fact that Russia was the fact that Russia was blockaded . .', blockaded . .', blockaded . .', blockaded . .', blockaded . .', the the the the the of the Russian of the Russian of the Russian of the Russian of the Russian machine to the German in machine to the German in machine to the German in machine to the German in machine to the German in plus the 'inferiority of the Russian military machine to the German in but sheer numbers .. ., but sheer numbers .. ., but sheer numbers .. ., but sheer numbers .. ., but sheer numbers .. ., defeat, with all of its inevitable defeat, with all of its inevitable defeat, with all of its inevitable defeat, with all of its inevitable defeat, with all of its inevitable everything but sheer numbers .. ., military defeat, with all of its inevitable for the internal condition of the for the internal condition of the for the internal condition of the for the internal condition of the for the internal condition of the was was was was was consequences for the internal condition of the country, was very nearly a a a a a a foregone conclusion'.16 The result was administrative demoralization conclusion'.16 The result was administrative demoralization conclusion'.16 The result was administrative demoralization conclusion'.16 The result was administrative demoralization conclusion'.16 The result was administrative demoralization conclusion'.16 The result was administrative demoralization and and and and and and paralysis, and the disintegration of the army. Urban insurrections and the and the and the and the and the of the of the of the of the of the Urban insurrections Urban insurrections Urban insurrections Urban insurrections Urban insurrections first middle-strata moderates and then the Bolsheviks to first middle-strata moderates and then the Bolsheviks to first middle-strata moderates and then the Bolsheviks to first middle-strata moderates and then the Bolsheviks to first middle-strata moderates and then the Bolsheviks to which which which which which which brought first middle-strata moderates and then the Bolsheviks to 14 14 14 14 14 14 Alexander Gerschenkron, 'Problems and Patterns of Russian Economic Development', pp. 42-72 in Cyril E. Black, ed., The Transformation of Russian Society (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960). 15 15 15 15 15 15 Geroid Tanquary Robinson, Rural Russia Under the Old Regime (Berkeley (Berkeley (Berkeley (Berkeley (Berkeley (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969; originally published in 1932), Chap. 11. 16 16 16 16 16 16 William Henry Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution, Volume I (New York: (New (New (New (New (New Grosset and Dunlap, 1963; originally published in 1935), pp. 64-65. Dunlap, Dunlap, Dunlap, Dunlap, Dunlap, originally published originally published originally published originally published originally published 1935), pp. 1935), pp. 1935), pp. 1935), pp. 1935), pp. A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 183 183 183 183 183 183 character character character character character to the to the to the to the to the power could not be suppressed, power could not be suppressed, power could not be suppressed, power could not be suppressed, power could not be suppressed, power could not be suppressed, owing to the newly-recruited character were enwere enwere enwere enwere enand war weariness of the and war weariness of the and war weariness of the and war weariness of the and war weariness of the and war weariness of the urban garrisons.17Peasant grievances were enPeasant Peasant Peasant Peasant Peasant hanced, young peasant men were politicized through military experiyoung peasant men were politicized young peasant men were politicized young peasant men were politicized young peasant men were politicized young peasant men were politicized the the the the the ences, and, in consequence, spreading peasant insurrections from the consequence, spreading peasant consequence, spreading peasant consequence, spreading peasant consequence, spreading peasant consequence, spreading peasant spring spring spring spring spring spring of 1917 on could not be controlled. It is instructive to compare 1917 to the Revolution of 1905. Trotsky Trotsky Trotsky Trotsky Trotsky Trotsky compare compare compare compare compare called 1905 a 'dress rehearsal' for 1917, and, indeed, many of the same 1917, and, indeed, many 1917, and, indeed, many 1917, and, indeed, many 1917, and, indeed, many 1917, and, indeed, many social forces with the same grievances and similar political programs took grievances grievances grievances grievances grievances political programs political programs political programs political programs political programs for for for for for failure of failure of failure of failure of failure of part part part part part part in each revolutionary drama. What accounts for the failure of the revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary Revolution of 1905 was the Czarist regime's ultimate ability to rely upon of of of of of ability rely upon ability rely upon ability rely upon ability rely upon ability rely upon regime's regime's regime's regime's regime's the army to repress popular disturbances. Skillful tactics were involved: army repress popular army repress popular army repress popular army repress popular army repress popular the regime bought time to organize repression and assure military loyalty regime bought regime bought regime bought regime bought regime bought organize repression organize repression organize repression organize repression organize repression military loyalty military loyalty military loyalty military loyalty military loyalty with well-timed liberal concessions embodied in the October Manifesto of 1905 (and later largely retracted). Yet, it was of crucial importance (and (and (and (and (and largely retracted). Yet, largely retracted). Yet, largely retracted). Yet, largely retracted). Yet, largely retracted). Yet, importance importance importance importance importance that the futile 1904-05 war with Japan was, in comparison with the was, was, was, was, was, World War I morass, circumscribed, geographically peripheral, less deless deless deless deless deless demorass, circumscribed, morass, circumscribed, morass, circumscribed, morass, circumscribed, morass, circumscribed, of resources and of resources and of resources and of resources and of resources and and and and and and concluded once defeat concluded once defeat concluded once defeat concluded once defeat concluded once defeat manding of resources and manpower, and quickly concluded once defeat was was was was was was apparent.18 The peace treaty was signed by late 1905, leaving the The The The The The the the the the the was was was was was late 1905, late 1905, late 1905, late 1905, late 1905, Czarist Czarist Czarist Czarist Czarist Czarist government free to bring military reinforcements back from the free to free to free to free to free to reinforcements back from the reinforcements back from the reinforcements back from the reinforcements back from the reinforcements back from the Far East into Far East into Far East into Far East into Far East into Far East into European Russia. Russia. Russia. Russia. Russia. Russia. The Russian Revolution occurred in 1917 because Russia was too The Russian Revolution occurred in 1917 because Russia was too The Russian Revolution occurred in 1917 because Russia was too The Russian Revolution occurred in 1917 because Russia was too The Russian Revolution occurred in 1917 because Russia was too The Russian Revolution occurred in 1917 because Russia was too friend and friend and friend and friend and friend and with with with with with inextricably entangled with foreign powers, friend and foe, economically and and and and and and militarily more powerful than she. Foreign entanglement must be than she. than she. than she. than she. than she. more more more more more must be must be must be must be must be considered not considered not considered not considered not considered not considered not only to explain the administrative and military incapacitathe administrative and the administrative and the administrative and the administrative and the administrative and to to to to to tion of tion of tion of tion of tion of tion of 1917, but also entry into World War I. That involvement cannot into World War I. That involvement cannot into World War I. That involvement cannot into World War I. That involvement cannot into World War I. That involvement cannot into World War I. That involvement cannot but also but also but also but also but also be considered 'accidental'. Nor was it be considered 'accidental'. Nor was it be considered 'accidental'. Nor was it be considered 'accidental'. Nor was it be considered 'accidental'. Nor was it be considered 'accidental'. Nor was it 'voluntary' in the same sense as in the same sense as in the same sense as in the same sense as in the same sense as in the same sense as Russia's entry into the 1904 war with Japan.19Whatever leadership 'blunentry into the 1904 war with Japan.19Whatever leadership 'blunentry into the 1904 war with Japan.19Whatever leadership 'blunentry into the 1904 war with Japan.19Whatever leadership 'blunentry into the 1904 war with Japan.19Whatever leadership 'blunentry into the 1904 war with Japan.19Whatever leadership 'blunders' were involved, the fact remains that in 1914 both the Russian state and the Russian economy depended heavily on Western loans and capital. economy depended heavily economy depended heavily economy depended heavily economy depended heavily economy depended heavily capital. capital. capital. capital. capital. Moreover, Russia was an established part of the European state system system system system system system part part part part part European European European European European and could not remain neutral in a conflict that engulfed the whole of that engulfed engulfed engulfed engulfed engulfed system.20 system.20 system.20 system.20 system.20 system.20 Foreign pressures Foreign pressures Foreign pressures Foreign pressures Foreign pressures Foreign pressures and involvements so inescapable and overwhelming inescapable inescapable inescapable inescapable inescapable overwhelming overwhelming overwhelming overwhelming overwhelming as those that faced Russia in 1917 constitute an extreme case for the earlier modernizing agrarian bureaucracies we are considering here. For modernizing agrarian modernizing agrarian modernizing agrarian modernizing agrarian modernizing agrarian considering considering considering considering considering Faber, 1943), Chap. Faber, 1943), Chap. Faber, 1943), Chap. Faber, 1943), Chap. Faber, 1943), Chap. Faber, 1943), Chap. 6. 18Ibid., pp. 18Ibid., pp. 18Ibid., pp. 18Ibid., pp. 18Ibid., pp. 18Ibid., pp. 118-9. 19In 1904, '[t]he Minister of Interior, von Plehve, saw a desirable outlet from In 1904, '[t]he Minister of Interior, von Plehve, saw a desirable outlet from In 1904, '[t]he Minister of Interior, von Plehve, saw a desirable outlet from In 1904, '[t]he Minister of Interior, von Plehve, saw a desirable outlet from In 1904, '[t]he Minister of Interior, von Plehve, saw a desirable outlet from In 1904, '[t]he Minister of Interior, von Plehve, saw a desirable outlet from the [turbulent domestic] situation in a "little victorious war"' the [turbulent domestic] situation in a "little victorious war"' the [turbulent domestic] situation in a "little victorious war"' the [turbulent domestic] situation in a "little victorious war"' the [turbulent domestic] situation in a "little victorious war"' the [turbulent domestic] situation in a "little victorious war"' (Chamberlin, op. cit., p. 47). 20 See: Leon Trotsky, The Russian Revolution See: Leon See: Leon See: Leon See: Leon See: Leon The Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution 17 Katharine Chorley, Armies and the Art of Revolution (London: Faber and Chorley, Chorley, Chorley, Chorley, Chorley, of of of of of (London: (London: (London: (London: (London: York: Anchor York: Anchor York: Anchor York: Anchor York: Anchor in in in in in Volume Volume Volume Volume Volume Dupee) (New York: Anchor Books, 1959; originally published in 1932), Volume and RoderickE. and RoderickE. and RoderickE. and RoderickE. and RoderickE. 'Some 'Some 'Some 'Some 'Some of Russian of Russian of Russian of Russian of Russian I, Chap. 2; and RoderickE. McGrew, 'Some Imperativesof Russian Foreign Policy', and edited and edited and edited and edited and edited F. W. F. W. F. W. F. W. F. W. (selected and edited by F. W. of Minnesota of Minnesota of Minnesota of Minnesota of Minnesota apolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1969). 202-29 in Theofanis 202-29 in Theofanis 202-29 in Theofanis 202-29 in Theofanis 202-29 in Theofanis Russia Under the Last Tsar Russia Under the Last Tsar Russia Under the Last Tsar Russia Under the Last Tsar Russia Under the Last Tsar pp. 202-29 in Theofanis George Stavrou, ed., Russia Under the Last Tsar (Minne- 184 184 184 184 184 184 THEDA SKOCPOL France and China the pressures were surely no more compelling than compelling than compelling than compelling than compelling than compelling than surely surely surely surely surely pressures pressures pressures pressures pressures and Rusand Rusand Rusand Rusand Rusthose faced by agrarian bureaucracies such as Japan, Germany and RusJapan, Japan, Japan, Japan, Japan, by agrarian by agrarian by agrarian by agrarian by agrarian above above above above above sia (1858-1914) which successfully adapted through reforms from above (1858-1914) (1858-1914) (1858-1914) (1858-1914) (1858-1914) successfully adapted through successfully adapted through successfully adapted through successfully adapted through successfully adapted through that facilitated the extraordinary mobilization of resources for economic extraordinary extraordinary extraordinary extraordinary extraordinary and military development. Why were the Bourbon and Manchu regimes regimes regimes regimes regimes regimes military development. Why military development. Why military development. Why military development. Why military development. Why unable to adapt? Were there structuralblocks to effective response? First, response? First, response? First, response? First, response? First, response? First, adapt? adapt? adapt? adapt? adapt? let me discuss some general characteristics of all agrarian states, and then agrarian states, agrarian states, agrarian states, agrarian states, agrarian states, general general general general general by by by by by point point point point point point to a peculiar structural characteristic shared by Bourbon France peculiar peculiar peculiar peculiar peculiar and Manchu China which I believe explains these regimes' inability to regimes' inability regimes' inability regimes' inability regimes' inability regimes' inability explains explains explains explains explains meet snow-balling crises of modernization until at last their feeble atadministrative and administrative and administrative and administrative and administrative and tempts triggered administrative and military disintegration, hence revcrises. crises. crises. crises. crises. olutionary crises. model model model model model Weber's ideal Weber's ideal Weber's ideal Weber's ideal Weber's ideal Weber's ideal type of bureaucracy may be taken as an imaginary model of of of of of be taken as an be taken as an be taken as an be taken as an be taken as an of what of what of what of what of what of what might logically be the most effective means of purposively orgabe the most effective means of be the most effective means of be the most effective means of be the most effective means of be the most effective means of bureaubureaubureaubureaubureausocial social social social social to the ideal to the ideal to the ideal to the ideal to the ideal nizing social power. According to the ideal type, fully developed bureauinvolves the existence of an involves the existence of an involves the existence of an involves the existence of an involves the existence of an officialdom, officialdom, officialdom, officialdom, officialdom, cracy involves the existence of an hierarchically arrayed officialdom, manmanmanmanmanin a in a in a in a in a where officials are oriented to where officials are oriented to where officials are oriented to where officials are oriented to where officials are oriented to where officials are oriented to superior authority in a disciplined manner because ner because ner because ner because ner because ner because they are dependent for jobs, livelihood, status and careerstatus and careerstatus and careerstatus and careerstatus and careerstatus and careerare are are are are for for for for for that that that that that advancement on resources and decisions channeled advancement on resources and decisions channeled advancement on resources and decisions channeled advancement on resources and decisions channeled advancement on resources and decisions channeled advancement on resources and decisions channeled through that superior monarchs found it difficult to chanmonarchs found it difficult to chanmonarchs found it difficult to chanmonarchs found it difficult to chanmonarchs found it difficult to chanBut in But in But in But in But in authority. But in preindustrial states, monarchs found it difficult to chanfor for for for for nel sufficient resources through the 'center' to nel sufficient resources through the 'center' to nel sufficient resources through the 'center' to nel sufficient resources through the 'center' to nel sufficient resources through the 'center' to nel sufficient resources through the 'center' to pay simultaneously for bureaucratic bureaucratic bureaucratic bureaucratic bureaucratic life on life on life on life on life on and a and a and a and a and a wars, culture and court life on the one hand, and a fully bureaucratic on on on on on had to make do with had to make do with had to make do with had to make do with had to make do with officialdom on the other. Consequently, they often had to make do with Consequently, they Consequently, they Consequently, they Consequently, they Consequently, they 'officials' recruited from wealthy backgrounds, frequently, in practice, practice, practice, practice, practice, practice, wealthy backgrounds, frequently, wealthy backgrounds, frequently, wealthy backgrounds, frequently, wealthy backgrounds, frequently, wealthy backgrounds, frequently, landlords. In addition, central state jurisdiction rarely touched local peaspeaspeaspeaspeaspeasjurisdiction rarely jurisdiction rarely jurisdiction rarely jurisdiction rarely jurisdiction rarely ants or communities directly; governmental functions were often deledirectly; governmental directly; governmental directly; governmental directly; governmental directly; governmental gated gated gated gated gated gated to landlords in their 'private' capacities, or else to non-bureaucratic 'private' capacities, 'private' capacities, 'private' capacities, 'private' capacities, 'private' capacities, authoritative organizations run by local landlords. organizations organizations organizations organizations organizations by by by by by Inherent in all agrarian bureaucratic regimes were tensions between, between, between, between, between, between, agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian regimes regimes regimes regimes regimes on the one hand, state elites interested in preserving, using, and extending hand, hand, hand, hand, hand, extending extending extending extending extending preserving, using, preserving, using, preserving, using, preserving, using, preserving, using, the powers of armies and administrative organizations and, on the other powers powers powers powers powers organizations and, organizations and, organizations and, organizations and, organizations and, hand, hand, hand, hand, hand, hand, landed upper classes interested in defending locally and regionally regionally regionally regionally regionally regionally upper upper upper upper upper defending locally defending locally defending locally defending locally defending locally based social networks, influence over peasants, and powers and privileges networks, networks, networks, networks, networks, privileges privileges privileges privileges privileges peasants, peasants, peasants, peasants, peasants, powers powers powers powers powers associated with the control of land and agrarian surpluses. Such tensions agrarian surpluses. agrarian surpluses. agrarian surpluses. agrarian surpluses. agrarian surpluses. were likely to be exacerbated once the agrarian bureaucracy was forced be be be be be likely likely likely likely likely agrarian bureaucracy agrarian bureaucracy agrarian bureaucracy agrarian bureaucracy agrarian bureaucracy to adapt to modernization abroad because foreign military pressures adapt adapt adapt adapt adapt foreign military pressures foreign military pressures foreign military pressures foreign military pressures foreign military pressures gave cause, gave cause, gave cause, gave cause, gave cause, gave cause, while foreign economic development offered incentives and foreign foreign foreign foreign foreign development development development development development models, models, models, models, models, models, for state elites to attempt reforms which went counter to the class attempt attempt attempt attempt attempt interests of traditional, landed upper strata. Yet there were important traditional, traditional, traditional, traditional, traditional, important important important important important upper upper upper upper upper variations in the ability of semi-bureaucratic agrarian states to respond ability ability ability ability ability agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian respond respond respond respond respond to modernizing pressures with reforms which sharply and quickly inmodernizing pressures modernizing pressures modernizing pressures modernizing pressures modernizing pressures sharply sharply sharply sharply sharply quickly quickly quickly quickly quickly creased resources at the disposal of central authorities. What can account for the differences in for the differences in for the differences in for the differences in for the differences in for the differences in response? A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 185 Not the values or individual qualities of traditional bureaucrats: qualities qualities qualities qualities qualities Japan's Meiji Japan's Meiji Japan's Meiji Japan's Meiji Japan's Meiji Japan's Meiji reformers acted in the name of traditional values and auway way way way way thority thority thority thority thority thority to enact sweeping structural reforms which cleared the way for sweeping sweeping sweeping sweeping sweeping rapid rapid rapid rapid rapid rapid industrialization and military modernization. Russia's czarist officialdom was renowned for its inefficiency and corruption, and yet it was renowned for was renowned for was renowned for was renowned for was renowned for yet it yet it yet it yet it yet it basic basic basic basic basic administered administered administered administered administered reforms in 1861 and 1905 reforms in 1861 and 1905 reforms in 1861 and 1905 reforms in 1861 and 1905 reforms in 1861 and 1905 implemented basic agrarian reforms in 1861 and 1905 and administered the first the first the first the first the first the first stages of heavy industrialization. of of of of of industrialization. industrialization. industrialization. industrialization. industrialization. aside value-orientations and individual characteristics, we aside value-orientations and individual characteristics, we aside value-orientations and individual characteristics, we aside value-orientations and individual characteristics, we aside value-orientations and individual characteristics, we Leaving aside value-orientations and individual characteristics, we must look at the class interests and connections of state officials. The must look at the class interests and connections of state officials. The must look at the class interests and connections of state officials. The must look at the class interests and connections of state officials. The must look at the class interests and connections of state officials. The must look at the class interests and connections of state officials. The bureaucracies was bureaucracies was bureaucracies was bureaucracies was bureaucracies was of the earlier of the earlier of the earlier of the earlier of the earlier adaptiveness of the earlier modernizing agrarian bureaucracies was sigdetermined determined determined determined determined the the the the the to which the to which the to which the to which the to which the and middle ranks and middle ranks and middle ranks and middle ranks and middle ranks nificantly determined by the degree to which the upper and middle ranks landlandlandlandlandof the state administrative bureaucracies were staffed of the state administrative bureaucracies were staffed of the state administrative bureaucracies were staffed of the state administrative bureaucracies were staffed of the state administrative bureaucracies were staffed of the state administrative bureaucracies were staffed by large landholders. holders. holders. holders. holders. holders. Only state machineries significantly differentiated from tradistate machineries state machineries state machineries state machineries state machineries differentiated from tradidifferentiated from tradidifferentiated from tradidifferentiated from tradidifferentiated from traditional landed tional landed tional landed tional landed tional landed tional landed upper classes could undertake modernizing reforms which classes could undertake classes could undertake classes could undertake classes could undertake classes could undertake reforms which reforms which reforms which reforms which reforms which almost almost almost almost almost almost invariably had to encroach upon the property or privileges of the had to encroach had to encroach had to encroach had to encroach had to encroach the the the the the or or or or or of the of the of the of the of the landed landed landed landed landed landed class. class. class. class. class. upper class. in an in an in an in an in an of what she of what she of what she of what she of what she in Japan in Japan in Japan in Japan in Japan Thus, in an analysis of what she calls 'elite revolutions' in Japan and and and and and (1863) and Turkey (1919), Ellen Kay Trimberger argues that segments Kay Trimberger argues Kay Trimberger argues Kay Trimberger argues Kay Trimberger argues Kay Trimberger argues segments segments segments segments segments of the of the of the of the of the of the traditional leaderships of those agrarian bureaucracies were able leaderships leaderships leaderships leaderships leaderships agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian to to to to to to respond respond respond respond respond respond so effectively to intrusions by more modern powers only beeffectively effectively effectively effectively effectively by by by by by powers only powers only powers only powers only powers only cause 'the Japanese and Turkish ruling elites were political bureaucrats Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese ruling ruling ruling ruling ruling political political political political political without vested economic interests. . .'21 Similarly Walter M. Pintner Similarly Similarly Similarly Similarly Similarly concludes from his careful research into 'The Social Characteristics of the Early Nineteenth-Century Russian Bureaucracy' that: Early Nineteenth-Century Early Nineteenth-Century Early Nineteenth-Century Early Nineteenth-Century Early Nineteenth-Century Bureaucracy' Bureaucracy' Bureaucracy' Bureaucracy' Bureaucracy' in the central in the central in the central in the central in the central the civil the civil the civil the civil the civil By the end of the By the end of the By the end of the By the end of the By the end of the By the end of the eighteenth century the civil bureaucracy in the central agencies, and by the 1850s in the provinces also, was an essentially self-perpetuatinggroup. provinces provinces provinces provinces provinces essentially self-perpetuatinggroup. essentially self-perpetuatinggroup. essentially self-perpetuatinggroup. essentially self-perpetuatinggroup. essentially self-perpetuatinggroup. Recruits came from a Recruits came from a Recruits came from a Recruits came from a Recruits came from a Recruits came from a nobility that was in large measure divorced from the land, that was in that was in that was in that was in that was in measure divorced from the measure divorced from the measure divorced from the measure divorced from the measure divorced from the and from among the sons of nonnoble government workers (military, civil, and among among among among among government government government government government (military, civil, (military, civil, (military, civil, (military, civil, (military, civil, .. . What is .. . What is .. . What is .. . What is .. . What is is that the state's civil is that the state's civil is that the state's civil is that the state's civil is that the state's civil even even even even even ecclesiastical). .. . What is important is that the state's civil administration,even at the upper levels, was staffed with men who were committed to that career and no upper levels, upper levels, upper levels, upper levels, upper levels, other and who seldom had other and who seldom had other and who seldom had other and who seldom had other and who seldom had other and who seldom had any other significantsource of income. The competence, other other other other other source of income. The source of income. The source of income. The source of income. The source of income. The however, however, however, however, however, efficiency, efficiency, efficiency, efficiency, efficiency, efficiency,and honesty of the civil service were undoubtedlyvery low, . . . however, honesty honesty honesty honesty honesty undoubtedlyvery low, undoubtedlyvery low, undoubtedlyvery low, undoubtedlyvery low, undoubtedlyvery low, it should have been a it should have been a it should have been a it should have been a it should have been a it should have been a politically loyal instrument,and indeed it proved to be when to be when to be when to be when to be when to be when the tsar determinedto emancipate the serfs and assign to them land that was legally legally legally legally legally legally emancipate emancipate emancipate emancipate emancipate assign assign assign assign assign the the the the the the property of the nobility.22 of the of the of the of the of the But where-as in Bourbon France and late Manchu China-regionBourbon France and late Manchu Bourbon France and late Manchu Bourbon France and late Manchu Bourbon France and late Manchu Bourbon France and late Manchu were ensconced within were ensconced within were ensconced within were ensconced within were ensconced within of landed of landed of landed of landed of landed ally-based ally-based ally-based ally-based ally-based ally-based cliques of landed magnates were ensconced within nominally centralized administrative centralized administrative centralized administrative centralized administrative centralized administrative centralized administrative systems, the ability of the state elites to control of the state elites to control of the state elites to control of the state elites to control of the state elites to control of the state elites to control the the the the the 21 21 21 21 21 21 International Development 7(3) Development 7(3) Development 7(3) Development 7(3) Development 7(3) Development 7(3) Ellen Kay Trimberger,'A Theory of Elite Revolutions',Studies in Comparative Kay Trimberger, Theory Kay Trimberger, Theory Kay Trimberger, Theory Kay Trimberger, Theory Kay Trimberger, Theory Revolutions', Revolutions', Revolutions', Revolutions', Revolutions', Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative Comparative (Fall, 1972), p. (Fall, 1972), p. (Fall, 1972), p. (Fall, 1972), p. (Fall, 1972), p. (Fall, 1972), p. 192. Some Demographic and Career Characteristics, 1905-1916', Characteristics, 1905-1916', Characteristics, 1905-1916', Characteristics, 1905-1916', Characteristics, 1905-1916', Characteristics, 1905-1916', Demographic Demographic Demographic Demographic Demographic 22 22 22 22 22 22 Walter M. Pintner, 'The Social Characteristics f the Early Nineteenth-Century o Pintner, Pintner, Pintner, Pintner, Pintner, Early Nineteenth-Century Early Nineteenth-Century Early Nineteenth-Century Early Nineteenth-Century Early Nineteenth-Century Russian Bureaucracy',Slavic Review 29(3) (September, 1970), 442-3. See also, Bureaucracy', Bureaucracy', Bureaucracy', Bureaucracy', Bureaucracy', 29(3) (September, 1970), 29(3) (September, 1970), 29(3) (September, 1970), 29(3) (September, 1970), 29(3) (September, 1970), also, also, also, also, also, Don Karl Rowney, 'HigherCivil Servantsin the RussianMinistryof InternalAffairs: Rowney, 'Higher Rowney, 'Higher Rowney, 'Higher Rowney, 'Higher Rowney, 'Higher Ministry Ministry Ministry Ministry Ministry Slavic Review 31(1) 31(1) 31(1) 31(1) 31(1) 31(1) (March, 1972): 101-10. (March, 1972): 101-10. (March, 1972): 101-10. (March, 1972): 101-10. (March, 1972): 101-10. (March, 1972): 101-10. i86 THEDA SKOCPOL the the the the the the flow of tax resources and implement reform policies was decisively implement implement implement implement implement policies policies policies policies policies rerererereundermined. By their resistance to the mobilization of increased reBy By By By By for military for military for military for military for military sources for military or economic purposes in modernization crises, such purposes purposes purposes purposes purposes landed cliques of officials could engender situations of acute administracliques cliques cliques cliques cliques engender engender engender engender engender tive/military disorganization-potentially revolutionary tive/military disorganization-potentially revolutionary tive/military disorganization-potentially revolutionary tive/military disorganization-potentially revolutionary tive/military disorganization-potentially revolutionary tive/military disorganization-potentially revolutionary crises of governgoverngoverngoverngoverngovernmental authority. authority. authority. authority. authority. authority. The French monarchy struggled on three fronts throughout the eigheigheigheigheigheighthroughout throughout throughout throughout throughout monarchy struggled monarchy struggled monarchy struggled monarchy struggled monarchy struggled teenth century.23Within the European state system, France's 'amphibious century.23 century.23 century.23 century.23 century.23 'amphibious 'amphibious 'amphibious 'amphibious 'amphibious European European European European European system, system, system, system, system, geography' geography' geography' geography' geography' geography' forced her to compete simultaneously with the great continengreat great great great great compete simultaneously compete simultaneously compete simultaneously compete simultaneously compete simultaneously tal land powers, Austria and (after mid-century) Prussia, and with the (after mid-century) Prussia, (after mid-century) Prussia, (after mid-century) Prussia, (after mid-century) Prussia, (after mid-century) Prussia, powers, powers, powers, powers, powers, maritime powers, above all, Britain. Britain's accelerating commercial all, all, all, all, all, powers, powers, powers, powers, powers, accelerating accelerating accelerating accelerating accelerating and industrial development put France at ever increasing disadvantage development development development development development increasing disadvantage increasing disadvantage increasing disadvantage increasing disadvantage increasing disadvantage in trade and naval strength and the extraordinary efficiency of Prussia's strength strength strength strength strength extraordinary efficiency extraordinary efficiency extraordinary efficiency extraordinary efficiency extraordinary efficiency bureaucratic regime, its special ability to extract resources from relatively to to to to to resources resources resources resources resources relatively relatively relatively relatively relatively regime, regime, regime, regime, regime, territories territories territories territories territories minimal minimal minimal minimal minimal convert them convert them convert them convert them convert them poor people and territories and to convert them with minimal wastage to tended tended tended tended tended for France's advantages for France's advantages for France's advantages for France's advantages for France's advantages military purposes, tended to compensate for France's advantages of national wealth and territorial size. And the French tional wealth and territorial size. And the French tional wealth and territorial size. And the French tional wealth and territorial size. And the French tional wealth and territorial size. And the French tional wealth and territorial size. And the French monarchy had to fight had to had to had to had to had to on a 'third front' at on a 'third front' at on a 'third front' at on a 'third front' at on a 'third front' at on a 'third front' at home-against the resistance of its own privileged the resistance of its own the resistance of its own the resistance of its own the resistance of its own the resistance of its own strata to rationalization of the tax strata to rationalization of the tax strata to rationalization of the tax strata to rationalization of the tax strata to rationalization of the tax strata to rationalization of the tax system. to rationalization and centralization to rationalization and centralization to rationalization and centralization to rationalization and centralization to rationalization and centralization as he was-in as he was-in as he was-in as he was-in as he was-in Perceptive as he was-in pointing to rationalization and centralization of state of state of state of state of state of state power as the most fateful outcomes of the French Revolution, as the most fateful outcomes of the French as the most fateful outcomes of the French as the most fateful outcomes of the French as the most fateful outcomes of the French as the most fateful outcomes of the French the extent to which monarchthe extent to which monarchthe extent to which monarchthe extent to which monarchthe extent to which monarchAlexis de Alexis de Alexis de Alexis de Alexis de Alexis de Tocqueville24 surely exaggerated the extent to which monarchbefore the Revolution. To before the Revolution. To before the Revolution. To before the Revolution. To before the Revolution. To ical ical ical ical ical ical authority already exhibited those qualities before the Revolution. To exhibited those exhibited those exhibited those exhibited those exhibited those be sure: the picture the picture the picture the picture the picture At firstview France, the historic center of continental statecraft, At firstview France, the historic center of continental statecraft, At firstview France, the historic center of continental statecraft, At firstview France, the historic center of continental statecraft, At firstview France, the historic center of continental statecraft, At firstview France, the historic center of continental statecraft,presents the picture of a clear, homogeneous and consistent governmental structure. The king was the clear, clear, clear, clear, clear, and the source of and the source of and the source of and the source of and the source of sole sole sole sole sole sole legislator, the supreme chief of the administrativehierarchy and the source of the the the the the chief of the administrative chief of the administrative chief of the administrative chief of the administrative chief of the administrative all justice. . . . All authority was delegated by the crown, and its agents, whether authority authority authority authority authority delegated delegated delegated delegated delegated were its mandatories. ... In the were its mandatories. ... In the were its mandatories. ... In the were its mandatories. ... In the were its mandatories. ... In the intendants or intendants or intendants or intendants or intendants or ministers, provincial intendants or subdelegates, were its mandatories. ... In the matter of justice the council of state, acting as the king's private court, could overjustice justice justice justice justice king's private king's private king's private king's private king's private acting acting acting acting acting the intermediary the intermediary the intermediary the intermediary the intermediary of all of all of all of all of all courts. The courts. The courts. The courts. The courts. The ride ride ride ride ride ride judgementsof all ordinarycourts. The sovereign'sparlements,the intermediary and lower courts pronounced justice in the king's name, and even the seigneurial, seigneurial, seigneurial, seigneurial, seigneurial, seigneurial, king's name, king's name, king's name, king's name, king's name, pronounced justice pronounced justice pronounced justice pronounced justice pronounced justice to his control . . . The Estates to his control . . . The Estates to his control . . . The Estates to his control . . . The Estates to his control . . . The Estates and ecclesiastical courts were and ecclesiastical courts were and ecclesiastical courts were and ecclesiastical courts were and ecclesiastical courts were municipal, and ecclesiastical courts were subject to his control . . . The Estates General were no more and the few remaining provincial estates were reduced to remaining provincial remaining provincial remaining provincial remaining provincial remaining provincial administrativebodies.25 administrativebodies.25 administrativebodies.25 administrativebodies.25 administrativebodies.25 pure administrativebodies.25 Such was the system in theory, an absolute monarch's dream. But in theory, theory, theory, theory, theory, system system system system system general qualities general qualities general qualities general qualities general qualities practice? practice? practice? practice? practice? practice? Quite aside from general qualities which set the French administrative system in the eighteenth century in sharp contrast to the Prussian eighteenth century sharp eighteenth century sharp eighteenth century sharp eighteenth century sharp eighteenth century sharp system system system system system -as 'more disjointed, less uniform, less effectively geared by control dedisjointed, disjointed, disjointed, disjointed, disjointed, effectively geared by effectively geared by effectively geared by effectively geared by effectively geared by vices, vices, vices, vices, vices, vices, above all less firmly co-ordinated by a single driving purpose penefirmly firmly firmly firmly firmly by single driving purpose peneby single driving purpose peneby single driving purpose peneby single driving purpose peneby single driving purpose pene23 Dorn, op. cit.; and C. B. A. Behrens, The Ancien Regime (London: Harcourt, The Ancien The Ancien The Ancien The Ancien The Ancien and C. B. A. and C. B. A. and C. B. A. and C. B. A. and C. B. A. Harcourt, Harcourt, Harcourt, Harcourt, Harcourt, and and and and and Brace, and World, 1967). 24Alexis de Alexis de Alexis de Alexis de Alexis de Alexis de The Old The Old The Old The Old The Old and the French Revolution and the French Revolution and the French Revolution and the French Revolution and the French Revolution Tocqueville, The Old Regime and the French Revolution (New in French in in French in in French in in French in in French in York: Anchor York: Anchor York: Anchor York: Anchor York: Anchor York: Anchor Books, 1955; originally published in French in 1856). 25 Dorn, op. cit., p. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 187 187 187 187 187 187 OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS trating trating trating trating trating trating the entire administrative hierarchy'26-the system afforded landhierarchy'26-the system hierarchy'26-the system hierarchy'26-the system hierarchy'26-the system hierarchy'26-the system lords (and wealth-holders generally) strategic points of institutional generally) strategic points generally) strategic points generally) strategic points generally) strategic points generally) strategic points leverage leverage leverage leverage leverage leverage for obstructing royal policies. obstructing royal policies. obstructing royal policies. obstructing royal policies. obstructing royal policies. obstructing royal policies. A substantialnumber of the First and Second Estates was obviously still trying to number of the First and Second Estates was number of the First and Second Estates was number of the First and Second Estates was number of the First and Second Estates was number of the First and Second Estates was still trying to still trying to still trying to still trying to still trying to live in terms of the old feudal structurethat had lost its functional justification at least two centuries before . . . [T]he residue is not hard to least two centuries before . . . [T]he residue is not hard to least two centuries before . . . [T]he residue is not hard to least two centuries before . . . [T]he residue is not hard to least two centuries before . . . [T]he residue is not hard to least two centuries before . . . [T]he residue is not hard to identify or describe. or describe. or describe. or describe. or describe. or describe. Characteristically Characteristically Characteristically Characteristically Characteristically Characteristicallyit was composed of the larger landowners, but not the princes of princes princes princes princes princes composed composed composed composed composed larger larger larger larger larger the realm nor even the constant residents at Versailles. The latter had the realm nor even the constant residents at Versailles. The latter had the realm nor even the constant residents at Versailles. The latter had the realm nor even the constant residents at Versailles. The latter had the realm nor even the constant residents at Versailles. The latter had the realm nor even the constant residents at Versailles. The latter had obviously, if if if if if if not necessarily willingly, cast their lot with the King. Similarly, many of the lesser King. Similarly, many King. Similarly, many King. Similarly, many King. Similarly, many King. Similarly, many nobles had, whether from ambition or nobles had, whether from ambition or nobles had, whether from ambition or nobles had, whether from ambition or nobles had, whether from ambition or nobles had, whether from ambition or necessity, taken service in the army or, octaken service in the taken service in the taken service in the taken service in the taken service in the or, ocor, ocor, ocor, ocor, occasionally, in the administration.The remaining survivors of the old feudal classes, remaining remaining remaining remaining remaining in the in the in the in the in the serve and subvert the serve and subvert the serve and subvert the serve and subvert the serve and subvert the however, tended to live on their however, tended to live on their however, tended to live on their however, tended to live on their however, tended to live on their however, tended to live on their properties in the provinces, serve and subvert the local bureaucracy,seek preferment in the Church, and find expression and defense bureaucracy, bureaucracy, bureaucracy, bureaucracy, bureaucracy, Church, Church, Church, Church, Church, preferment preferment preferment preferment preferment expression expression expression expression expression of their interests of their interests of their interests of their interests of their interests of their interests through the provincial estates and parlements.27 the the the the the estates and estates and estates and estates and estates and of the adminof the adminof the adminof the adminof the admina a a a a The The The The The The parlements, or sovereign courts, nominally a part of the adminor or or or or located of the instilocated of the instilocated of the instilocated of the instilocated of the instiistrative istrative istrative istrative istrative istrative system, were the most avid and strategically located of the instiwere the most avid and were the most avid and were the most avid and were the most avid and were the most avid and 'The French 'The French 'The French 'The French 'The French tutional defenders of tutional defenders of tutional defenders of tutional defenders of tutional defenders of tutional defenders of property and privilege. 'The French monarchy and and and and and sold sold sold sold sold offices offices offices offices offices at the at the at the at the at the never remedied its fatal error of never remedied its fatal error of never remedied its fatal error of never remedied its fatal error of never remedied its fatal error of never remedied its fatal error of having sold judicial offices just at the when it became master of the when it became master of the when it became master of the when it became master of the when it became master of the machine. The machine. The machine. The machine. The machine. The moment when it became master of the political machine. The monarch whom he could whom he could whom he could whom he could whom he could was almost was almost was almost was almost was almost was almost completely powerless in the face of his judges, whom he could powerless in the face of his powerless in the face of his powerless in the face of his powerless in the face of his powerless in the face of his or promote'.28 or promote'.28 or promote'.28 or promote'.28 or promote'.28 not not not not not not dismiss, transfer, or promote'.28 of of of of of markedly in the markedly in the markedly in the markedly in the markedly in the Magistrates of the Magistrates of the Magistrates of the Magistrates of the Magistrates of the Magistrates of the parlements varied markedly in the length of their . for . for . for . for . for men of men of men of men of men of noble pedigrees, but virtually all were men of considerable wealth,'.. . for pedigrees, but virtually all pedigrees, but virtually all pedigrees, but virtually all pedigrees, but virtually all pedigrees, but virtually all in in in in in their fortunes included not only their offices, in themselves representing representing representing representing representing representing only their only their only their only their only their large large large large large large investments, but also a formidable accumulation of securities, urban seigneuries.'29 seigneuries.'29 seigneuries.'29 seigneuries.'29 seigneuries.'29 disputes disputes disputes disputes disputes property, property, property, property, property, property, and rural seigneuries.'29As courts of appeal for disputes about appeal appeal appeal appeal appeal parlements played parlements played parlements played parlements played parlements played seigneurial rights, seigneurial rights, seigneurial rights, seigneurial rights, seigneurial rights, seigneurial rights, the parlements played a crucial role in defending this defending defending defending defending defending 'bizarre form of property' held by noble and bourgeois alike.30 'Indeed, 'Indeed, 'Indeed, 'Indeed, 'Indeed, 'Indeed, by by by by by bourgeois bourgeois bourgeois bourgeois bourgeois property' property' property' property' property' without the juridical backing of the parlements the whole system of juridical backing juridical backing juridical backing juridical backing juridical backing system system system system system parlements parlements parlements parlements parlements seigneurial rights might seigneurial rights might seigneurial rights might seigneurial rights might seigneurial rights might seigneurial rights might have collapsed, for the royal officials had no inroyal royal royal royal royal collapsed, collapsed, collapsed, collapsed, collapsed, 27 Edward Whiting Fox, History in Edward Whiting Fox, Edward Whiting Fox, Edward Whiting Fox, Edward Whiting Fox, Edward Whiting Fox, The Other France The Other France The Other France The Other France The Other France in in in in in Geographic Perspective: The Other France 26 Ibid., p. 30. Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., Ibid., 69. 69. 69. 69. 69. (New York: W. W. (New York: W. W. (New York: W. W. (New York: W. W. (New York: W. W. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1971), p. 69. 28 Dorn, op. cit., p. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. inally published in 1953), p. 248. 1953), p. 1953), p. 1953), p. 1953), p. 1953), p. 29 29 29 29 29 29 Franklin L. Ford, Robe and Sword (New York: Harper and Row, 1965; origorigorigorigorigorigHarper Harper Harper Harper Harper (Cam(Cam(Cam(Cam(Cam(Cam- 4 and 5. There is 4 and 5. There is 4 and 5. There is 4 and 5. There is 4 and 5. There is bridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1968), bridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1968), bridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1968), bridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1968), bridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1968), bridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1968), Chaps. 4 and 5. There is growing agreement among historians that, at the end of the Ancien ment among historians that, at the end of the Ancien ment among historians that, at the end of the Ancien ment among historians that, at the end of the Ancien ment among historians that, at the end of the Ancien ment among historians that, at the end of the Ancien there there there there there 'between 'between 'between 'between 'between Regime, there was, 'between most of the most of the most of the most of the most of the most of the and the and the and the and the and the sector of the middle sector of the middle sector of the middle sector of the middle sector of the middle a a a a a nobility and the proprietarysector of the middle classes, a continuity of investment forms and socio-economic values that made of investment forms and socio-economic values that made of investment forms and socio-economic values that made of investment forms and socio-economic values that made of investment forms and socio-economic values that made of investment forms and socio-economic values that made them, economically, a a a a a a In the relations of In the relations of In the relations of In the relations of In the relations of a common role. The differa common role. The differa common role. The differa common role. The differa common role. The differsingle group. In the relations of production they played a common role. The differentiation between them was not in entiation between them was not in entiation between them was not in entiation between them was not in entiation between them was not in entiation between them was not in any sense economic; it was juridical'. From sense sense sense sense sense Wealth and Wealth and Wealth and Wealth and Wealth and of of of of of George Taylor, 'Noncapitalist Wealth and the Origins of the French Revolution', American Historical Review American Historical Review American Historical Review American Historical Review American Historical Review American Historical Review 72(2) (January, 1967), pp. 487-8. Similar views are J. J. J. J. J. expressed by J. McManners,'France',pp. 22-42 in Albert Goodwin, ed., The European Nobility in the Eighteenth Century (New York: Harper and Row, 1967; orig- 30 30 30 30 30 30 Alfred Cobban, The Social Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution Revolution Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, Interpretation of Interpretation of Interpretation of Interpretation of Interpretation of Interpretation of the French Revolution inally published in 1953); and Behrens, op. cit., pp. 46-84. pp. pp. pp. pp. pp. I88 I88 I88 I88 I88 I88 THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL terest in the maintenance of a system which removed income from those system system system system system who were taxable into the hands of those who could not be taxed'.31 Not surprisingly, given their property interests and extensive connecsurprisingly, given surprisingly, given surprisingly, given surprisingly, given surprisingly, given property property property property property tions with non-magisterial propertied families, the parlementaires were parlementaires parlementaires parlementaires parlementaires parlementaires non-magisterial propertied families, non-magisterial propertied families, non-magisterial propertied families, non-magisterial propertied families, non-magisterial propertied families, avid defenders of the rights and privileges of the upper classes in gengengengengengenupper upper upper upper upper eral. 'By their remonstrances and by their active participation in the 'By 'By 'By 'By 'By participation participation participation participation participation estates the estates the estates the estates the estates the uphold uphold uphold uphold uphold surviving provincial estates the magistrates proceeded to uphold . . . to undifferentiated taxation, encroachments on to undifferentiated taxation, encroachments on to undifferentiated taxation, encroachments on to undifferentiated taxation, encroachments on to undifferentiated taxation, encroachments on opposition to undifferentiated taxation, encroachments on seigneurial and ministerial assaults on the fortress of and ministerial assaults on the fortress of and ministerial assaults on the fortress of and ministerial assaults on the fortress of and ministerial assaults on the fortress of autonomy, and ministerial assaults on the fortress of regional particuincreasincreasincreasincreasincreaslarism.'32 larism.'32 larism.'32 larism.'32 larism.'32 larism.'32By their dogged defense of tax and property systems increastheir their their their their defense of tax and defense of tax and defense of tax and defense of tax and defense of tax and to the needs of the French state in a to the needs of the French state in a to the needs of the French state in a to the needs of the French state in a to the needs of the French state in a ingly inadequate to the needs of the French state in a modernizing world, blocked atblocked atblocked atblocked atblocked atthe the the the the the parlements throughout the eighteenth century repeatedly blocked atthe the the the the the door to the door to the door to the door to the door to in in in in in at reform. at reform. at reform. at reform. at reform. '. . . '. . . '. . . '. . . '. . . tempts at reform. Finally, in 1787-88, they '. . . opened the door to administraadministraadministraadministraadministrarevolution'33 revolution'33 revolution'33 revolution'33 revolution'33 revolution'33 now now now now now by rallying support against now indispensable administraof the Estates of the Estates of the Estates of the Estates of the Estates tive fiscal tive fiscal tive fiscal tive fiscal tive fiscal tive fiscal reforms, and by issuing the call for the convening of the Estates and by and by and by and by and by the call for the the call for the the call for the the call for the the call for the General. France fought at sea and on land in each of the general European wars general European wars general European wars general European wars general European wars general European wars fought fought fought fought fought of the eighteenth century: the War of the Austrian Succession; the Seven eighteenth century: eighteenth century: eighteenth century: eighteenth century: eighteenth century: Years War; and the war over American Independence. In each conflict, War; War; War; War; War; Independence. Independence. Independence. Independence. Independence. her resources were strained to the utmost and her vital colonial trade disIndia, India, India, India, India, rupted, yet rupted, yet rupted, yet rupted, yet rupted, yet rupted, yet no gains, indeed losses in America and India, resulted.34The gains, gains, gains, gains, gains, War for American Independence proved to be the last straw. '[T]he price American Independence proved American Independence proved American Independence proved American Independence proved American Independence proved '[T]he price '[T]he price '[T]he price '[T]he price '[T]he price to be paid for American Independence was a French Revolution:'35 royal be be be be be for American for American for American for American for American royal royal royal royal royal to raise to raise to raise to raise to raise treasurers treasurers treasurers treasurers treasurers treasurers finally exhausted their capacity to raise loans from financiers, exhausted their exhausted their exhausted their exhausted their exhausted their financiers, financiers, financiers, financiers, financiers, to to to to to reforms of the tax reforms of the tax reforms of the tax reforms of the tax reforms of the tax and were forced and were forced and were forced and were forced and were forced and were forced (again) to propose reforms of the tax system. The usual resistance from the resistance from the resistance from the resistance from the resistance from the resistance from the parlements ensued, and an expedient adopted by by by by by by ensued, and an ensued, and an ensued, and an ensued, and an ensued, and an of an Assembly of an Assembly of an Assembly of an Assembly of an Assembly to circumvent it-the to circumvent it-the to circumvent it-the to circumvent it-the to circumvent it-the Calonne in an Calonne in an Calonne in an Calonne in an Calonne in an Calonne in an attempt to circumvent it-the summoning of an Assembly another another another another another interests interests interests interests interests of Notables in of Notables in of Notables in of Notables in of Notables in of Notables in 1787-only provided privileged interests yet another platform for form for form for form for form for form for voicing resistance. A last-ditch effort to override the parlements resistance. A last-ditch effort to override the resistance. A last-ditch effort to override the resistance. A last-ditch effort to override the resistance. A last-ditch effort to override the resistance. A last-ditch effort to override the Brienne in Brienne in Brienne in Brienne in Brienne in crumbled in the face of concerted crumbled in the face of concerted crumbled in the face of concerted crumbled in the face of concerted crumbled in the face of concerted (by Brienne in 1787-88) crumbled in the face of concerted upper-class officers officers officers officers officers of of of of of and the and the and the and the and the defiance, popular demonstrations, and the unwillingness of army officers resistance.36 resistance.36 resistance.36 resistance.36 resistance.36 of the of the of the of the of the to direct forcible to direct forcible to direct forcible to direct forcible to direct forcible to direct forcible suppression of the popular resistance.36 fiscal crises fiscal crises fiscal crises fiscal crises fiscal crises crucial in crucial in crucial in crucial in crucial in The army's hesitance was The army's hesitance was The army's hesitance was The army's hesitance was The army's hesitance was The army's hesitance was especially crucial in translating fiscal crises breakdown. breakdown. breakdown. breakdown. breakdown. and political unrest into general administrative and military breakdown. political unrest into general administrative and political unrest into general administrative and political unrest into general administrative and political unrest into general administrative and political unrest into general administrative and rich rich rich rich rich from various privileged social from various privileged social from various privileged social from various privileged social from various privileged social Recruited from various privileged social backgrounds-rich noble, rich of of of of of non-noble, and poor country noble-the officers had a variety of longpoor country noble-the officers had a poor country noble-the officers had a poor country noble-the officers had a poor country noble-the officers had a poor country noble-the officers had a the the the the the standing grievances, against other officers standing grievances, against other officers standing grievances, against other officers standing grievances, against other officers standing grievances, against other officers standing grievances, against other officers and, significantly, against the 31 Alfred Cobban, A History of Modern France, Volume I: 1715-1799 (BaltiCobban, Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, History of History of History of History of History of 1957), p. 1957), p. 1957), p. 1957), p. 1957), p. more, more, more, more, more, more, Md.: Penguin Books, 1963; originally published in 1957), p. 155. Penguin Books, Penguin Books, Penguin Books, Penguin Books, Penguin Books, originally published originally published originally published originally published originally published 32 Ford, Ford, op. cit., p. Ford, op. cit., p. Ford, op. cit., p. Ford, op. cit., p. Ford, op. cit., p. 248. op. cit., p. 33 Cobban, A History ..., p. 68. Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, History History History History History 34 Dorn, op. cit. Dorn, op. Dorn, op. Dorn, op. Dorn, op. Dorn, op. 35 Cobban, A History .. ., p. 122. ., ., ., ., ., Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, History History History History History 36 Jean Egret, La Pre-Revolution Francaise, 1787-1788 (Paris: Presses UniversiPre-Revolution Francaise, Pre-Revolution Francaise, Pre-Revolution Francaise, Pre-Revolution Francaise, Pre-Revolution Francaise, (Paris: (Paris: (Paris: (Paris: (Paris: Egret, Egret, Egret, Egret, Egret, taires de France, 1962). de France, 1962). de France, 1962). de France, 1962). de France, 1962). de France, 1962). A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS I89 But But But But But dededededeCrown,which could never satisfythem Crown,which could never satisfythem Crown,which could never satisfythem Crown,which could never satisfythem Crown,which could never satisfythem Crown,which could never satisfythem all.37But it is likely that the delikely likely likely likely likely cisive cisive cisive cisive cisive cisive explanationfor their behaviorlies in the fact that they were virfor their behaviorlies in the fact for their behaviorlies in the fact for their behaviorlies in the fact for their behaviorlies in the fact for their behaviorlies in the fact they they they they they all all all all all and/or economically,and hence identified and/or economically,and hence identified and/or economically,and hence identified and/or economically,and hence identified and/or economically,and hence identified tually all privileged,socially and/or economically,and hence identified 1787-88 with the parlements. In her Armies and 1787-88 with the parlements. In her Armies and 1787-88 with the parlements. In her Armies and 1787-88 with the parlements. In her Armies and 1787-88 with the parlements. In her Armies and of of of of of during 1787-88 with the parlements. In her Armies and the Art of Revo- h historicalstudies historicalstudies historicalstudies historicalstudies historicalstudies concludesfrom concludesfrom concludesfrom concludesfrom concludesfrom lution, Katharine lution, Katharine lution, Katharine lution, Katharine lution, Katharine lution, KatharineChorleyconcludesfrom comparative istoricalstudies with and with and with and with and with and in in in in in officers officers officers officers officers that, in preindustrial ocieties, army officersgenerallyidentifywith and s are are are are are act to act to act to act to act to act to the interestsof the the interestsof the the interestsof the the interestsof the the interestsof the stratafrom which stratafrom which stratafrom which stratafrom which stratafrom which protect the interestsof the privilegedstratafrom which they are recruited. recruited. recruited. recruited. recruited. recruited. uringits openingphases,until afterthe Kinghad capitulated its its its its its had had had had had until afterthe until afterthe until afterthe until afterthe until afterthe D and and and and and and agreedto convenethe EstatesGeneral,the FrenchRevolutionpitted to convenethe Estates to convenethe Estates to convenethe Estates to convenethe Estates to convenethe Estates the FrenchRevolution the FrenchRevolution the FrenchRevolution the FrenchRevolution the FrenchRevolution all all all all all all strata,led by the privileged,againstthe Crown. The army officers' officers' officers' officers' officers' officers' led led led led led the the the the the the Crown. The the Crown. The the Crown. The the Crown. The the Crown. The understandable eluctanceto understandable eluctanceto understandable eluctanceto understandable eluctanceto understandable eluctanceto understandable eluctanceto represspopularunrest duringthat period that that that that that r r r r r r unrest unrest unrest unrest unrest w w w w w w createda createda createda createda createda createda generalcrisisof governmental uthority nd effectiveness hich crisisof crisisof crisisof crisisof crisisof a and effectiveness hich and effectiveness hich and effectiveness hich and effectiveness hich and effectiveness hich a in turnunleashedsocial in turnunleashedsocial in turnunleashedsocial in turnunleashedsocial in turnunleashedsocial in turnunleashedsocial rich and rich and rich and rich and rich and between between between between between and and and and and divisions,betweennoble and non-noble,rich and poor, that poor, that poor, that poor, that poor, that poor, that made a subsequentresort to simple repressionby the Old subsequent subsequent subsequent subsequent subsequent simple repressionby the Old simple repressionby the Old simple repressionby the Old simple repressionby the Old simple repressionby the Old Regimeimpossible. Regimeimpossible. Regimeimpossible. Regimeimpossible. Regimeimpossible. Regimeimpossible. The officers' nsubordination arlyin the Revolutionwas all the more i e early early early early early i i after, after, after, after, after, easily easily easily easily easily easily translatedinto rank-and-filensubordinationn 1789 and after, becauseof the fact thatFrenchsoldierswere not normallyinsulatedfrom normally normally normally normally normally the civilian population.Soldierswere billeted with civilians, and those civilians, civilians, civilians, civilians, civilians, population. population. population. population. population. from ruralareaswere releasedduringthe summersto help with the harduring during during during during help help help help help vest at home. Thus,during1789, the GardesFranfaises(many of whom Franfaises(many Franfaises(many Franfaises(many Franfaises(many Franfaises(many Thus,during1789, Thus,during1789, Thus,during1789, Thus,during1789, Thus,during1789, were marriedto Parisianworking-class omen) were won over to the to Parisianworking-class omen) were to Parisianworking-class omen) were to Parisianworking-class omen) were to Parisianworking-class omen) were to Parisianworking-class omen) were w w w w w w Paris revolutionin July, and Paris revolutionin July, and Paris revolutionin July, and Paris revolutionin July, and Paris revolutionin July, and Paris revolutionin July, and peasantsoldiersspreadurbannews in the soldiersspreadurban soldiersspreadurban soldiersspreadurban soldiersspreadurban soldiersspreadurban t t t t t t the summerand returned o theirunitsin the the summerand returned o theirunitsin the the summerand returned o theirunitsin the the summerand returned o theirunitsin the the summerand returned o theirunitsin the countryside uringthe summerand returned o theirunitsin the autumn d with vivid tales of with vivid tales of with vivid tales of with vivid tales of with vivid tales of with vivid tales of peasantrevolt.38 revolt.38 revolt.38 revolt.38 revolt.38 revolt.38 Like the Bourbon Like the Bourbon Like the Bourbon Like the Bourbon Like the Bourbon Like the BourbonMonarchy,the ManchuDynastyprovedunable to unable to unable to unable to unable to unable to the Manchu the Manchu the Manchu the Manchu the Manchu mobilizeresourcessufficient o meet mobilizeresourcessufficient o meet mobilizeresourcessufficient o meet mobilizeresourcessufficient o meet mobilizeresourcessufficient o meet mobilizeresourcessufficient o meet crediblythe challengesposed by inininininint t t t t t the the the the the the the the the the volvementin the volvementin the volvementin the volvementin the volvementin the volvementin the modernizing orld. '[T]heproblemwas not merelythe was not was not was not was not was not w world. world. world. world. world. as a as a as a as a as a real one of the real one of the real one of the real one of the real one of the resourcesof the Chinese resourcesof the Chinese resourcesof the Chinese resourcesof the Chinese resourcesof the Chinese very real one of the inadequateresourcesof the Chineseeconomy as a whole. In whole. In whole. In whole. In whole. In whole. In large measurethe financialstraitsin whichthe Pekinggovernmeasurethe financialstraitsin whichthe measurethe financialstraitsin whichthe measurethe financialstraitsin whichthe measurethe financialstraitsin whichthe measurethe financialstraitsin whichthe ment found itself were due to . . . ment found itself were due to . . . ment found itself were due to . . . ment found itself were due to . . . ment found itself were due to . . . ment found itself were due to . . . [inability to] command such financial command such financial command such financial command such financial command such financial command such financial as therewas in its as therewas in its as therewas in its as therewas in its as therewas in its P Part of the Part of the Part of the Part of the Part of the f for this infor this infor this infor this infor this incapacityas therewas in its empire'.39 art of the explanation or this inin a characteristic hich the Chinese state sharedwith other in a characteristic hich the Chinese state sharedwith other in a characteristic hich the Chinese state sharedwith other in a characteristic hich the Chinese state sharedwith other in a characteristic hich the Chinese state sharedwith other w w w w w w abilitylay in a characteristic hich the Chinese state sharedwith other states: lower and middlelevel officialswere recruitedfrom the states: lower and middlelevel officialswere recruitedfrom the states: lower and middlelevel officialswere recruitedfrom the states: lower and middlelevel officialswere recruitedfrom the states: lower and middlelevel officialswere recruitedfrom the agrarianstates: lower and middlelevel officialswere recruitedfrom the landed landed landed landed landed landed gentry,paid insufficient alaries,and allowedto engagein a cerin a cerin a cerin a cerin a cerin a cerinsufficient insufficient insufficient insufficient insufficient and allowedto and allowedto and allowedto and allowedto and allowedto s tain amount of 'normal' tain amount of 'normal' tain amount of 'normal' tain amount of 'normal' tain amount of 'normal' tain amount of 'normal' revenues collected as revenues collected as revenues collected as revenues collected as revenues collected as corruption,withholdingrevenues collected as taxes from taxes from taxes from taxes from taxes from taxes fromhigherauthorities.40 et, if the ManchuDynastyhad encounauthorities.40 if the Manchu authorities.40 if the Manchu authorities.40 if the Manchu authorities.40 if the Manchu authorities.40 if the Manchu had encounhad encounhad encounhad encounhad encounY 39 Albert Feuerwerker, China's Early Industrialization (New York: Atheneum, Feuerwerker, Feuerwerker, Feuerwerker, Feuerwerker, Feuerwerker, Atheneum, Atheneum, Atheneum, Atheneum, Atheneum, Early Industrialization (New Early Industrialization (New Early Industrialization (New Early Industrialization (New Early Industrialization (New 1970; originally published 1958), p. 1970; originally published 1958), p. 1970; originally published 1958), p. 1970; originally published 1958), p. 1970; originally published 1958), p. 1970; originally published in 1958), p. 41. 40Chung-li Chang, The Chinese Gentry (Seattle: University of Washington 40Chung-li Chang, The Chinese Gentry (Seattle: University of Washington 40Chung-li Chang, The Chinese Gentry (Seattle: University of Washington 40Chung-li Chang, The Chinese Gentry (Seattle: University of Washington 40Chung-li Chang, The Chinese Gentry (Seattle: University of Washington 40Chung-li Chang, The Chinese Gentry (Seattle: University of Washington Ladder of Success in Imperial China (New York: Ladder of Success in Imperial China (New York: Ladder of Success in Imperial China (New York: Ladder of Success in Imperial China (New York: Ladder of Success in Imperial China (New York: Press, 1955); Ping-ti Ho, Press, 1955); Ping-ti Ho, Press, 1955); Ping-ti Ho, Press, 1955); Ping-ti Ho, Press, 1955); Ping-ti Ho, Press, 1955); Ping-ti Ho, The Ladder of Success in Imperial China (New York: Columbia University Press, Columbia University Press, Columbia University Press, Columbia University Press, Columbia University Press, Columbia University Press, 1962); and Franz Michael, 'State and Society in Nineand Franz Michael, 'State and and Franz Michael, 'State and and Franz Michael, 'State and and Franz Michael, 'State and and Franz Michael, 'State and in Ninein Ninein Ninein Ninein Nineteenth teenth teenth teenth teenth teenth Century China', World Politics 7 (April, 1955): 419-33. 419-33. 419-33. 419-33. 419-33. 419-33. China', World Politics 7 China', World Politics 7 China', World Politics 7 China', World Politics 7 China', World Politics 7 37 Chorley, op. cit., pp. 138-9. Chorley, op. cit., pp. Chorley, op. cit., pp. Chorley, op. cit., pp. Chorley, op. cit., pp. Chorley, op. cit., pp. 38 Ibid., p. 38 Ibid., p. 38 Ibid., p. 38 Ibid., p. 38 Ibid., p. 38 Ibid., p. 141. 190 THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL tered the forces of modernization at the height of its powers (say in the height height height height height powers (say powers (say powers (say powers (say powers (say during during during during during declining phase, might declining phase, might declining phase, might declining phase, might declining phase, might early eighteenth century) early eighteenth century) early eighteenth century) early eighteenth century) early eighteenth century) early eighteenth century) rather than during its declining phase, it might have controlled or been able to mobilize sufficient resources to finance modern industries and equip a centrally controlled modern army. In that army. army. army. army. army. equip centrally equip centrally equip centrally equip centrally equip centrally have have have have have allowed allowed allowed allowed allowed case, case, case, case, case, case, officials would never have been allowed to serve in their home and thus local and and thus local and and thus local and and thus local and and thus local and provinces, and thus local and regional groups of gentry would have lacked for concerted for concerted for concerted for concerted for concerted institutional institutional institutional institutional institutional institutional support for concerted opposition against central initiatives. to to to to to was forced to was forced to was forced to was forced to was forced to the Manchu the Manchu the Manchu the Manchu the Manchu But, as it But, as it But, as it But, as it But, as it But, as it happened, the Manchu Dynasty was forced to try to cope with industrial industrial industrial industrial industrial wave after wave of wave after wave of wave after wave of wave after wave of wave after wave of wave after wave of imperialist intrusions, engineered by foreign industrial Chinese markets and finances, Chinese markets and finances, Chinese markets and finances, Chinese markets and finances, Chinese markets and finances, or or or or or or industrializing nations anxious to tap Chinese markets and finances, nations anxious to nations anxious to nations anxious to nations anxious to nations anxious to rerererereafter a series of massive after a series of massive after a series of massive after a series of massive after a series of massive immediately after a series of massive mid-nineteenth-century peasant reRebellion Rebellion Rebellion Rebellion Rebellion down the down the down the down the down the bellions. The bellions. The bellions. The bellions. The bellions. The bellions. The Dynasty had been unable to put down the Taiping Rebellion had been unable to had been unable to had been unable to had been unable to had been unable to selfselfselfselfselfon its on its on its on its on its on its own, and the task had fallen instead to local, gentry-led, selfand the task had fallen instead to and the task had fallen instead to and the task had fallen instead to and the task had fallen instead to and the task had fallen instead to interrelated interrelated interrelated interrelated interrelated armies led armies led armies led armies led armies led defense associations and to defense associations and to defense associations and to defense associations and to defense associations and to defense associations and to regional armies led by complexly interrelated resources and recruits. In resources and recruits. In resources and recruits. In resources and recruits. In resources and recruits. In who had access to who had access to who had access to who had access to who had access to gentry who had access to village resources and recruits. In consequence forforforforforof the of the of the of the of the of the gentry's role in putting down rebellion, governmental powers forrole in role in role in role in role in down down down down down includincludincludincludincludto central authorities or their bureaucratic to central authorities or their bureaucratic to central authorities or their bureaucratic to central authorities or their bureaucratic to central authorities or their bureaucratic merly accruing to central authorities or their bureaucratic agents, includdevolved devolved devolved devolved devolved to collect and allocate various to collect and allocate various to collect and allocate various to collect and allocate various to collect and allocate various ing, crucially, rights to collect and allocate various taxes, devolved upon crucially, crucially, crucially, crucially, crucially, and and and and and local, gentry-dominated, sub-district governing associations and upon governing governing governing governing governing gentry-dominated, gentry-dominated, gentry-dominated, gentry-dominated, gentry-dominated, provincial provincial provincial provincial provincial provincial armies and officials increasingly aligned with the provincial provincial provincial provincial provincial provincial increasingly aligned increasingly aligned increasingly aligned increasingly aligned increasingly aligned gentry against gentry against gentry against gentry against gentry against gentry against the center.41 Unable to force resources from local and regional authorities, it was regional regional regional regional regional all Peking could do simply to meet foreign indebtedness, and after 1895 Peking Peking Peking Peking Peking foreign indebtedness, foreign indebtedness, foreign indebtedness, foreign indebtedness, foreign indebtedness, simply simply simply simply simply even that proved impossible. proved impossible. proved impossible. proved impossible. proved impossible. proved impossible. 1894, 1894, 1894, 1894, 1894, Throughout Throughout Throughout Throughout Throughout Throughoutthe period from 1874 to 1894, the ministry [of Revenue in Peking] was Peking] Peking] Peking] Peking] Peking] period period period period period ministry [of ministry [of ministry [of ministry [of ministry [of order to meet a order to meet a order to meet a order to meet a order to meet a engaged in a series of largely unsuccessful efforts to raise funds in order to meet a Russia, Russia, Russia, Russia, Russia, continuing continuing continuing continuing continuing continuing series of crises-the dispute over Ili with Russia, the Sino-French War dispute over dispute over dispute over dispute over dispute over [1885], floods and famines, the Sino-JapaneseWar [1895].... After 1895 the triple pressure of indemnity payments, servicing foreign loans, and military expenditures pressure of indemnity payments, servicing foreign loans, and military expenditures pressure of indemnity payments, servicing foreign loans, and military expenditures pressure of indemnity payments, servicing foreign loans, and military expenditures pressure of indemnity payments, servicing foreign loans, and military expenditures pressure of indemnity payments, servicing foreign loans, and military expenditures totally wrecked the rough balance between income and outlay which Peking had maintained[with the aid of foreign loans] until that time.42 maintained[with the aid of foreign loans] until that time.42 maintained[with the aid of foreign loans] until that time.42 maintained[with the aid of foreign loans] until that time.42 maintained[with the aid of foreign loans] until that time.42 maintained[with the aid of foreign loans] until that time.42 The The The The The The Boxer Rebellion of 1900, and subsequent foreign military intervensubsequent foreign military intervensubsequent foreign military intervensubsequent foreign military intervensubsequent foreign military intervensubsequent foreign military intervention, only further exacerbated an already desperate situation. only only only only only already desperate already desperate already desperate already desperate already desperate Attempts by dynastic authorities to remedy matters through a series remedy remedy remedy remedy remedy through through through through through by dynastic by dynastic by dynastic by dynastic by dynastic of 'reforms' implemented after 1900-abolishing the Confucian educa1900-abolishing 1900-abolishing 1900-abolishing 1900-abolishing 1900-abolishing implemented implemented implemented implemented implemented tional system and encouraging modern schools;43organizing the so-called system system system system system encouraging encouraging encouraging encouraging encouraging organizing organizing organizing organizing organizing 'New Armies' (which actually formed around the nuclei of the old proactually actually actually actually actually proproproproprovincial armies);44 transferringlocal governmental functions to provincial governmental governmental governmental governmental governmental transferring transferring transferring transferring transferring provincial provincial provincial provincial provincial 41 41 41 41 41 41 Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970). 42 42 42 42 42 42 Feuerwerker,op. cit., pp. 40-41. 43 Mary C. Wright, ed., China in Revolution: The First Phase, 1900-1913 (New Mary Wright, Mary Wright, Mary Wright, Mary Wright, Mary Wright, Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), pp. 24-26. University University University University University 44 Yoshiro Hatano, 'The New Armies', pp. 365-82 in Wright, ed., op. cit.; and pp. pp. pp. pp. pp. John Gittings, 'The Chinese Army', pp. 187-224 in Jack Gray, ed., Modern China's Army', pp. Army', pp. Army', pp. Army', pp. Army', pp. Gittings, Gittings, Gittings, Gittings, Gittings, Search for a Political Form (London: Oxford University Press, 1969). (London: (London: (London: (London: (London: University Press, 1969). University Press, 1969). University Press, 1969). University Press, 1969). University Press, 1969). for for for for for Its Enemies in Late Its Enemies in Late Its Enemies in Late Its Enemies in Late Its Enemies in Late China China China China China Philip Kuhn, Rebellion and Its Enemies in Late Imperial China (Cambridge, A STRUCTURAL STRUCTURAL STRUCTURAL STRUCTURAL STRUCTURAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ANALYSIS ANALYSIS ANALYSIS ANALYSIS ANALYSIS 191 OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS a creating bureaus;45nd creatinga seriesof local and provincialgentry-dominated creating creating creating creating provincialgentry-dominated provincialgentry-dominated provincialgentry-dominated provincialgentry-dominated provincialgentry-dominated representative ssemblies46-only representative ssemblies46-only representative ssemblies46-only representative ssemblies46-only representative ssemblies46-only representative ssemblies46-only exacerbatedthe sorry situation,right a a a a a a sorry situation,right sorry situation,right sorry situation,right sorry situation,right sorry situation,right up up up up up up to the 1911 breakingpoint. 'Reformdestroyedthe reforming overng g g g g g breakingpoint. breakingpoint. breakingpoint. breakingpoint. breakingpoint. destroyed reforming overndestroyed reforming overndestroyed reforming overndestroyed reforming overndestroyed reforming overnment'.47 ith each reform, dynasticelites thoughtto create powers to W reform, dynastic reform, dynastic reform, dynastic reform, dynastic reform, dynastic thought thought thought thought thought powers powers powers powers powers counterbalance ntrenched bstructive orces,but new officialsand funce o f forces, forces, forces, forces, forces, tions were repeatedlyabsorbedinto pre-existinglocal and (especially) local local local local local repeatedlyabsorbedinto repeatedlyabsorbedinto repeatedlyabsorbedinto repeatedlyabsorbedinto repeatedlyabsorbedinto (especially) (especially) (especially) (especially) (especially) of of of of of T The last seriesof reforms,those that The last seriesof reforms,those that The last seriesof reforms,those that The last seriesof reforms,those that The last seriesof reforms,those that regional regional regional regional regional regional cliquesof gentry.48 he last seriesof reforms,those that created of of of of of withlegitiwithlegitiwithlegitiwithlegitiwithlegitia a a a a a representativessemblies, representativessemblies, representativessemblies, representativessemblies, representativessemblies, representativessemblies,ronically rovidedcliquesof gentrywithlegitii p mate mate mate mate mate mate representative rgansfrom which to launch the liberal, decentralfrom which to launch the liberal, decentralfrom which to launch the liberal, decentralfrom which to launch the liberal, decentralfrom which to launch the liberal, decentralfrom which to launch the liberal, decentralo m m m m m m the Manchus. the Manchus. the Manchus. the Manchus. the Manchus. 'Constitutionalist ovement' 'Constitutionalist ovement' 'Constitutionalist ovement' 'Constitutionalist ovement' 'Constitutionalist ovement' izing 'Constitutionalist ovement'againstthe Manchus. What ultimately What ultimately What ultimately What ultimately What ultimately What ultimatelyprecipitatedthe 'revolutionof 1911' was a final atthe 'revolutionof 1911' was a final atthe 'revolutionof 1911' was a final atthe 'revolutionof 1911' was a final atthe 'revolutionof 1911' was a final atthe 'revolutionof 1911' was a final ato one that one that one that one that one that at reform the central at reform the central at reform the central at reform the central at reform the central threatened threatened threatened threatened threatened tempt at reformby the centralgovernment, ne that directlythreatened the financialinterests of the the financialinterests of the the financialinterests of the the financialinterests of the the financialinterests of the the financialinterests of the gentry power groups for the purpose of for the for the for the for the for the of of of of of c central central central central central f financesand controlover nationalecofinancesand controlover nationalecofinancesand controlover nationalecofinancesand controlover nationalecofinancesand controlover nationalecostrengtheningentralgovernment inancesand controlover nationaleconomic nomic nomic nomic nomic nomic development: The The The The The The specific incident that precipitatedthe Revolution of 1911 was the central govincident that incident that incident that incident that incident that ernment'sdecision to buy up a [railroad]line in Szechwan in which the local gentry buy up [railroad]line Szechwan buy up [railroad]line Szechwan buy up [railroad]line Szechwan buy up [railroad]line Szechwan buy up [railroad]line Szechwan gentry gentry gentry gentry gentry had invested heavily.... The Szechwan uprising, led by the moderate constitutionthe Railway Protection League, sparked the Railway Protection League, sparked the Railway Protection League, sparked the Railway Protection League, sparked the Railway Protection League, sparked alists alists alists alists alists alists of the Railway Protection League, sparked widespread disturbances that disturbances that disturbances that disturbances that disturbances that disturbances that often had no connection with the railway issue. ....49 w with Sun Yat Sen'sT'eng MengHui, with Sun Yat Sen'sT'eng MengHui, with Sun Yat Sen'sT'eng MengHui, with Sun Yat Sen'sT'eng MengHui, with Sun Yat Sen'sT'eng MengHui, Conspiratorial roups Conspiratorial roups Conspiratorial roups Conspiratorial roups Conspiratorial roups Conspiratorial roupsaffiliated ith Sun Yat Sen'sT'eng MengHui, and g g g g g g s s s s s s N N N N N N mainly composed Western-educatedtudentsand middle-rank ew mainly composed Western-educatedtudentsand middle-rank ew mainly composed Western-educatedtudentsand middle-rank ew mainly composed Western-educatedtudentsand middle-rank ew mainly composed Western-educatedtudentsand middle-rank ew mainly composed of Western-educatedtudentsand middle-rank ew Army officers,joined the fray to produce a series of Army officers,joined the fray to produce a series of Army officers,joined the fray to produce a series of Army officers,joined the fray to produce a series of Army officers,joined the fray to produce a series of Army officers,joined the fray to produce a series of militaryuprisings. Finally, Finally, Finally, Finally, Finally, Finally, the the the the the after another was taken after another was taken after another was taken after another was taken after another was taken of one of one of one of one of one .. the lead in .. the lead in .. the lead in .. the lead in .. the lead in .. the lead in declaring the independenceof one province after another was taken by by by by by by two principal elements: the military governors who commanded the New Army principal principal principal principal principal military governors military governors military governors military governors military governors Army Army Army Army Army forces and the forces and the forces and the forces and the forces and the forces and the gentry-official-merchanteaders of the provincial assemblies. These l leaders of the leaders of the leaders of the leaders of the leaders of the assemblies. These assemblies. These assemblies. These assemblies. These assemblies. These elements had more power and were more conservative than the youthful revolupower power power power power youthful youthful youthful youthful youthful tionarists of the tionarists of the tionarists of the tionarists of the tionarists of the tionarists of the T'eng Meng Hui.50 Hui.50 Hui.50 Hui.50 Hui.50 Hui.50 The Chinese'Revolutionof 1911' irremediably estroyedthe integuirremediably estroyed integuirremediably estroyed integuirremediably estroyed integuirremediably estroyed integuirremediably estroyed integud d d d d d ment of civilian elite ties-traditionally maintainedby the operationof ties-traditionally ties-traditionally ties-traditionally ties-traditionally ties-traditionally by by by by by operation operation operation operation operation Confucianeducationalinstitutions nd the centralbureaucracy's olicies a bureaucracy's olicies bureaucracy's olicies bureaucracy's olicies bureaucracy's olicies bureaucracy's olicies p p p p p p for recruiting nd deployingeducatedofficialsso as to strengthen"cosa deploying strengthen strengthen strengthen strengthen strengthen recruiting recruiting recruiting recruiting recruiting deploying deploying deploying deploying o a mopolitan' mopolitan' mopolitan' mopolitan' mopolitan' mopolitan' rientations t the expenseof local loyalties-which had until expense expense expense expense expense loyalties-which loyalties-which loyalties-which loyalties-which loyalties-which thattimeprovidedat least the semblance f unifiedgovernance or China. o f provided provided provided provided provided governance governance governance governance governance 'Warlord' ivalriesensued as gentryinterestsattachedthemselvesto rer gentry gentry gentry gentry gentry gional militarymachines, gional militarymachines, gional militarymachines, gional militarymachines, gional militarymachines, gional militarymachines,and this condition of intra-elitedisunityand disunity disunity disunity disunity disunity 45 John 45 John 45 John 45 John 45 John 45 John Fincher, 'Political Provincialismand the National Revolution', in Wright, 'Political 'Political 'Political 'Political 'Political 202. 202. 202. 202. 202. ed., op. cit., p. 202. 46 Fincher, op. cit.; and P'eng-yuan Chang, 'The Constitutionalists',in Wright, ed., op. cit. 47 47 47 47 47 47Wright, ed., op. cit., p. 50. 48 48 48 48 48 48 Fincher, op. cit. 49 49 49 49 49 49Wright, ed., loc. cit. 50 50 50 50 50 50John King Fairbank, The United States and China (Third Edition) (Cam(Third Edition) (Cam(Third Edition) (Cam(Third Edition) (Cam(Third Edition) (Cam(Third Edition) (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971), p. 132. University University University University University 1971), p. 1971), p. 1971), p. 1971), p. 1971), p. I92 THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL rivalry (only imperfectly rivalry (only imperfectly rivalry (only imperfectly rivalry (only imperfectly rivalry (only imperfectly rivalry (only imperfectly and temporarily overcome by Chiang Kaiby Chiang by Chiang by Chiang by Chiang by Chiang temporarily temporarily temporarily temporarily temporarily Shek's regime between 1927 and 1937)51 condemned China to incessant 1937)51 1937)51 1937)51 1937)51 1937)51 regime regime regime regime regime turmoils and provided openings (as well as cause) for lower-class, espelower-class, espelower-class, espelower-class, espelower-class, espelower-class, especause) cause) cause) cause) cause) provided openings (as provided openings (as provided openings (as provided openings (as provided openings (as rebellions and for Communist rebellions and for Communist rebellions and for Communist rebellions and for Communist rebellions and for Communist cially cially cially cially cially cially peasant, rebellions and for Communist attempts to organize and channel channel channel channel channel channel popular unrest. unrest. unrest. unrest. unrest. unrest. PEASANT INSURRECTIONS bububububuIf If If If If If in a in a in a in a in a administrative and military breakdown in a modernizing agrarian bumilitary military military military military rather rather rather rather rather reaucracy reaucracy reaucracy reaucracy reaucracy reaucracy were to inaugurate social revolutionary transformations, rather inaugurate social inaugurate social inaugurate social inaugurate social inaugurate social than than than than than than merely merely merely merely merely merely an interregnum of intra-elite squabbling, then widespread squabbling, then squabbling, then squabbling, then squabbling, then squabbling, then interregnum interregnum interregnum interregnum interregnum advantage of the hiatus of advantage of the hiatus of advantage of the hiatus of advantage of the hiatus of advantage of the hiatus of popular popular popular popular popular popular revolts had to coincide with and take advantage of the hiatus of provided provided provided provided provided governmental supervision governmental supervision governmental supervision governmental supervision governmental supervision governmental supervision and sanctions. Urban insurrections provided popopopopoindispensable support during revolutionary interregnums indispensable support during revolutionary interregnums indispensable support during revolutionary interregnums indispensable support during revolutionary interregnums indispensable support during revolutionary interregnums indispensable support during revolutionary interregnums to radical political elites vying against other elites for state power: witness the Parisian vying against vying against vying against vying against vying against power: power: power: power: power: sans culottes' support for the Jacobins;52 the Chinese workers' support support support support support support support support support support support for the Communists (between 1920 and 1927) ;53 and the Russian indus1927) 1927) 1927) 1927) 1927) (between (between (between (between (between trial workers' support for the Bolsheviks. But fundamentally more imfundamentally fundamentally fundamentally fundamentally fundamentally support support support support support portant portant portant portant portant portant in determining final outcomes were the peasant insurrections peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant determining determining determining determining determining which in France, Russia and China constituted irreversible attacks on France, Russia and China constituted France, Russia and China constituted France, Russia and China constituted France, Russia and China constituted France, Russia and China constituted the the the the the the powers and privileges of the traditional landed upper classes. and and and and and of the traditional landed of the traditional landed of the traditional landed of the traditional landed of the traditional landed historical historical historical historical historical has been the has been the has been the has been the has been the Agrarian bureaucracy has been the only historical variety of complex certain certain certain certain certain that has, that has, that has, that has, that has, with with with with with centralized centralized centralized centralized centralized society with differentiated, centralized government that has, in certain instances, incubated a lower-class stratum that was simultaneously strainstances, incubated a lower-class stratum that was simultaneously strainstances, incubated a lower-class stratum that was simultaneously strainstances, incubated a lower-class stratum that was simultaneously strainstances, incubated a lower-class stratum that was simultaneously strainstances, incubated a lower-class stratum that was simultaneously straof of of of of in the in the in the in the in the and and and and and (as (as (as (as (as tegic in the society's economy and polity (as surplus producer, payer of and and and and and rents and rents and rents and rents and rents and rents and taxes, and as provider of corvee and military manpower), and of corvee and of corvee and of corvee and of corvee and of corvee and and as and as and as and as and as to allow the 'will' and 'tactical to allow the 'will' and 'tactical to allow the 'will' and 'tactical to allow the 'will' and 'tactical to allow the 'will' and 'tactical autonomous autonomous autonomous autonomous autonomous yet organizationally autonomous enough to allow the 'will' and 'tactical for collective insurrection for collective insurrection for collective insurrection for collective insurrection for collective insurrection basic structural basic structural basic structural basic structural basic structural space' for collective insurrection against basic structural arrangements. such such such such such How have certain agrarian bureaucracies exemplified such special agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian 'ulti'ulti'ulti'ulti'ultihas has has has has propensity propensity propensity propensity propensity propensity to peasant rebellion? As Eric Wolf has pointed out, 'ultipeasant peasant peasant peasant peasant possible lies in possible lies in possible lies in possible lies in possible lies in mately, mately, mately, mately, mately, mately, the decisive factor in making a peasant rebellion possible lies in making peasant making peasant making peasant making peasant making peasant it. A it. A it. A it. A it. A the relation of the peasantry to the field of power which surrounds it. A power power power power power peasantry peasantry peasantry peasantry peasantry rebellion cannot start from a situation of complete impotence. . . .'54 complete impotence. complete impotence. complete impotence. complete impotence. complete impotence. If they are to act upon, rather than silently suffer, their omnipresent omnipresent omnipresent omnipresent omnipresent omnipresent silently silently silently silently silently they they they they they upon, upon, upon, upon, upon, mobility'. mobility'. mobility'. mobility'. mobility'. leverage' leverage' leverage' leverage' leverage' grievances, peasants grievances, peasants grievances, peasants grievances, peasants grievances, peasants grievances, peasants must have 'internal leverage' or 'tactical mobility'. position position position position position They They They They They They have this to varying degrees according to their position in the total varying degrees according varying degrees according varying degrees according varying degrees according varying degrees according peasants peasants peasants peasants peasants agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian social structure. Institutional patterns which relate peasants to 51 51 51 51 51 51Martin C. Wilbur, 'MilitarySeparatismand the Process of ReunificationUnder Wilbur, 'MilitarySeparatism Wilbur, 'MilitarySeparatism Wilbur, 'MilitarySeparatism Wilbur, 'MilitarySeparatism Wilbur, 'MilitarySeparatism the Nationalist Regime, 1922-1937', pp. 203-63 in Ping-ti Ho and Tang Tsou, eds., Tang Tsou, eds., Tang Tsou, eds., Tang Tsou, eds., Tang Tsou, eds., Tang Tsou, eds., Ping-ti Ping-ti Ping-ti Ping-ti Ping-ti Regime, 1922-1937', pp. Regime, 1922-1937', pp. Regime, 1922-1937', pp. Regime, 1922-1937', pp. Regime, 1922-1937', pp. China in Crisis, Volume I, Book I (Chicago; University of Chicago Press, 1968). Crisis, Volume I, Book (Chicago; University Chicago Press, 1968). Crisis, Volume I, Book (Chicago; University Chicago Press, 1968). Crisis, Volume I, Book (Chicago; University Chicago Press, 1968). Crisis, Volume I, Book (Chicago; University Chicago Press, 1968). Crisis, Volume I, Book (Chicago; University Chicago Press, 1968). published in French in 1968); and George Rude, The published in French in 1968); and George Rude, The published in French in 1968); and George Rude, The published in French in 1968); and George Rude, The published in French in 1968); and George Rude, The published in French in 1968); and George Rude, The Crowd in the French Revolution (London: Oxford University Press, 1959). tion (London: Oxford University Press, 1959). tion (London: Oxford University Press, 1959). tion (London: Oxford University Press, 1959). tion (London: Oxford University Press, 1959). tion (London: Oxford University Press, 1959). ford ford ford ford ford ford University Press, 1968). Press, Press, Press, Press, Press, 53 Jean Chesneaux, The Chinese Labor Movement, 1919-1927 Jean Chesneaux, The Chinese Jean Chesneaux, The Chinese Jean Chesneaux, The Chinese Jean Chesneaux, The Chinese Jean Chesneaux, The Chinese Movement, Movement, Movement, Movement, Movement, (Stanford: (Stanford: (Stanford: (Stanford: (Stanford: (Stanford: Stan54 Eric R. Wolf, Peasant Wars of the Twentieth Century (New York: Harper York: York: York: York: York: Eric R. Eric R. Eric R. Eric R. Eric R. the Twentieth the Twentieth the Twentieth the Twentieth the Twentieth Peasant Wars Peasant Wars Peasant Wars Peasant Wars Peasant Wars 52 Albert Soboul, The Sans Culottes (New York: Anchor Books, 1972; originally Culottes (New York: Culottes (New York: Culottes (New York: Culottes (New York: Culottes (New York: Books, 1972; originally Books, 1972; originally Books, 1972; originally Books, 1972; originally Books, 1972; originally Soboul, Soboul, Soboul, Soboul, Soboul, and and and and and and Row, 1969), p. 290. 290. 290. 290. 290. 290. A STRUCTURAL OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 193 193 193 193 193 193 ANALYSIS landlords and peasants to each other seem to be the co-determinants of peasants peasants peasants peasants peasants by by by by by degrees peasant degrees peasant degrees peasant degrees peasant degrees peasant degrees of peasant 'tactical mobility'. Sheer amounts of property held by mobility'. mobility'. mobility'. mobility'. mobility'. property property property property property peasants peasants peasants peasants peasants peasants gain significance only peasants gain significance only peasants gain significance only peasants gain significance only peasants gain significance only peasants gain significance only within institutional contexts. If peasants are to be capable of self-initiated rebellion against landlords and state capable capable capable capable capable against against against against against officials, they officials, they officials, they officials, they officials, they officials, they must have (a) some institutionally based collective solidar(a) (a) (a) (a) (a) institutionally institutionally institutionally institutionally institutionally direct, day-to-day supervision direct, day-to-day supervision direct, day-to-day supervision direct, day-to-day supervision direct, day-to-day supervision (b) autonomy (b) autonomy (b) autonomy (b) autonomy (b) autonomy ity, ity, ity, ity, ity, ity, and (b) autonomy from direct, day-to-day supervision and control by by by by by by landlords in their work and leisure activities. Agricultural regimes feaAgricultural regimes Agricultural regimes Agricultural regimes Agricultural regimes Agricultural regimes to_be to_be to_be to_be to_be turing large turing large turing large turing large turing large turing large estates worked by serfs or laborers tend to_be inimical to by by by by by peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant rebellion-witness the East Elbian Junker regime55-but the rearegime55-but regime55-but regime55-but regime55-but regime55-but son is not that serfs and landless laborers are economically poor, rather and landless laborers are and landless laborers are and landless laborers are and landless laborers are and landless laborers are that they are subject to close and constant supervision and discipline by to close and constant to close and constant to close and constant to close and constant to close and constant and and and and and they they they they they by by by by by landlords or their agents. If large-estate agriculture is lacking, an agrarian or their or their or their or their or their If If If If If is is is is is an an an an an still be still be still be still be still be rebelrebelrebelrebelrebelimmune to immune to immune to immune to immune to bureaucracy may still be relatively immune to widespread peasant rebellion if landlords control lion if landlords control lion if landlords control lion if landlords control lion if landlords control lion if landlords control sanctioning machineries,56such as militias and such as militias and such as militias and such as militias and such as militias and such as militias and relief relief relief relief relief at local levels. On the other at local levels. On the other at local levels. On the other at local levels. On the other at local levels. On the other landlords as a landlords as a landlords as a landlords as a landlords as a poor relief agencies, at local levels. On the other hand, landlords as a and the and the and the and the and the as as as as as will be will be will be will be will be vulnerable to vulnerable to vulnerable to vulnerable to vulnerable to class, and the 'system' as whole, will be relatively vulnerable to peasant rebellion if: rebellion if: rebellion if: rebellion if: rebellion if: rebellion if: (a) sanctioning machineries are centralized; (b) agricultural machineries are machineries are machineries are machineries are machineries are work and work and work and work and work and work and peasant social life are controlled by peasant families and comsocial life are controlled social life are controlled social life are controlled social life are controlled social life are controlled peasant families and compeasant families and compeasant families and compeasant families and compeasant families and communities themselves. These conditions prevailed in munities themselves. These conditions prevailed in munities themselves. These conditions prevailed in munities themselves. These conditions prevailed in munities themselves. These conditions prevailed in munities themselves. These conditions prevailed in France and Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia and meant and meant and meant and meant and meant and meant with the with the with the with the with the that, with the incapacitation of central administrative and incapacitation incapacitation incapacitation incapacitation incapacitation these these these these these military bureaucracies, these societies became susceptible to the spread spread spread spread spread spread susceptible susceptible susceptible susceptible susceptible and and and and and and of of of of of intensification of peasant revolts which in more normal circumpeasant peasant peasant peasant peasant stances stances stances stances stances stances could have been contained and repressed. repressed. repressed. repressed. repressed. repressed. It is worth emphasizing that peasant actions in revolutions are not emphasizing emphasizing emphasizing emphasizing emphasizing peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant intrinsically intrinsically intrinsically intrinsically intrinsically intrinsically different from peasant actions in 'mere' rebellions or riots. peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant When peasants 'rose' during historical social revolutionary crises, they peasants peasants peasants peasants peasants during during during during during revolutionary crises, they revolutionary crises, they revolutionary crises, they revolutionary crises, they revolutionary crises, they did so in highly traditional rebellious patterns: bread riots, 'defense' of riots, riots, riots, riots, riots, highly highly highly highly highly patterns: patterns: patterns: patterns: patterns: communal lands or customary rights, riots against 'hoarding' merchants customary rights, customary rights, customary rights, customary rights, customary rights, against 'hoarding' against 'hoarding' against 'hoarding' against 'hoarding' against 'hoarding' or landlords, 'social banditry'. Peasants initially drew upon traditional landlords, landlords, landlords, landlords, landlords, banditry'. banditry'. banditry'. banditry'. banditry'. initially initially initially initially initially upon upon upon upon upon cultural themes to justify rebellion. Far from becoming revolutionaries themes to themes to themes to themes to themes to rebellion. Far from rebellion. Far from rebellion. Far from rebellion. Far from rebellion. Far from revolutionaries revolutionaries revolutionaries revolutionaries revolutionaries of a radical vision of a desired new of a radical vision of a desired new of a radical vision of a desired new of a radical vision of a desired new of a radical vision of a desired new 'revolu'revolu'revolu'revolu'revoluthrough through through through through through adoption of a radical vision of a desired new society, 'revoluhave have have have have been been been been been rebels rebels rebels rebels rebels tionary' peasants have typically been 'backward-looking' rebels incorporated rated rated rated rated rated by circumstances beyond their control into political processes occircumstances circumstances circumstances circumstances circumstances their control into their control into their control into their control into their control into ocococococof them, at the societal 'center'.57 of them, at the societal 'center'.57 of them, at the societal 'center'.57 of them, at the societal 'center'.57 of them, at the societal 'center'.57 curring independently of them, at the societal 'center'.57 55 In 1848 the East Elbian region of 'Germany'escaped general peasant insurrecIn 1848 the East Elbian In 1848 the East Elbian In 1848 the East Elbian In 1848 the East Elbian In 1848 the East Elbian of of of of of insurrecinsurrecinsurrecinsurrecinsurrecand the Prussian armies and the Prussian armies and the Prussian armies and the Prussian armies and the Prussian armies the the the the the tion, and the Prussian armies that crushed the German Revolutions of 1848 were recruited from the East recruited from the East recruited from the East recruited from the East recruited from the East recruited from the East Elbian estates, officers and rank-and-filealike. See: Theo- 1840 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1963). 56 56 56 56 56 56 'Sanctioning machineries' are organizations organizations organizations organizations organizations organizations which control forceful or remunerative sanctions. 'Social control' also involves normative pressures, but to be pressures, pressures, pressures, pressures, pressures, truly binding,especially truly binding,especially truly binding,especially truly binding,especially truly binding,especially truly binding,especially in hierarchicalsituations,these must typically be 'backedup' situations, situations, situations, situations, situations, typically typically typically typically typically up' up' up' up' up' by application by application by application by application by application by application or credible threat of application of force or manipulationof needed application application application application application manipulation manipulation manipulation manipulation manipulation remuneration. 57 See Wolf, op. cit., 'Conclusion';and Moore, op. cit., Wolf, op. cit., 'Conclusion'; Wolf, op. cit., 'Conclusion'; Wolf, op. cit., 'Conclusion'; Wolf, op. cit., 'Conclusion'; Wolf, op. cit., 'Conclusion'; Moore, op. cit., Chap. 9 and 'Epilogue'. Moore, op. cit., Chap. 9 and 'Epilogue'. Moore, op. cit., Chap. 9 and 'Epilogue'. Moore, op. cit., Chap. 9 and 'Epilogue'. Moore, op. cit., Chap. 9 and 'Epilogue'. Chap. 9 and 'Epilogue'. dore dore dore dore dore dore Hamerow, Restoration, Revolution, Recreation (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1958); and Hajo Holborn, A History of Modern Germany, 1648- I94 THEDA SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL In the highly abnormal circumstances of social revolution, administrarevolution, revolution, revolution, revolution, revolution, highly highly highly highly highly tive breakdown, political rebellions of marginal elites, and peasant insurbreakdown, political breakdown, political breakdown, political breakdown, political breakdown, political marginal elites, marginal elites, marginal elites, marginal elites, marginal elites, peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant rections interacted to produce transformations that none alone could have produce produce produce produce produce occasioned or accomplished. Because peasants could rebel on their own accomplished. accomplished. accomplished. accomplished. accomplished. peasants peasants peasants peasants peasants in France and Russia, they did not have to be directly mobilized by urban Russia, they Russia, they Russia, they Russia, they Russia, they directly mobilized by directly mobilized by directly mobilized by directly mobilized by directly mobilized by radicals. In China, such mobilization was ultimately necessary, but it was China, China, China, China, China, ultimately necessary, ultimately necessary, ultimately necessary, ultimately necessary, ultimately necessary, for the most part a military mobilization which conformed with important part military part military part military part military part military important important important important important modifications to an age-old pattern of elite/peasant coordination of effort coordination effort coordination effort coordination effort coordination effort coordination effort to accomplish 'dynastic replacement'. As we shall see, China is the excepAs we shall see, China is the As we shall see, China is the As we shall see, China is the As we shall see, China is the As we shall see, China is the tion that tion that tion that tion that tion that tion that proves the rule about peasant insurrectionary autonomy and the rule about the rule about the rule about the rule about the rule about and and and and and social revolution. social revolution. social revolution. social revolution. social revolution. social revolution. in that in that in that in that in that in in in in in At the end of the Old At the end of the Old At the end of the Old At the end of the Old At the end of the Old At the end of the Old Regime, 'France was unique in Europe in that 'France was 'France was 'France was 'France was 'France was a a a a a deal deal deal deal deal co-existed with a free co-existed with a free co-existed with a free co-existed with a free co-existed with a free seigneurial privilege co-existed with a free peasantry owning a good deal of land'58 and of land'58 and of land'58 and of land'58 and of land'58 and of land'58 and largely controlling the process of agrarian production. the the the the the of of of of of across across across across across owned about one-third of the owned about one-third of the owned about one-third of the owned about one-third of the owned about one-third of the Averaging across regions, peasants owned about one-third of the land,59 culticulticulticulticultito to to to to and and and and and and and and and and subject to tithes, taxes, and seigneurial dues, and peasants probably cultifor for for for for vated most of the remainder as renters or vated most of the remainder as renters or vated most of the remainder as renters or vated most of the remainder as renters or vated most of the remainder as renters or vated most of the remainder as renters or sharecroppers (metayers), for their own their own their own their own their own landowners landowners landowners landowners landowners The deThe deThe deThe deThe delarge landowners rarely directly exploited their own holdings.60 The deof of of of of and national markets for grain and national markets for grain and national markets for grain and national markets for grain and national markets for grain other other other other other velopment of regional and national markets for grain and other agricultural products, a process directly and indirectly encouraged by governindirectly encouraged by governindirectly encouraged by governindirectly encouraged by governindirectly encouraged by governindirectly encouraged by governproducts, process directly products, process directly products, process directly products, process directly products, process directly ment activities,61 spurred class differentiation within the ranks of the activities,61 spurred activities,61 spurred activities,61 spurred activities,61 spurred activities,61 spurred peasants) peasants) peasants) peasants) peasants) intra-village intra-village intra-village intra-village intra-village peasantry peasantry peasantry peasantry peasantry peasantry and fueled intra-village tensions. Laboureurs (rich peasants) with sufficientland and equipment could profit from rising prices for grain rising prices rising prices rising prices rising prices rising prices grain grain grain grain grain profit profit profit profit profit equipment equipment equipment equipment equipment and land, but swelling masses of smallholders with insufficient land to land, land, land, land, land, swelling swelling swelling swelling swelling by by by by by prices prices prices prices prices hard-pressed by rising hard-pressed by rising hard-pressed by rising hard-pressed by rising hard-pressed by rising support support support support support support families were hard-pressed by rising rents and by bread prices that outstripped wage rates for agricultural or industrial labor.62 Neveragricultural agricultural agricultural agricultural agricultural outstripped wage outstripped wage outstripped wage outstripped wage outstripped wage taxes, tithes, taxes, tithes, taxes, tithes, taxes, tithes, taxes, tithes, theless, virtually theless, virtually theless, virtually theless, virtually theless, virtually theless, virtually all peasants shared resentment of taxes, tithes, and peasants peasants peasants peasants peasants community community community community community propensities propensities propensities propensities propensities seigneurial dues, seigneurial dues, seigneurial dues, seigneurial dues, seigneurial dues, seigneurial dues, and community institutions reinforced propensities and together against together against together against together against together against capacities capacities capacities capacities capacities capacities to act together against common enemies. 58Norman Hampson, A Social History of the French Revolution (Toronto: Uni(Toronto: (Toronto: (Toronto: (Toronto: (Toronto: History of History of History of History of History of Hampson, Hampson, Hampson, Hampson, Hampson, versity of Toronto Press, 1963), p. 23. versity of Toronto Press, 1963), p. 23. versity of Toronto Press, 1963), p. 23. versity of Toronto Press, 1963), p. 23. versity of Toronto Press, 1963), p. 23. versity of Toronto Press, 1963), p. 23. 59Ernest Labrousse, 'The Evolution of Peasant in France from.the Eighin France from.the Eighin France from.the Eighin France from.the Eighin France from.the EighErnest Labrousse, 'The Evolution of Peasant Ernest Labrousse, 'The Evolution of Peasant Ernest Labrousse, 'The Evolution of Peasant Ernest Labrousse, 'The Evolution of Peasant Ernest Labrousse, 'The Evolution of Peasant Society in France from.the Eigh43-64 in E. M. Acomb and M. L. 43-64 in E. M. Acomb and M. L. 43-64 in E. M. Acomb and M. L. 43-64 in E. M. Acomb and M. L. 43-64 in E. M. Acomb and M. L. to the to the to the to the to the teenth teenth teenth teenth teenth teenth Century to the Present', pp. 43-64 in E. M. Acomb and M. L. Brown, Jr., and Culture Since the Old and Culture Since the Old and Culture Since the Old and Culture Since the Old and Culture Since the Old York: Holt, Reinhart York: Holt, Reinhart York: Holt, Reinhart York: Holt, Reinhart York: Holt, Reinhart French French French French French eds., French Society and Culture Since the Old Regime (New York: Holt, Reinhart de la Propriete et de l'Exde la Propriete et de l'Exde la Propriete et de l'Exde la Propriete et de l'Exde la Propriete et de l'Exand and and and and and Winston, 1966); Georges Lefebvre, 'Repartition de la Propriete et de l'Ex279-306 in 279-306 in 279-306 in 279-306 in 279-306 in Foncieres a la Fin de l'Ancien Foncieres a la Fin de l'Ancien Foncieres a la Fin de l'Ancien Foncieres a la Fin de l'Ancien Foncieres a la Fin de l'Ancien ploitation Foncieres a la Fin de l'Ancien Regime', pp. 279-306 in Georges Lefebvre, Studes sur la Revolution Studes sur la Revolution Studes sur la Revolution Studes sur la Revolution Studes sur la Revolution Studes sur la Revolution Francaise (Paris: Presses Universitairesde France, 1963); de de de de de Veille Veille Veille Veille Veille et et et et et Albert Soboul, La France a la Veille de la Revolution: Aspects Economiques et Sociaux (Paris: Centre de DocumentationUniversitaire,La Sorbonne, 1960), Chap. 6; and Hampson, op. cit., p. 23. 6oAlun Davies, The Origins of the French Peasant Revolution of 1789', History 49(165) (February, 1964), 25; and Henri See, Economic and Social Conditions in France During the Eighteenth Century (New York: F. S. Crofts, 1931), pp. 3-4. Crofts, Crofts, Crofts, Crofts, Crofts, pp. pp. pp. pp. pp. 61 61 61 61 61 61 Louise Tilly, 'The Food Riot as a Form of Political Conflict in France', The France', France', France', France', France', Journal of InterdisciplinaryHistory 11(1) (Summer, 1971): 23-57. of InterdisciplinaryHistory 11(1) (Summer, 1971): of InterdisciplinaryHistory 11(1) (Summer, 1971): of InterdisciplinaryHistory 11(1) (Summer, 1971): of InterdisciplinaryHistory 11(1) (Summer, 1971): of InterdisciplinaryHistory 11(1) (Summer, 1971): 62 Davies, op. 62 Davies, op. 62 Davies, op. 62 Davies, op. 62 Davies, op. 62 Davies, op. cit.; Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution, Volume I (New Georges Lefebvre, Georges Lefebvre, Georges Lefebvre, Georges Lefebvre, Georges Lefebvre, Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, (New (New (New (New (New York: Columbia University Press, 1962), pp. 47-49; and Albert Soboul, 'Classes University Press, 1962), pp. 47-49; University Press, 1962), pp. 47-49; University Press, 1962), pp. 47-49; University Press, 1962), pp. 47-49; University Press, 1962), pp. 47-49; Soboul, Soboul, Soboul, Soboul, Soboul, and Class Struggles During the French Revolution', Science and Society 17(5) Revolution', Revolution', Revolution', Revolution', Revolution', Struggles During Struggles During Struggles During Struggles During Struggles During Society 17(5) Society 17(5) Society 17(5) Society 17(5) Society 17(5) (Summer, 1953), (Summer, 1953), (Summer, 1953), (Summer, 1953), (Summer, 1953), (Summer, 1953), 243-4. A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS I95 ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS One One One One One One important effect of the traditional agricultural system was to foster a strong effect of the traditional effect of the traditional effect of the traditional effect of the traditional effect of the traditional was to foster a was to foster a was to foster a was to foster a was to foster a community-feeling community-feeling community-feeling community-feeling community-feeling community-feelingin the village. The managementof the open fields required univillage. village. village. village. village. management management management management management open open open open open required required required required required of cultivation and the commons were administered the of cultivation and the commons were administered the of cultivation and the commons were administered the of cultivation and the commons were administered the of cultivation and the commons were administered the as a whole as a whole as a whole as a whole as a whole formity of cultivation and the commons were administeredby the village as a whole ... and the allocation of taxes was a matter of common concern. The village shared village village village village village which it which it which it which it which it have to have to have to have to have to rights which it might have to defend in the courts.... In a system both traditional and partly communal there was little scope for individualism, and peasants, while partly partly partly partly partly scope for individualism, and peasants, while scope for individualism, and peasants, while scope for individualism, and peasants, while scope for individualism, and peasants, while scope for individualism, and peasants, while the the the the the recognizing the private ownership of land, were inclined to regard the harvest as the property of the community.63 property property property property property community.63 community.63 community.63 community.63 community.63 landlords in France exercised landlords in France exercised landlords in France exercised landlords in France exercised landlords in France exercised local governing functions. local governing functions. local governing functions. local governing functions. local governing functions. Big landlords in France exercised few local governing functions. Parish and rich peasants might and rich peasants might and rich peasants might and rich peasants might and rich peasants might in in in in in priests and rich peasants might exercise preponderant influence in village preponderant preponderant preponderant preponderant preponderant assemblies and on assemblies and on assemblies and on assemblies and on assemblies and on assemblies and on the local governing councils established in 1787, but governing governing governing governing governing in in in in in in general peasant communities looked after their own affairs.64Seigneurs peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant Seigneurs Seigneurs Seigneurs Seigneurs Seigneurs or or or or or or their agents still exercised prerogatives of 'feudal' justice on their agents agents agents agents agents justice justice justice justice justice prerogatives prerogatives prerogatives prerogatives prerogatives estates, but military forces to back up judicial decisions, and, in general, military military military military military up judicial decisions, and, general, up judicial decisions, and, general, up judicial decisions, and, general, up judicial decisions, and, general, up judicial decisions, and, general, to enforce order were controlled by the Intendants, administrative agents Intendants, Intendants, Intendants, Intendants, Intendants, by by by by by agents agents agents agents agents of the central government.65 government.65 government.65 government.65 government.65 government.65 Peasant participation in the Revolutionary drama began in the spring participation participation participation participation participation Revolutionary Revolutionary Revolutionary Revolutionary Revolutionary began began began began began spring spring spring spring spring of 1789 with bread riots, a long-established form of popular response to riots, long-established riots, long-established riots, long-established riots, long-established riots, long-established popular response popular response popular response popular response popular response conditions of grain scarcity and high bread prices.66The winter of 1788 grain scarcity grain scarcity grain scarcity grain scarcity grain scarcity high high high high high prices.66 prices.66 prices.66 prices.66 prices.66 had been unusually severe, and an industrial depression had been underunusually severe, unusually severe, unusually severe, unusually severe, unusually severe, depression depression depression depression depression been been been been been way way way way way way since 1786.67 'Irrespective of political events, there would have been 'Irrespective political events, 'Irrespective political events, 'Irrespective political events, 'Irrespective political events, 'Irrespective political events, summer of 1789'.68 summer of 1789'.68 summer of 1789'.68 summer of 1789'.68 summer of 1789'.68 widespread rioting widespread rioting widespread rioting widespread rioting widespread rioting widespread rioting and disorder in France during the summer of 1789'.68 during during during during during But then, '... under the impact of economic crisis and political events, economic crisis and economic crisis and economic crisis and economic crisis and economic crisis and then, then, then, then, then, events, events, events, events, events, impact impact impact impact impact the peasant movement developed from early protests against prices, from from from from from peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant and and and and and enclosure, enclosure, enclosure, enclosure, enclosure, through through through through through through attacks on enclosure, gaming [sic] rights, and royal forests, to a [sic] [sic] [sic] [sic] [sic] forests, to a forests, to a forests, to a forests, to a forests, to a frontal assault on the feudal land system itself'.69 assault on the feudal land assault on the feudal land assault on the feudal land assault on the feudal land assault on the feudal land itself'.69 itself'.69 itself'.69 itself'.69 itself'.69 Not that Third Estate Not that Third Estate Not that Third Estate Not that Third Estate Not that Third Estate Not that Third Estate spokesmen deliberately sought to stir up or to stir to stir to stir to stir to stir or or or or or mobilize the mobilize the mobilize the mobilize the mobilize the mobilize the peasantry: leaders of the Third Estate were as anxious to leaders of the Third Estate were as anxious to leaders of the Third Estate were as anxious to leaders of the Third Estate were as anxious to leaders of the Third Estate were as anxious to leaders of the Third Estate were as anxious to as were as were as were as were as were indeed indeed indeed indeed indeed owned or administered owned or administered owned or administered owned or administered owned or administered protect property as were nobles; indeed many owned or administered the the the the the events events events events events to the to the to the to the to the seigneurial rights.70Rather, the political events leading up to the calling and and and and and and convening of the Estates General, and then to the fall of the Bastille of the Estates of the Estates of the Estates of the Estates of the Estates and then to the fall of the Bastille and then to the fall of the Bastille and then to the fall of the Bastille and then to the fall of the Bastille and then to the fall of the Bastille and the assertion of national and the assertion of national and the assertion of national and the assertion of national and the assertion of national and the assertion of national sovereignty by the Assembly, accelerated the the the the the accelerated accelerated accelerated accelerated accelerated and and and and and and the the the the the rebellion in indirect rebellion in indirect rebellion in indirect rebellion in indirect rebellion in indirect The The The The The of the of the of the of the of the focused the peasant rebellion in indirect ways. The convening of the Estates Estates Estates Estates Estates Estates as it did the as it did the as it did the as it did the as it did the of of of of of General, involving as it did the process of drawing up the cahiers, up the up the up the up the up the all Frenchmen to ruminate all Frenchmen to ruminate all Frenchmen to ruminate all Frenchmen to ruminate all Frenchmen to ruminate their social and political their social and political their social and political their social and political their social and political encouraged all Frenchmen to ruminate upon their social and political 63 Hampson, op. cit., p. 24; also see Albert Soboul, 'The French Rural Commualso see Albert also see Albert also see Albert also see Albert also see Albert 'The French Rural Commu'The French Rural Commu'The French Rural Commu'The French Rural Commu'The French Rural Commucit., cit., cit., cit., cit., in the in the in the in the in the and Nineteenth and Nineteenth and Nineteenth and Nineteenth and Nineteenth Past and Past and Past and Past and Past and Number 10 Number 10 Number 10 Number 10 Number 10 nity in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries', Past and Present, Number 10 78-95. 78-95. 78-95. 78-95. 78-95. (November, 1956), 78-95. 64 'French Rural 'French Rural 'French Rural 'French Rural 'French Rural .. ,' 80-81. .. ,' 80-81. .. ,' 80-81. .. ,' 80-81. .. ,' 80-81. Soboul, 'French Rural Community .. ,' 80-81. 65 J. S. Bromley, 'The Decline of Absolute Monarchy', in J. M. Wallace-Hadrill J. S. J. S. J. S. J. S. J. S. 'The Decline of Absolute 'The Decline of Absolute 'The Decline of Absolute 'The Decline of Absolute 'The Decline of Absolute in M. in M. in M. in M. in M. and J. and J. and J. and J. and J. and J. France: France: France: France: France: McManners, eds., France: Government and Society (London: Methuen, 1957). 66 Tilly, op. cit. cit. cit. cit. cit. cit. 67 Lefebvre, op. cit., Chap. 8. 68 Hampson, op. cit., p. 69. 69 69 69 69 69 69 George Rude, The Crowd in History (New York: Wiley, 1964), p. Wiley, 1964), p. Wiley, 1964), p. Wiley, 1964), p. Wiley, 1964), p. Wiley, 1964), p. 103. 70 70 70 70 70 70 Alfred Cobban, The Social Interpretation ... , Chap. 5. , Chap. , Chap. , Chap. , Chap. , Chap. I96 THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL and raised and raised and raised and raised and raised would be would be would be would be would be that that that that that upon. upon. upon. upon. upon. grievances and raised widespread hopes that they would be acted upon. Third Estate Third Estate Third Estate Third Estate Third Estate The The The The The The spread of anti-aristocratic rhetoric by Third Estate spokesmen enof anti-aristocratic rhetoric of anti-aristocratic rhetoric of anti-aristocratic rhetoric of anti-aristocratic rhetoric of anti-aristocratic rhetoric 'aris'aris'aris'aris'aristo to to to to their own difficulties in terms their own difficulties in terms their own difficulties in terms their own difficulties in terms their own difficulties in terms couraged peasants to symbolize their own difficulties in terms of an 'arisCrown and Crown and Crown and Crown and Crown and tocratic tocratic tocratic tocratic tocratic tocratic plot'.71And, finally, divisions within the elite, pitting Crown and divisions within the elite, divisions within the elite, divisions within the elite, divisions within the elite, divisions within the elite, And, And, And, And, And, the the the the the central administration central administration central administration central administration central administration central administration against the privileged, and the Third against the the the the the the and the Third and the Third and the Third and the Third and the Third Second Second Second Second Second Second Estate, served to disorganize the army.72 At first, officers were At At At At At officers were officers were officers were officers were officers were served to served to served to served to served to the the the the the reluctant to reluctant to reluctant to reluctant to reluctant to reluctant to repress popular demonstrations; later lines of command were later lines of command were later lines of command were later lines of command were later lines of command were later lines of command were and as the and as the and as the and as the and as the as rank-and-file soldiers became as rank-and-file soldiers became as rank-and-file soldiers became as rank-and-file soldiers became as rank-and-file soldiers became entirely muddled, as rank-and-file soldiers became politicized, and as the and naand naand naand naand narevolution' caused intendants to abandon their revolution' caused intendants to abandon their revolution' caused intendants to abandon their revolution' caused intendants to abandon their revolution' caused intendants to abandon their 'municipal revolution' caused intendants to abandon their posts and naof of of of of tional guards to claim sole jurisdiction in matters of maintaining popular guards guards guards guards guards popular popular popular popular popular jurisdiction jurisdiction jurisdiction jurisdiction jurisdiction order. 'Within the space of a few weeks the royal government lost control royal government royal government royal government royal government royal government space space space space space over the provinces, for in matters of importance the towns henceforth provinces, provinces, provinces, provinces, provinces, importance importance importance importance importance took their orders only from the Assembly'.73 The Assembly, in turn, Assembly, Assembly, Assembly, Assembly, Assembly, only only only only only Assembly'.73 Assembly'.73 Assembly'.73 Assembly'.73 Assembly'.73 could not encourage systematic repression of peasant revolts by the urban encourage systematic repression peasant encourage systematic repression peasant encourage systematic repression peasant encourage systematic repression peasant encourage systematic repression peasant by by by by by national guards without playing into the hands of the Crown and the conguards guards guards guards guards playing playing playing playing playing servative nobles and hence jeopardizing all that had been gained in July, gained July, gained July, gained July, gained July, gained July, jeopardizing jeopardizing jeopardizing jeopardizing jeopardizing 1789.74 Thus, the peasantry, during the spring and summer of 1789 (and, (and, (and, (and, (and, (and, Thus, Thus, Thus, Thus, Thus, peasantry, during peasantry, during peasantry, during peasantry, during peasantry, during spring spring spring spring spring in fact, thereafter for several years) was left largely free to push rebellion fact, fact, fact, fact, fact, years) years) years) years) years) largely largely largely largely largely push push push push push in rural areas beyond the largely ritualized form of the bread riot and beyond beyond beyond beyond beyond largely largely largely largely largely was encouraged by what it perceived of urban upheavals to focus its encouraged by what encouraged by what encouraged by what encouraged by what encouraged by what attack upon one of its traditional enemies in particular: the seigneur. one of its traditional enemies in one of its traditional enemies in one of its traditional enemies in one of its traditional enemies in one of its traditional enemies in the the the the the The real enemy of the majority of the peasants was the large landowner, noble, was threatening was threatening was threatening was threatening was threatening whose whose whose whose whose bourgeois or laboureur bourgeois or laboureur bourgeois or laboureur bourgeois or laboureur bourgeois or laboureur bourgeois or laboureur (yeoman farmer), whose acquisitiveness was threatening them with expropriation. But the main landowner in the village was often the expropriation. expropriation. expropriation. expropriation. expropriation. dues. It was dues. It was dues. It was dues. It was dues. It was who was also responsible for the . . . burden of who was also responsible for the . . . burden of who was also responsible for the . . . burden of who was also responsible for the . . . burden of who was also responsible for the . . . burden of seigneur, who was also responsible for the . . . burden of seigneurial dues. It was not difficultto lay most economic grievances at the seigneur'sdoor. Royal taxation seigneur's seigneur's seigneur's seigneur's seigneur's lay lay lay lay lay grievances grievances grievances grievances grievances in in in in in The The The The The woud have been woud have been woud have been woud have been woud have been woud have been lighter if the nobility had paid its full share .... The tithe, in very if the if the if the if the if the its full share its full share its full share its full share its full share had had had had had cur?e, cur?e, cur?e, cur?e, cur?e, many cases, many cases, many cases, many cases, many cases, many cases, went not to the local cur?e,but to maintain the aristocraticabbot of an contributors contributors contributors contributors contributors almost almost almost almost almost almost empty monasteryin luxury at Versailles, while the impoverishedcontributors while the while the while the while the while the in in in in in at at at at at had to make supplementarygrants to maintain the village church. The countryman countryman countryman countryman countryman countryman supplementarygrants supplementarygrants supplementarygrants supplementarygrants supplementarygrants village village village village village seemed to seemed to seemed to seemed to seemed to of frustration of which of frustration of which of frustration of which of frustration of which of frustration of which thus thus thus thus thus thus found himself locked in a circle of frustration of which privilege seemed to hold the key to every door. Consequently, the village was able, for a time, to subtime, time, time, time, time, able, able, able, able, able, village village village village village Consequently, Consequently, Consequently, Consequently, Consequently, key every key every key every key every key every of the nobilof the nobilof the nobilof the nobilof the nobilmerge its internal divisions in a common assault on the privileges of the nobilmade not for their seigneur'svaluables but for their made not for their seigneur'svaluables but for their made not for their seigneur'svaluables but for their made not for their seigneur'svaluables but for their made not for their seigneur'svaluables but for their ity. ... [T]he ity. ... [T]he ity. ... [T]he ity. ... [T]he ity. ... [T]he ity. ... [T]he insurgentpeasants made not for their seigneur'svaluables but for their feudal title-deeds.75 The The The The The The 'choice' of enemy was encouraged by the fact that urban forces had of enemy of enemy of enemy of enemy of enemy encouraged by the fact that urban forces had encouraged by the fact that urban forces had encouraged by the fact that urban forces had encouraged by the fact that urban forces had encouraged by the fact that urban forces had in the agragrian strucin the agragrian strucin the agragrian strucin the agragrian strucin the agragrian strucalso singled him out, but mainly it was inherent in the agragrian strucmainly mainly mainly mainly mainly singled singled singled singled singled . . . . . to maintain the coto maintain the coto maintain the coto maintain the coto maintain the coture of the Old Regime. That structure '. . . tended to maintain the coRegime. Regime. Regime. Regime. Regime. hesion of the rural community in opposition to the landed nobility'76 community community community community community opposition to the landed opposition to the landed opposition to the landed opposition to the landed opposition to the landed 71 71 71 71 71 71 loc. cit. loc. cit. loc. cit. loc. cit. loc. cit. Lefebvre, loc. cit. 72 8. 8. 8. 8. 8. Chorley, op. cit., Chap. 8. 73 Hampson, op. cit., p. 78. 78. 78. 78. 78. 78. 74 129. 129. 129. 129. 129. Lefebvre, op. cit., p. 129. 75 Hampson, op. cit., p. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 76 Soboul, 'French Rural Community .. .', p. 85 85 85 85 85 85 .. .. .. .. .. 'French Rural 'French Rural 'French Rural 'French Rural 'French Rural A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 197 t (and (and (and (and (and r r r r r r seigneurial ights) seigneurial ights) seigneurial ights) seigneurial ights) seigneurial ights) yet rendered yet rendered yet rendered yet rendered yet rendered yet rendered he landednoble (and otherownersof seigneurial ights)dec m machineries machineries machineries machineries machineries pendentupon sanctioning achineries ontrolledfrom the center.When the fate seigneurial the fate seigneurial the fate seigneurial the fate seigneurial the fate seigneurial those machineriesceased to function those machineriesceased to function those machineriesceased to function those machineriesceased to function those machineriesceased to function those machineriesceased to function effectively,the fate of seigneurial was sealed. was sealed. was sealed. was sealed. was sealed. propertywas sealed. o of the serfs in of the serfs in of the serfs in of the serfs in of the serfs in Historians Historians Historians Historians Historians Historiansagree that the RussianEmancipation f the serfs in 1861, that the Russian that the Russian that the Russian that the Russian that the Russian intended intended intended intended intended intended by the Czar as a measureto stabilizethe agrarian by the Czar as a measureto stabilizethe agrarian by the Czar as a measureto stabilizethe agrarian by the Czar as a measureto stabilizethe agrarian by the Czar as a measureto stabilizethe agrarian by the Czar as a measureto stabilizethe agrariansituation, the the the the the actuallyenhancedthe rebelliouspotentialof the ex-serfs.Heavy redemppotentialof the ex-serfs.Heavy potentialof the ex-serfs.Heavy potentialof the ex-serfs.Heavy potentialof the ex-serfs.Heavy potentialof the ex-serfs.Heavy tion tion tion tion tion tion payments payments payments payments payments paymentsand inadequateland allotmentsfuelled peasant disconpeasant disconpeasant disconpeasant disconpeasant disconpeasant disconinadequate inadequate inadequate inadequate inadequate tent. More important,legal reinforcement f the obshchina's(peasant o (peasant (peasant (peasant (peasant (peasant important,legal important,legal important,legal important,legal important,legal commune's) authority over families and individualsfettered ever-inauthority authority authority authority authority l l l l l l creasing creasing creasing creasing creasing creasingnumbersof peasantsto the inadequate ands, reinforcedcollecpeasants peasants peasants peasants peasants inadequate ands, inadequate ands, inadequate ands, inadequate ands, inadequate ands, tive solidarity, etarded he internalclass differentiationf the peasantry, o r t peasantry, peasantry, peasantry, peasantry, peasantry, solidarity, solidarity, solidarity, solidarity, solidarity, and left communeslargelyfree to run their own affairssubjectonly to subjectonly subjectonly subjectonly subjectonly subjectonly largely largely largely largely largely the collective fulfillmentof financialobligationsto the state.77Estate obligations obligations obligations obligations obligations owners were deprived of most direct authorityover peasant commudeprived deprived deprived deprived deprived authority authority authority authority authority peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant nities.78 Not Not Not Not Not Not surprisingly,given this agrariansituation, widespreadpeasant this this this this this rebellions rebellions rebellions rebellions rebellions rebellionseruptedin Russia in 1905, when the Czaristregimesimultain Russia in in Russia in in Russia in in Russia in in Russia in simultasimultasimultasimultasimultawhen the Czarist when the Czarist when the Czarist when the Czarist when the Czarist confronteddefeat abroad and an anti-autocratic ovementof confronteddefeat abroad and an anti-autocratic ovementof confronteddefeat abroad and an anti-autocratic ovementof confronteddefeat abroad and an anti-autocratic ovementof confronteddefeat abroad and an anti-autocratic ovementof m m m m m m neously confronteddefeat abroad and an anti-autocratic ovementof classes at home. classes at home. classes at home. classes at home. classes at home. the liberal gentry,and the the liberal gentry,and the the liberal gentry,and the the liberal gentry,and the the liberal gentry,and the the middle the middle the middle the middle the middle the middle classes, the liberal gentry,and the workingclasses at home. as as as as as 'Economic hardshipcreated a need for change; peasant 'Economic hardshipcreated a need for change; peasant 'Economic hardshipcreated a need for change; peasant 'Economic hardshipcreated a need for change; peasant 'Economic hardshipcreated a need for change; peasant 'Economic hardshipcreated a need for change; peasant tradition, as attackson attackson attackson attackson attackson well as revolutionary ropaganda, uggestedthe remedy well as revolutionary ropaganda, uggestedthe remedy well as revolutionary ropaganda, uggestedthe remedy well as revolutionary ropaganda, uggestedthe remedy well as revolutionary ropaganda, uggestedthe remedy well as revolutionary ropaganda, uggestedthe remedy[i.e., attackson p p p p p p s s s s s s indecisiveness indecisiveness indecisiveness indecisiveness indecisiveness landlordsand land seizures];official preoccupationand indecisiveness seizures]; seizures]; seizures]; seizures]; seizures]; preoccupation preoccupation preoccupation preoccupation preoccupation invited the storm; and soon the greatestdisturbancesince the days of days of days of days of days of days of storm; storm; storm; storm; storm; greatest greatest greatest greatest greatest Pugachev Pugachev Pugachev Pugachev Pugachev Pugachev was under way'.79 way'.79 way'.79 way'.79 way'.79 way'.79 In the wake of the unsuccessfulRevolutionof 1905, the In the wake of the unsuccessfulRevolutionof 1905, the In the wake of the unsuccessfulRevolutionof 1905, the In the wake of the unsuccessfulRevolutionof 1905, the In the wake of the unsuccessfulRevolutionof 1905, the In the wake of the unsuccessfulRevolutionof 1905, the Czarist recommune. uncommune. uncommune. uncommune. uncommune. unabandonedits abandonedits abandonedits abandonedits abandonedits of of of of of the the the the the gime abandonedits policy of shoringup the peasant commune.It unand and and and and dertook the dertook the dertook the dertook the dertook the dertook the break-upof repartitional ands into private holdings and l lands into lands into lands into lands into lands into of of of of of and and and and and measuresto facilitate land sales measuresto facilitate land sales measuresto facilitate land sales measuresto facilitate land sales measuresto facilitate land sales implementedmeasuresto facilitate land sales by poorer peasants and these measures,in these measures,in these measures,in these measures,in these measures,in richerones.80Between 1905 and richerones.80Between 1905 and richerones.80Between 1905 and richerones.80Between 1905 and purchases y richerones.80Between 1905 and 1917, these measures,in b richerones.80Between 1905 and to alleviate to alleviate to alleviate to alleviate to alleviate d did did did did did tandemwith tandemwith tandemwith tandemwith tandemwith tandemwith generaleconomicdevelopments, id somethingto alleviate economic economic economic economic economic to urban into urban into urban into urban into urban inrural rural rural rural rural agrarianstagnation,promote permanentrural migrationto urban ini i i i i i dustrial dustrial dustrial dustrial dustrial dustrialareas,and increaseclass differentiation nd individualismn the and increaseclass differentiation nd individualismn the and increaseclass differentiation nd individualismn the and increaseclass differentiation nd individualismn the and increaseclass differentiation nd individualismn the and increaseclass differentiation nd individualismn the a a a a a a little little little little little had been had been had been had been had been H However, However, However, However, However, countryside.81 owever,by 1917, little enoughhad been accomplishedfamilies had been resettledon individual families had been resettledon individual families had been resettledon individual families had been resettledon individual families had been resettledon individual one-tenthof all one-tenthof all one-tenthof all one-tenthof all one-tenthof all only one-tenthof all peasant families had been resettledon individual 77Terence Emmons, 'The Peasant and the Emancipation',and Francis M. Watters, Watters, Watters, Watters, Watters, Watters, Emmons, Emmons, Emmons, Emmons, Emmons, Emancipation', Emancipation', Emancipation', Emancipation', Emancipation', 'The Peasant and the Village Commune',both in Wayne S. Vucinich, ed., The Peasant Wayne Vucinich, ed., Wayne Vucinich, ed., Wayne Vucinich, ed., Wayne Vucinich, ed., Wayne Vucinich, ed., Village Commune', Village Commune', Village Commune', Village Commune', Village Commune', in Nineteenth-Century Russia (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1968); and Nineteenth-Century Nineteenth-Century Nineteenth-Century Nineteenth-Century Nineteenth-Century (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1968); (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1968); (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1968); (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1968); (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1968); and and and and and 78-79. 78-79. 78-79. 78-79. 78-79. versity Press, 1961), pp. 598-9; and Robinson, op. cit., pp. 78-79. 79 79 79 79 79 79 Robinson, op. Robinson, op. Robinson, op. Robinson, op. Robinson, op. Robinson, op. cit. 78 Jerome Blum, Lord and Peasant in Russia (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UniN.J.: Princeton UniN.J.: Princeton UniN.J.: Princeton UniN.J.: Princeton UniN.J.: Princeton UniJerome Jerome Jerome Jerome Jerome Lord and Peasant in Russia Lord and Peasant in Russia Lord and Peasant in Russia Lord and Peasant in Russia Lord and Peasant in Russia 80 Ibid., pp. 188-207. Ibid., pp. Ibid., pp. Ibid., pp. Ibid., pp. Ibid., pp. Robinson, op. cit., p. 155. 81 Gerschenkron, op. cit., pp. 42-72. 42-72. 42-72. 42-72. 42-72. 42-72. cit., cit., cit., cit., cit., 198 THEDA SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL holdings82-that peasant holdings82-that peasant holdings82-that peasant holdings82-that peasant holdings82-that peasant holdings82-that peasant communities engaged in solidary actions against against against against against against engaged solidary engaged solidary engaged solidary engaged solidary engaged solidary both landlords and any rich peasant 'separators' who did not join their join join join join join any any any any any peasant 'separators' peasant 'separators' peasant 'separators' peasant 'separators' peasant 'separators' struggle. struggle. struggle. struggle. struggle. struggle. 'Any 'Any 'Any 'Any 'Any 'Any shrewd observer of Russian conditions who weighed the lessons weighed weighed weighed weighed weighed of the agrarian disorders of 1905 could have foreseen that a breakdown agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian of central power and authority was almost certain to bring an even bring bring bring bring bring power power power power power authority authority authority authority authority And, indeed, And, indeed, And, indeed, And, indeed, And, indeed, greater upheaval greater upheaval greater upheaval greater upheaval greater upheaval greater upheaval in its train'.83And, indeed, between the spring and the spring spring spring spring spring autumn of 1917, 'side by side with the mutiny of the Russian army 1917, 1917, 1917, 1917, 1917, army army army army army by by by by by mutiny mutiny mutiny mutiny mutiny marched a second great social revolutionary movement: the seizure of great great great great great revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary the landed estates by the peasantry'.84 by by by by by movement of 1917 was movement of 1917 was movement of 1917 was movement of 1917 was movement of 1917 was The The The The The The peasant movement of 1917 was primarily a drive of the peasantry against the a drive of the a drive of the a drive of the a drive of the a drive of the against the against the against the against the against the pomyeschik pomyeschik pomyeschik pomyeschik pomyeschik pomyeschik class. Among the cases of agrarian disturbance, violent and peaceful, Among Among Among Among Among agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian the the the the the were directed were directed were directed were directed were directed landlords, as against landlords, as against landlords, as against landlords, as against landlords, as against 4,954, overwhelmingthe largest number, were directed against landlords, as against 324 against the more well-to-do peasants, 235 against the Government and 211 against against against against against against against against against against peasants, peasants, peasants, peasants, peasants, the the the the the against the clergy.85 was a was a was a was a was a of of of of of The broad general result of the wholesale peasant land seizure of 1917 was a sweepestate, estate, estate, estate, estate, ing levelling in Russian agriculture.The big latifundia, even ing levelling in Russian agriculture.The big latifundia, even ing levelling in Russian agriculture.The big latifundia, even ing levelling in Russian agriculture.The big latifundia, even ing levelling in Russian agriculture.The big latifundia, even ing levelling in Russian agriculture.The big latifundia, even the small estate, ceased alalalalalto exist. On the other hand landless or nearly landless peasants obtained larger allotments.86 lotments.86 lotments.86 lotments.86 lotments.86 lotments.86 For the peasants simply applied traditional communal repartitional propeasants simply applied peasants simply applied peasants simply applied peasants simply applied peasants simply applied repartitional prorepartitional prorepartitional prorepartitional prorepartitional procedures to lands seized from the landlords. Their revolt, together with the revolt, together revolt, together revolt, together revolt, together revolt, together Bolsheviks' victory, '. . sealed forever the doom of the old landed arisvictory, victory, victory, victory, victory, tocracy'.87 tocracy'.87 tocracy'.87 tocracy'.87 tocracy'.87 tocracy'.87 The Chinese The Chinese The Chinese The Chinese The Chinese The Chinese case presents decisive contrasts with France and Russia but nevertheless confirms but nevertheless confirms but nevertheless confirms but nevertheless confirms but nevertheless confirms but nevertheless confirms our general insight about the importance of importance importance importance importance importance general insight general insight general insight general insight general insight conditioned 'tactical conditioned 'tactical conditioned 'tactical conditioned 'tactical conditioned 'tactical structurally conditioned 'tactical space' for peasant insurrection as a crucial factor in the translation of administrative/military crucial factor in the translation of administrative/military crucial factor in the translation of administrative/military crucial factor in the translation of administrative/military crucial factor in the translation of administrative/military crucial factor in the translation of administrative/military breakdown into social revolution. into social revolution. into social revolution. into social revolution. into social revolution. into social revolution. in infertile and in infertile and in infertile and in infertile and in infertile and areas, Chinese areas, Chinese areas, Chinese areas, Chinese areas, Chinese Except in infertile and marginal highland areas, Chinese peasants, smallholders or tenants,88did not live in their own smallholders or tenants,88did not live in their own smallholders or tenants,88did not live in their own smallholders or tenants,88did not live in their own smallholders or tenants,88did not live in their own though mostly family smallholders or tenants,88did not live in their own from landlords. from landlords. from landlords. from landlords. from landlords. communities communities communities communities communities village communities clearly apart from landlords. and the and the and the and the and the The Chinese The Chinese The Chinese The Chinese The Chinese The Chinese peasant ... was a member of two communities: his village and the ... was a member of two communities: his ... was a member of two communities: his ... was a member of two communities: his ... was a member of two communities: his ... was a member of two communities: his twentytwentytwentytwentytwentyvillage belonged ['typicallyincluding village belonged ['typicallyincluding village belonged ['typicallyincluding village belonged ['typicallyincluding village belonged ['typicallyincluding marketingsystem to marketingsystem to marketingsystem to marketingsystem to marketingsystem to marketingsystem to which his village belonged ['typicallyincludingfifteen to twentyAn An An An An feature feature feature feature feature market market market market market on one of on one of on one of on one of on one of five five five five five five villages .. .' dependent on one of 45,000 market towns]. An important feature .. .' .. .' .. .' .. .' .. .' of the larger marketing community was its elaborate system of stratification. ... system system system system system larger marketing community larger marketing community larger marketing community larger marketing community larger marketing community the the the the the Those who provided de facto leadership within the marketing community qua political system and those litical system and those litical system and those litical system and those litical system and those litical system and those who gave it collective representationat its interface with representation representation representation representation representation gave gave gave gave gave 82 Robinson, op. cit., pp. 225-6. 83 83 83 83 83 83Chamberlin, op. cit., p. 257. 257. 257. 257. 257. 257. 85 85 85 85 85 85Ibid., p. 252. 84 Ibid., p. 242. 88 88 88 88 88 88R. H. Tawney, Land and Labour in China (Boston: Beacon Press, 1966; originally published in 1932), Chap. 2. Chap. Chap. Chap. Chap. Chap. published published published published published 87 87 87 87 87 87 Ibid., p. 256. 8s Ibid., p. 256. A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS I99 A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS I99 A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS I99 A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS I99 A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS I99 A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS I99 It was It was It was It was It was It was artisans, larger polities were gentrymen-landed, leisured, and literate..... the the the the the merchants,and other full-time economic specialists, not peasants, merchants,and other full-time economic specialists, not peasants, merchants,and other full-time economic specialists, not peasants, merchants,and other full-time economic specialists, not peasants, merchants,and other full-time economic specialists, not peasants, merchants,and other full-time economic specialists, not peasants, who sustainedthe heartbeatof periodic marketingthat kept the community alive. It was priests backed by gentry temple managers . . . who gave religious meaning to peasants' local by gentry temple managers . . . who gave religious meaning to peasants' local by gentry temple managers . . . who gave religious meaning to peasants' local by gentry temple managers . . . who gave religious meaning to peasants' local by gentry temple managers . . . who gave religious meaning to peasants' local by gentry temple managers . . . who gave religious meaning to peasants' local world.89 associations, and clans where they flourished, were likewise associations, and clans where they flourished, were likewise associations, and clans where they flourished, were likewise associations, and clans where they flourished, were likewise associations, and clans where they flourished, were likewise Voluntary associations, and clans where they flourished, were likewise contained within contained within contained within contained within contained within contained within marketing communities, headed and economically suscommunities, headed and economically communities, headed and economically communities, headed and economically communities, headed and economically communities, headed and economically ties cut ties cut ties cut ties cut ties cut tained tained tained tained tained tained by gentry. Thus kinship, associational and clientage ties cut associational and associational and associational and associational and associational and Thus Thus Thus Thus Thus across class distinctions between across class distinctions between across class distinctions between across class distinctions between across class distinctions between across class distinctions between peasants and landlords in traditional and landlords in traditional and landlords in traditional and landlords in traditional and landlords in traditional and landlords in traditional China. China. China. China. China. China. Gentry controlled at local levels a variety of sanctioning maof of of of of controlled at local levels a controlled at local levels a controlled at local levels a controlled at local levels a controlled at local levels a mamamamamawhich functioned which functioned which functioned which functioned which functioned militias and other militias and other militias and other militias and other militias and other chineries, including militias and other organizations which functioned de de de de de de facto as channels of poor relief.90 as channels of as channels of as channels of as channels of as channels of relief.90 relief.90 relief.90 relief.90 relief.90 Not Not Not Not Not Not surprisingly, therefore, settled Chinese peasant agriculturalistsdid did did did did did settled Chinese settled Chinese settled Chinese settled Chinese settled Chinese not initiate class-based revolts not initiate class-based revolts not initiate class-based revolts not initiate class-based revolts not initiate class-based revolts not initiate class-based revolts against landlords, either in pre-modern either in either in either in either in either in or-in or-in or-in or-in or-in or-in revolutionary (1911-49) times. Instead, peasant rebellion manirebellion manirebellion manirebellion manirebellion manirebellion manitimes. times. times. times. times. fested itself in the form of fested itself in the form of fested itself in the form of fested itself in the form of fested itself in the form of fested itself in the form of accelerating rural violence and social banditry, rural violence and social rural violence and social rural violence and social rural violence and social rural violence and social of of of of of at the at the at the at the at the spreading outward from the mountainous 'border areas' at the edges of the empire or at the intersections of provincial boundaries. Social banempire empire empire empire empire provincial provincial provincial provincial provincial ditry invariably ditry invariably ditry invariably ditry invariably ditry invariably ditry invariably blossomed during periods of central administrative during periods during periods during periods during periods during periods Weakness or collapse and economic deflation and catastrophe. Precisely collapse collapse collapse collapse collapse catastrophe. Precisely catastrophe. Precisely catastrophe. Precisely catastrophe. Precisely catastrophe. Precisely because normal traditional Chinese agrarian-class relations were sigsigsigsigsigsigagrarian-class agrarian-class agrarian-class agrarian-class agrarian-class nificantly commercialized, nificantly commercialized, nificantly commercialized, nificantly commercialized, nificantly commercialized, nificantly commercialized, local prosperity depended upon overall adprosperity depended upon prosperity depended upon prosperity depended upon prosperity depended upon prosperity depended upon ministrative stability, and peasants were not cushioned against economic stability, stability, stability, stability, stability, peasants peasants peasants peasants peasants against against against against against dislocations by kin or village communal ties. During periods of dynastic by by by by by dynastic dynastic dynastic dynastic dynastic village village village village village During periods During periods During periods During periods During periods decline, decline, decline, decline, decline, decline, local (marketing) communities 'closed in' upon themselves nor(marketing) (marketing) (marketing) (marketing) (marketing) upon upon upon upon upon matively, economically, matively, economically, matively, economically, matively, economically, matively, economically, matively, economically, and coercively,91 and poorer peasants, especoercively,91 coercively,91 coercively,91 coercively,91 coercively,91 poorer peasants, espepoorer peasants, espepoorer peasants, espepoorer peasants, espepoorer peasants, espeelites, elites, elites, elites, elites, cially cially cially cially cially cially in communities without well-to-do local landed elites, lost property property property property property property and livelihood, and were forced to migrate. Such impoverished migrants livelihood, livelihood, livelihood, livelihood, livelihood, migrate. migrate. migrate. migrate. migrate. impoverished migrants impoverished migrants impoverished migrants impoverished migrants impoverished migrants often congregated as bandits or smugglers operating out of 'border area' out out out out out 'border area' 'border area' 'border area' 'border area' 'border area' congregated congregated congregated congregated congregated bases and raiding settled communities. Ultimately they might provide settled communities. settled communities. settled communities. settled communities. settled communities. recruits for rebel armies led recruits for rebel armies led recruits for rebel armies led recruits for rebel armies led recruits for rebel armies led elites elites elites elites elites (individual (individual (individual (individual (individual (individual or group) recruits for rebel armies led by marginal elites for for for for for vying for imperial power.92 The nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries constituted The nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries constituted The nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries constituted The nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries constituted The nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries constituted The nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth centuries constituted a a a a a a period of dynastic decline and interregnum in China, complicated in of of of of of decline and decline and decline and decline and decline and in in in in in in in in in in novel novel novel novel novel Western and Western and Western and Western and Western and ininininineconomic and economic and economic and economic and economic and quite novel ways by Western and Japanese economic and military intrusions. Peasant trusions. Peasant trusions. Peasant trusions. Peasant trusions. Peasant trusions. Peasant impoverishment, local community closure, spreading local local local local local and and and and and conflicts conflicts conflicts conflicts conflicts local local local local local social social social social social social banditry and military conflicts among local militias, bandit groups, bandit bandit bandit bandit bandit and Shut Case', Comparative Studies in Society and History 13(3) 89 89 89 89 89 89G. William Skinner, 'Chinese Peasants and the Closed Community: An Open (July, 1971), pp. 272-3. Science Review 16 (1933): (1933): (1933): (1933): (1933): (1933): 92 92 92 92 92 92 See: Skinner, op. cit., Kuhn, op. cit.; and George E. Taylor, 'The Skinner, op. cit., Kuhn, op. cit.; Skinner, op. cit., Kuhn, op. cit.; Skinner, op. cit., Kuhn, op. cit.; Skinner, op. cit., Kuhn, op. cit.; Skinner, op. cit., Kuhn, op. cit.; George Taylor, George Taylor, George Taylor, George Taylor, George Taylor, Taiping Taiping Taiping Taiping Taiping Taiping Rebellion: Its Economic Backgroundand Social Theory', Chinese Social and Political and Political and Political and Political and Political and Political Background Background Background Background Background Theory', Theory', Theory', Theory', Theory', 545-614. 90 90 90 90 90 90 Kuhn, op. cit., passim. op. op. op. op. op. 91 91 91 91 91 91 Skinner, op. cit., 278ff. op. op. op. op. op. 200 200 200 200 200 200 THEDA SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL and warlord and/or 'ideological' armies, characterized the entire time and/or 'ideological' armies, and/or 'ideological' armies, and/or 'ideological' armies, and/or 'ideological' armies, and/or 'ideological' armies, peaked during peaked during peaked during peaked during peaked during span, span, span, span, span, span, and peaked during the mid-nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries. The Communist movement originated as a political tendency among a originated originated originated originated originated political tendency among political tendency among political tendency among political tendency among political tendency among tiny tiny tiny tiny tiny tiny fraction of China's nationalist and pro-modern intellectual stratum pro-modern pro-modern pro-modern pro-modern pro-modern and created its first mass base among Chinese industrial workers conmass base mass base mass base mass base mass base centrated in the treaty ports and to a lesser degree among students and and to lesser and to lesser and to lesser and to lesser and to lesser among among among among among southeast Chinese southeast Chinese southeast Chinese southeast Chinese southeast Chinese southeast Chinese peasants. But after 1927, the Chinese Communists But after 1927, the Chinese Communists But after 1927, the Chinese Communists But after 1927, the Chinese Communists But after 1927, the Chinese Communists But after 1927, the Chinese Communists were forced out of China's cities and wealthier were forced out of China's cities and wealthier were forced out of China's cities and wealthier were forced out of China's cities and wealthier were forced out of China's cities and wealthier were forced out of China's cities and wealthier agrarian regions by Would-be imitators of the Would-be imitators of the Would-be imitators of the Would-be imitators of the Would-be imitators of the and and and and and Kuomintang military and police repression. Would-be imitators of the Bolsheviks were thus forced to come to terms with the Chinese Bolsheviks were thus forced to come to terms with the Chinese Bolsheviks were thus forced to come to terms with the Chinese Bolsheviks were thus forced to come to terms with the Chinese Bolsheviks were thus forced to come to terms with the Chinese Bolsheviks were thus forced to come to terms with the Chinese agrarian did did did did did situation. This situation. This situation. This situation. This situation. This situation. This they did initially (between 1927 and 1942) by recapitulat1927 and 1927 and 1927 and 1927 and 1927 and the the the the the and tactics of traditional rebel elite contenders for and tactics of traditional rebel elite contenders for and tactics of traditional rebel elite contenders for and tactics of traditional rebel elite contenders for and tactics of traditional rebel elite contenders for ing the experiences and tactics of traditional rebel elite contenders for in China. in China. in China. in China. in China. and disoriented Comand disoriented Comand disoriented Comand disoriented Comand disoriented Comimperial power in China. Scattered, disorganized and disoriented Communist munist munist munist munist munist leaders, along with military units (which had split off from KMT with with with with with off from KMT off from KMT off from KMT off from KMT off from KMT units units units units units had had had had had or warlord or warlord or warlord or warlord or warlord or warlord of of of of of of of of of of retreated to mounretreated to mounretreated to mounretreated to mounretreated to mounarmies) of varying degrees of loyalty, retreated to mounbandit bandit bandit bandit bandit tainous tainous tainous tainous tainous tainous to ally with already to ally with already to ally with already to ally with already to ally with already border areas, there often to ally with already existing bandit raiding expeditions, plus raiding expeditions, plus raiding expeditions, plus raiding expeditions, plus raiding expeditions, plus groups.93 Gradually groups.93 Gradually groups.93 Gradually groups.93 Gradually groups.93 Gradually groups.93 Gradually the fruits of raiding expeditions, plus the division and weakness of opposing armies, allowed the 'Communist' base areas to opposing opposing opposing opposing opposing expand expand expand expand expand expand into administrative regions. regions. regions. regions. regions. regions. finally finally finally finally finally region region region region region Only Only Only Only Only Only after a secure and stable administrative region had finally been established in Northwest China (after 1937) could the Communists (after 1937) (after 1937) (after 1937) (after 1937) (after 1937) intra-village political organizing intra-village political organizing intra-village political organizing intra-village political organizing intra-village political organizing finally finally finally finally finally finally turn to the intra-market-area and intra-village political organizing that ultimately that ultimately that ultimately that ultimately that ultimately that ultimately bypassed and then eliminated the gentry, and so made gentry, gentry, gentry, gentry, gentry, their drive for their drive for their drive for their drive for their drive for their drive for power unique in China's history. Before roughly 1940, China's history. China's history. China's history. China's history. China's history. roughly 1940, roughly 1940, roughly 1940, roughly 1940, roughly 1940, whether 'Communist' or 'Nationalist' played whether 'Communist' or 'Nationalist' played whether 'Communist' or 'Nationalist' played whether 'Communist' or 'Nationalist' played whether 'Communist' or 'Nationalist' played ideological appeals, whether 'Communist' or 'Nationalist' played little and and and and and role in role in role in role in role in role in mediating Communist elites' relations to peasants, and spontaCommunist elites' relations to Communist elites' relations to Communist elites' relations to Communist elites' relations to Communist elites' relations to no role in no role in no role in no role in no role in neous class neous class neous class neous class neous class neous class struggle, fuelled from below, played virtually no role in fuelled from fuelled from fuelled from fuelled from fuelled from in in in in in class relations were class relations were class relations were class relations were class relations were whatever whatever whatever whatever whatever achieving whatever (minimal) changes in agrarian class relations were was imwas imwas imwas imwas imin Communist base areas.94To be in Communist base areas.94To be in Communist base areas.94To be in Communist base areas.94To be in Communist base areas.94To be accomplished in Communist base areas.94To be sure, ideology was imand in and in and in and in and in an elite an elite an elite an elite an elite in in in in in the the the the the portant in integrating the Party, an elite organization, and in mediating established established established established established and and and and and But until But until But until But until But until its relationship with the Red its relationship with the Red its relationship with the Red its relationship with the Red its relationship with the Red its relationship with the Red Army. But until Party and Army established relatively secure and stable military and administrative control over a relatively secure and stable military and administrative control over a relatively secure and stable military and administrative control over a relatively secure and stable military and administrative control over a relatively secure and stable military and administrative control over a relatively secure and stable military and administrative control over a in a position to penetrate local comin a position to penetrate local comin a position to penetrate local comin a position to penetrate local comin a position to penetrate local comregion, region, region, region, region, region, Communist cadres were not in a position to penetrate local comand and and and and munities in order to provide organization, leadership, and encouragement provide organization, provide organization, provide organization, provide organization, provide organization, occurred in occurred in occurred in occurred in occurred in to expropriate land. This to expropriate land. This to expropriate land. This to expropriate land. This to expropriate land. This for peasants themselves to expropriate land. This finally occurred in peasants peasants peasants peasants peasants 93 Harvard University Press, 1971), Chaps. 1-2; Dick Wilson, The Long March 1935 Wilson, Wilson, Wilson, Wilson, Wilson, Long Long Long Long Long University Press, 1971), Chaps. 1-2; University Press, 1971), Chaps. 1-2; University Press, 1971), Chaps. 1-2; University Press, 1971), Chaps. 1-2; University Press, 1971), Chaps. 1-2; Life Life Life Life Life Books, 1971); Books, 1971); Books, 1971); Books, 1971); Books, 1971); (New (New (New (New (New (New York: Avon Books, 1971); and Agnes Smedly, The Great Road: The Life Agnes Smedly, Agnes Smedly, Agnes Smedly, Agnes Smedly, Agnes Smedly, and Times of Chu Teh (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1956). Press, 1956). Press, 1956). Press, 1956). Press, 1956). Press, 1956). (New (New (New (New (New Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly Monthly of of of of of 94 Selden, op. cit.; Franz Schurmann, Ideology and Organization in Communist Selden, op. cit.; Franz Schurmann, Ideology and Organization Selden, op. cit.; Franz Schurmann, Ideology and Organization Selden, op. cit.; Franz Schurmann, Ideology and Organization Selden, op. cit.; Franz Schurmann, Ideology and Organization Selden, op. cit.; Franz Schurmann, Ideology and Organization See: Mark Selden, The Yenan Way in Revolutionary China (Cambridge, Mass.: Selden, Selden, Selden, Selden, Selden, Way Revolutionary Way Revolutionary Way Revolutionary Way Revolutionary Way Revolutionary (Cambridge, (Cambridge, (Cambridge, (Cambridge, (Cambridge, China (second edition) (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, China (second edition) (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, China (second edition) (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, China (second edition) (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, China (second edition) (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, China (second edition) (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, J. Kim, 'Mass Mobilization Policies and Techniques J. Kim, 'Mass Mobilization Policies and Techniques J. Kim, 'Mass Mobilization Policies and Techniques J. Kim, 'Mass Mobilization Policies and Techniques J. Kim, 'Mass Mobilization Policies and Techniques 412-37; 412-37; 412-37; 412-37; 412-37; 1968), 1968), 1968), 1968), 1968), 1968), pp. 412-37; Ilpyong J. Kim, 'Mass Mobilization Policies and Techniques 78-98 in A. Doak 78-98 in A. Doak 78-98 in A. Doak 78-98 in A. Doak 78-98 in A. Doak in the Period of the Chinese Soviet in the Period of the Chinese Soviet in the Period of the Chinese Soviet in the Period of the Chinese Soviet in the Period of the Chinese Soviet Developed in the Period of the Chinese Soviet Republic', pp. 78-98 in A. Doak of Washof Washof Washof Washof WashChinese Communist Politics in Action Chinese Communist Politics in Action Chinese Communist Politics in Action Chinese Communist Politics in Action Chinese Communist Politics in Action Barnett, ed., Chinese Communist Politics in Action (Seattle: University of Wash- ington Press, 1969). A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 201 201 201 201 201 201 even given administrative/military collapse. In pre-modern times, France, given administrative/military collapse. pre-modern times, France, given administrative/military collapse. pre-modern times, France, given administrative/military collapse. pre-modern times, France, given administrative/military collapse. pre-modern times, France, given administrative/military collapse. pre-modern times, France, North China in the 1940s.95 Once provided with military and organizaorganizaorganizaorganizaorganizaorganizamilitary military military military military provided provided provided provided provided tional protection from landlord sanctions and influence, peasants often influence, peasants influence, peasants influence, peasants influence, peasants influence, peasants protection protection protection protection protection reacted against landlords with a fury that exceeded even what Party polParty polParty polParty polParty polParty polagainst against against against against Communist Communist Communist Communist Communist icy icy icy icy icy icy desired. Perhaps Communist ideological appeals were partially refor for for for for even at even at even at even at even at insurrection. More insurrection. More insurrection. More insurrection. More insurrection. More sponsible for peasant insurrection. More likely, even at this stage, the Communist Communist Communist Communist Communist Communist organizations' important input to local situations was not to local situations was not to local situations was not to local situations was not to local situations was not to local situations was not a sense of a sense of a sense of a sense of a sense of a sense of grievances, or their ideological articulation, but rather simply but rather but rather but rather but rather but rather or their or their or their or their or their from traditional social controls: William Hinton's classic from traditional social controls: William Hinton's classic from traditional social controls: William Hinton's classic from traditional social controls: William Hinton's classic from traditional social controls: William Hinton's classic protection from traditional social controls: William Hinton's classic Fanshen: A Fanshen: A Fanshen: A Fanshen: A Fanshen: A Fanshen: A Documentary of Revolution in a Chinese Village vividly Revolution in a Chinese Revolution in a Chinese Revolution in a Chinese Revolution in a Chinese Revolution in a Chinese such an such an such an such an such an supports such an interpretation.96 Even to Even to Even to Even to Even to Even to gain the military strength they needed to defeat the Kuominthe the the the the needed to defeat the Kuominneeded to defeat the Kuominneeded to defeat the Kuominneeded to defeat the Kuominneeded to defeat the Kuominand and and and and the Chinese Communists had to shove aside-or the Chinese Communists had to shove aside-or the Chinese Communists had to shove aside-or the Chinese Communists had to shove aside-or the Chinese Communists had to shove aside-or tang, the Chinese Communists had to shove aside-or encourage and allow allow allow allow allow allow peasants to shove aside-the traditional landed upper class and to shove aside-the traditional landed to shove aside-the traditional landed to shove aside-the traditional landed to shove aside-the traditional landed to shove aside-the traditional landed class and class and class and class and class and establish a more direct link to the Chinese peasantry than had ever establish a more direct link to the Chinese peasantry than had ever establish a more direct link to the Chinese peasantry than had ever establish a more direct link to the Chinese peasantry than had ever establish a more direct link to the Chinese peasantry than had ever establish a more direct link to the Chinese peasantry than had ever before been before been before been before been before been before been established between an extra-local Chinese rebel movement and and and and and and local communities.97The Chinese Communists also established more direct links to peasants than did radical elites in Russia or France. The peasants peasants peasants peasants peasants Chinese Revolution, at least in its closing stages, thus has more of the Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, closing stages, closing stages, closing stages, closing stages, closing stages, elite/mass elite/mass elite/mass elite/mass elite/mass aspect aspect aspect aspect aspect aspect of an elite/mass movement than the other great historical social great great great great great revolutions. Yet the reasons for this peasant mass-mobilizing aspect have peasant mass-mobilizing aspect peasant mass-mobilizing aspect peasant mass-mobilizing aspect peasant mass-mobilizing aspect peasant mass-mobilizing aspect little to do with revolutionary ideology (except in retrospect) and everyeveryeveryeveryeveryeveryrevolutionary ideology (except revolutionary ideology (except revolutionary ideology (except revolutionary ideology (except revolutionary ideology (except retrospect) retrospect) retrospect) retrospect) retrospect) thing thing thing thing thing thing to do with the 'peculiarities' (from a European perspective) of 'peculiarities' (from European perspective) 'peculiarities' (from European perspective) 'peculiarities' (from European perspective) 'peculiarities' (from European perspective) 'peculiarities' (from European perspective) the Chinese agrarian social structure. That structure did not afford settled structure. structure. structure. structure. structure. agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian Chinese peasants institutional autonomy and solidarity against landlords, and and and and and institutional institutional institutional institutional institutional landlords, landlords, landlords, landlords, landlords, it did, in it did, in it did, in it did, in it did, in of of of of of crisis, crisis, crisis, crisis, crisis, yet it did, in periods of political-economic crisis, generate marginal pooroutcasts whose activities exacerbated the crises and whose exoutcasts whose activities exacerbated the crises and whose exoutcasts whose activities exacerbated the crises and whose exoutcasts whose activities exacerbated the crises and whose exoutcasts whose activities exacerbated the crises and whose expeasant outcasts whose activities exacerbated the crises and whose exelite-led elite-led elite-led elite-led elite-led istence istence istence istence istence istence provided potential bases of support for oppositional elite-led for for for for for bases of bases of bases of bases of bases of rebellions rebellions rebellions rebellions rebellions rebellions or, in the twentieth-century world context, a revolutionary in the in the in the in the in the a a a a a world world world world world movement. Thus Chinese Communist activities after 1927 and ultimate movement. Thus Chinese Communist activities after 1927 and ultimate movement. Thus Chinese Communist activities after 1927 and ultimate movement. Thus Chinese Communist activities after 1927 and ultimate movement. Thus Chinese Communist activities after 1927 and ultimate movement. Thus Chinese Communist activities after 1927 and ultimate in 1949 in 1949 in 1949 in 1949 in 1949 both the both the both the both the both the triumph in 1949 depended directly upon both the insurrectionary potentials and the blocks to tentials and the blocks to tentials and the blocks to tentials and the blocks to tentials and the blocks to tentials and the blocks to peasant insurrection built into the traditional insurrection built into the traditional insurrection built into the traditional insurrection built into the traditional insurrection built into the traditional insurrection built into the traditional Chinese social structure. Chinese social structure. Chinese social structure. Chinese social structure. Chinese social structure. Chinese social structure. RADICAL POLITICAL CENTRALIZING MOVEMENTS AND OUTCOMES Although peasant Although peasant Although peasant Although peasant Although peasant Although peasant insurrections played a decisive role in each of the great great great great great great played played played played played historical social revolutions, nevertheless an exclusive focus on peasants an an an an an focus focus focus focus focus revolutions, revolutions, revolutions, revolutions, revolutions, peasants peasants peasants peasants peasants -or on the peasant situation in agrarian bureaucracies-cannot propeasant peasant peasant peasant peasant agrarian bureaucracies-cannot agrarian bureaucracies-cannot agrarian bureaucracies-cannot agrarian bureaucracies-cannot agrarian bureaucracies-cannot vide a complete explanation for the occurrence of social revolutions, the occurrence of social revolutions, the occurrence of social revolutions, the occurrence of social revolutions, the occurrence of social revolutions, the occurrence of social revolutions, 95 Selden, op. cit.; and Schurmann, op. cit. Selden, op. cit.; Selden, op. cit.; Selden, op. cit.; Selden, op. cit.; Selden, op. cit.; Schurmann, op. Schurmann, op. Schurmann, op. Schurmann, op. Schurmann, op. 96 96 96 96 96 96 William Hinton, Fanshen: A Documentary of Revolution in a Chinese Village Hinton, Hinton, Hinton, Hinton, Hinton, Documentary of Documentary of Documentary of Documentary of Documentary of Village Village Village Village Village (New (New (New (New (New (New York: Vintage Books, 1968; first published in 1966). Vintage Books, 1968; first published in Vintage Books, 1968; first published in Vintage Books, 1968; first published in Vintage Books, 1968; first published in Vintage Books, 1968; first published in 97 Schurmann, op. cit., pp. 425-31. 425-31. 425-31. 425-31. 425-31. 425-31. cit., cit., cit., cit., cit., Schurmann, Schurmann, Schurmann, Schurmann, Schurmann, 202 202 202 202 202 202 THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL Russia and China were recurrently rocked by massive peasant rebelpeasant peasant peasant peasant peasant recurrently recurrently recurrently recurrently recurrently by by by by by lions,98 lions,98 lions,98 lions,98 lions,98 lions,98 yet peasant uprisings did not fuel structural transformations unpeasant uprisings peasant uprisings peasant uprisings peasant uprisings peasant uprisings til the late eighteenth century and after. Obviously agrarian bureaucraeighteenth century eighteenth century eighteenth century eighteenth century eighteenth century Obviously agrarian Obviously agrarian Obviously agrarian Obviously agrarian Obviously agrarian cies were exposed to additional and unique strains and possibilities once exposed exposed exposed exposed exposed commercialization-industrialization commercialization-industrialization commercialization-industrialization commercialization-industrialization commercialization-industrialization English English English English English English and then European commercialization-industrializationbecame a factor in world history and development. The stage was set for the entry The The The The The and and and and and was set for was set for was set for was set for was set for entry entry entry entry entry of marginal elites animated by radical nationalist goals. elites animated elites animated elites animated elites animated elites animated radical nationalist radical nationalist radical nationalist radical nationalist radical nationalist the the the the the Who were these Who were these Who were these Who were these Who were these Who were these marginal elites? What sectors of society provided the elites? What sectors of elites? What sectors of elites? What sectors of elites? What sectors of elites? What sectors of social bases for nationalist radicalisms? Not the social bases for nationalist radicalisms? Not the social bases for nationalist radicalisms? Not the social bases for nationalist radicalisms? Not the social bases for nationalist radicalisms? Not the social bases for nationalist radicalisms? Not the bourgeoisie proper: financiers and industrialists. These financiers and industrialists. These financiers and industrialists. These financiers and industrialists. These financiers and industrialists. These have had have had have had have had have had merchants, financiers and industrialists. These groups have had surprislittle direct effect little direct effect little direct effect little direct effect little direct effect the the the the the of modernization in of modernization in of modernization in of modernization in of modernization in ingly little direct effect upon the politics of modernization in any developfrom from from from from to the countries of the Third World to the countries of the Third World to the countries of the Third World to the countries of the Third World to the countries of the Third World ing nation, from England to the countries of the Third World today. their their their their their have created and have created and have created and have created and have created and commerce and commerce and commerce and commerce and commerce and Instead, their activities, commerce and manufacturing, have created and the national and inthe national and inthe national and inthe national and inthe national and inindeed indeed indeed indeed indeed continuously transformed, indeed revolutionized, the national and international contexts within which ternational contexts within which ternational contexts within which ternational contexts within which ternational contexts within which ternational contexts within which bureaucrats, professionals, politicians, landlords, peasants, and proletarians have engaged in the decisive politproletarians proletarians proletarians proletarians proletarians engaged in engaged in engaged in engaged in engaged in politpolitpolitpolitpolitpeasants, peasants, peasants, peasants, peasants, in in in in in ical struggles. To be sure, in certain times and places, the 'bourgeois' struggles. struggles. struggles. struggles. struggles. places, the places, the places, the places, the places, the commercial or industrial context has been pervasive enough virtually pervasive enough virtually pervasive enough virtually pervasive enough virtually pervasive enough virtually pervasive enough virtually to determine political outcomes, even without the overt political parpolitical parpolitical parpolitical parpolitical parpolitical parpolitical outcomes, political outcomes, political outcomes, political outcomes, political outcomes, bourgeois bourgeois bourgeois bourgeois bourgeois ticipation ticipation ticipation ticipation ticipation ticipation of bourgeois actors. But such was not the case in the earlier modernizing agrarianbureaucracies, including France, modernizing agrarianbureaucracies, including France, modernizing agrarianbureaucracies, including France, modernizing agrarianbureaucracies, including France, modernizing agrarianbureaucracies, including France, modernizing agrarianbureaucracies, including France, Russia and China. Instead, Instead, Instead, Instead, Instead, Instead, nationalist radicals tended to 'precipitate out' of the ranks of 'precipitate 'precipitate 'precipitate 'precipitate 'precipitate those who possessed specialized skills and were oriented to state activipossessed specialized possessed specialized possessed specialized possessed specialized possessed specialized ties or employments, but either lacked traditionally prestigious attributes traditionally prestigious traditionally prestigious traditionally prestigious traditionally prestigious traditionally prestigious employments, employments, employments, employments, employments, such as nobility, landed wealth, or general humanist education, or else education, education, education, education, education, wealth, wealth, wealth, wealth, wealth, nobility, nobility, nobility, nobility, nobility, general general general general general found themselves in situations where such attributes were no longer perlonger perlonger perlonger perlonger perlonger persituations situations situations situations situations nationally nationally nationally nationally nationally sonally or nationally functional. Their situations in political and social in times of in times of in times of in times of in times of life were such as to make them, life were such as to make them, life were such as to make them, life were such as to make them, life were such as to make them, life were such as to make them, especially in times of political crises, crises, crises, crises, crises, crises, to call for such radical reforms as to call for such radical reforms as to call for such radical reforms as to call for such radical reforms as to call for such radical reforms as willing to call for such radical reforms as equalization of mobility opporbefore the revolution) exbefore the revolution) exbefore the revolution) exbefore the revolution) exbefore the revolution) exand and and and and tunities, political democracy, and (anyway, before the revolution) exorientation of these orientation of these orientation of these orientation of these orientation of these tension of civil liberties. Yet the tension of civil liberties. Yet the tension of civil liberties. Yet the tension of civil liberties. Yet the tension of civil liberties. Yet the tension of civil liberties. Yet the primary orientation of these marginal that that that that that shared with all shared with all shared with all shared with all shared with all elites was toward a broad elites was toward a broad elites was toward a broad elites was toward a broad elites was toward a broad elites was toward a broad goal that they shared with all those, including whose whose whose whose whose livelihoods, and idenlivelihoods, and idenlivelihoods, and idenlivelihoods, and idenlivelihoods, and identraditionally prestigious bureaucrats, whose careers, livelihoods, and idenof extension and of extension and of extension and of extension and of extension and tities were intertwined with state activities: the tities were intertwined with state activities: the tities were intertwined with state activities: the tities were intertwined with state activities: the tities were intertwined with state activities: the tities were intertwined with state activities: the goal of extension and in the name of national welfare and in the name of national welfare and in the name of national welfare and in the name of national welfare and in the name of national welfare and rationalization of state rationalization of state rationalization of state rationalization of state rationalization of state rationalization of state powers in the name of national welfare and prestige. whom the Jacobins were the most whom the Jacobins were the most whom the Jacobins were the most whom the Jacobins were the most whom the Jacobins were the most radicals radicals radicals radicals radicals In Bourbon In Bourbon In Bourbon In Bourbon In Bourbon In Bourbon France, radicals (of whom the Jacobins were the most from the ranks of from the ranks of from the ranks of from the ranks of from the ranks of came came came came came extreme) came primarily from the ranks of non-noble, non-wealthy and and and and and or state or state or state or state or state lawyers, professionals, or state functionaries, and disproportionately from the from the from the from the from the from the provinces. 98 See, for example, Roland Mousnier, Peasant Uprisings in the Seventeenth Cenin the Seventeenth in the Seventeenth in the Seventeenth in the Seventeenth in the Seventeenth Roland Mousnier, Peasant Roland Mousnier, Peasant Roland Mousnier, Peasant Roland Mousnier, Peasant Roland Mousnier, Peasant for for for for for -and Row, 1972; originally -and Row, 1972; originally -and Row, 1972; originally -and Row, 1972; originally -and Row, 1972; originally Russia and China (New York: Russia and China (New York: Russia and China (New York: Russia and China (New York: Russia and China (New York: tury: France, Russia and China (New York: Harper -and Row, 1972; originally in in in in in published in French, 1967). A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 203 ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS The The The The The The royal bureaucracy, with its host of minor juridico-administrative fficers, the with its host of minor with its host of minor with its host of minor with its host of minor with its host of minor the the the the the o professional professional professional professional professional professionalcivil servantsof the great ministeries,the crowds of lawyers, the doctors, doctors, doctors, doctors, doctors, doctors, great ministeries, great ministeries, great ministeries, great ministeries, great ministeries, lawyers, lawyers, lawyers, lawyers, lawyers, lower lower lower lower lower officers ... all of these formed a social officers ... all of these formed a social officers ... all of these formed a social officers ... all of these formed a social officers ... all of these formed a social surgeons, chemists, engineers, lower army officers ... all of these formed a social nexus which provided the men who did most of the work of government as well as provided provided provided provided provided government government government government government of the of the of the of the of the of the professions, but who were kept out of the higher offices by lack of noblesse but who were but who were but who were but who were but who were lack of noblesse lack of noblesse lack of noblesse lack of noblesse lack of noblesse out of the out of the out of the out of the out of the offices offices offices offices offices or of sufficientwealth to purchase it, and humiliated socially by the thought that purchase it, purchase it, purchase it, purchase it, purchase it, thought thought thought thought thought socially by socially by socially by socially by socially by to a lower caste.99 to a lower caste.99 to a lower caste.99 to a lower caste.99 to a lower caste.99 they belonged to a lower caste.99 In the market towns and small administrativecenters a new class of bourgeois (that centers a new centers a new centers a new centers a new centers a new bourgeois (that bourgeois (that bourgeois (that bourgeois (that bourgeois (that is, non-noble) lawyers had grown up to defend the interests of the provincial members of the monarchial society. It was they who seem to have suffered most, or at bers of the monarchial society. It was they who seem to have suffered most, or at bers of the monarchial society. It was they who seem to have suffered most, or at bers of the monarchial society. It was they who seem to have suffered most, or at bers of the monarchial society. It was they who seem to have suffered most, or at bers of the monarchial society. It was they who seem to have suffered most, or at least most consciously, from the delaying and obfuscating tactics of the aristocratic delaying delaying delaying delaying delaying obfuscating obfuscating obfuscating obfuscating obfuscating courts and therefore best understoodthe courts and therefore best understoodthe courts and therefore best understoodthe courts and therefore best understoodthe courts and therefore best understoodthe courts and therefore best understoodthe pall that privilege cast over all administrathat that that that that cast over all administracast over all administracast over all administracast over all administracast over all administrative efforts at reform. Through the famous correspondingsocieties, these provincial provincial provincial provincial provincial provincial Through Through Through Through Through corresponding corresponding corresponding corresponding corresponding critics critics critics critics critics critics exchanged ideas and laid the intellectual foundation for much that happened ideas and laid the intellectual foundation for much that ideas and laid the intellectual foundation for much that ideas and laid the intellectual foundation for much that ideas and laid the intellectual foundation for much that ideas and laid the intellectual foundation for much that in 1789 and after.100 In Russia, by 1917, the revolutionary sects, such as the Bolsheviks by by by by by revolutionary sects, revolutionary sects, revolutionary sects, revolutionary sects, revolutionary sects, and the Left Social Revolutionaries, constituted the surviving politically Revolutionaries, Revolutionaries, Revolutionaries, Revolutionaries, Revolutionaries, surviving politically surviving politically surviving politically surviving politically surviving politically organized representatives organized representatives organized representatives organized representatives organized representatives organized representatives of what had earlier been an outlook much more widespread among university-educated Russians: extreme alienawidespread among university-educated widespread among university-educated widespread among university-educated widespread among university-educated widespread among university-educated tion, disgust tion, disgust tion, disgust tion, disgust tion, disgust tion, disgust at Russia's backwardness, preoccupation with public events backwardness, preoccupation backwardness, preoccupation backwardness, preoccupation backwardness, preoccupation backwardness, preoccupation public public public public public and yet refusal to become involved in the round of civil life.?10As Russia yet yet yet yet yet underwent rapid industrialization after 1890, opportunities for university 1890, 1890, 1890, 1890, 1890, university university university university university rapid rapid rapid rapid rapid education were extended beyond the nobility-a circumstance which the the the the the circumstance circumstance circumstance circumstance circumstance extended extended extended extended extended to ensure that universities would be hotbeds of to ensure that universities would be hotbeds of to ensure that universities would be hotbeds of to ensure that universities would be hotbeds of to ensure that universities would be hotbeds of radicalradicalradicalradicalradicalhelped to ensure that universities would be hotbeds of political radicalbefore before before before before for for for for for and other and other and other and other and other ism-yet, before long, opportunities for professional and other highly skilled skilled skilled skilled skilled skilled employments also expanded. Especially in the wake of the aboralso also also also also in the wake of the aborin the wake of the aborin the wake of the aborin the wake of the aborin the wake of the abortive 1905 tive 1905 tive 1905 tive 1905 tive 1905 tive 1905 Revolution, Russia's university-educated moved toward promoved toward moved toward moved toward moved toward moved toward Russia's Russia's Russia's Russia's Russia's fessional fessional fessional fessional fessional fessional employments and liberal politics.102 Yet when events overtook and liberal and liberal and liberal and liberal and liberal Yet when events overtook Yet when events overtook Yet when events overtook Yet when events overtook Yet when events overtook Russia in Russia in Russia in Russia in Russia in Russia in 1917, organized radical leadership was still to be found among radical radical radical radical radical was still to be found was still to be found was still to be found was still to be found was still to be found the alienated the alienated the alienated the alienated the alienated the alienated intelligentsia. In In In In In In China, as in Russia, radical nationalist modernizers came from the as in as in as in as in as in radical nationalist modernizers came from the radical nationalist modernizers came from the radical nationalist modernizers came from the radical nationalist modernizers came from the radical nationalist modernizers came from the of of of of of student student student student student Chinese.103 Chinese.103 Chinese.103 Chinese.103 Chinese.103 early student generations of university-educated Chinese.103Especially and Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution, Volume I and Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution, Volume I and Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution, Volume I and Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution, Volume I and Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution, Volume I and Georges Lefebvre, The French Revolution, Volume I (New York: Columbia York: Columbia York: Columbia York: Columbia York: Columbia York: Columbia p. 45. p. 45. p. 45. p. 45. p. 45. University Press, University Press, University Press, University Press, University Press, University Press, 1962), p. 45. cit. cit. cit. cit. cit. op. cit. tics-Harvard 99 Cobban, A History ..., Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, Cobban, History ..., History ..., History ..., History ..., History ..., p. 134. See also: Hampson, A Social History ..., p. 134. See also: Hampson, A Social History ..., p. 134. See also: Hampson, A Social History ..., p. 134. See also: Hampson, A Social History ..., p. 134. See also: Hampson, A Social History ..., p. 134. See also: Hampson, A Social History ..., p. 60; p. 60; p. 60; p. 60; p. 60; p. 60; 101 101 101 101 101 101George Fischer, 'The Intelligentsia and Russia', pp. 253-73 in Black, ed., 'The 'The 'The 'The 'The and and and and and 253-73 in 253-73 in 253-73 in 253-73 in 253-73 in 100 Fox, op. cit., pp. 89-90. 89-90. 89-90. 89-90. 89-90. 89-90. cit., cit., cit., cit., cit., Fox, Fox, Fox, Fox, Fox, 102 102 102 102 102 102 George Fischer, 'The Russian Intelligentsia and Liberalism', pp. 317-36 in 'The Russian 'The Russian 'The Russian 'The Russian 'The Russian and and and and and Hugh McLean, Martin Malia and George Fischer, eds., Russian Thought and Poli- Press, 1957); and Donald W. Treadgold, 'Russian Radical Thought, 1894-1917', pp. 69-86 in Stavrou, ed., op. cit. 103 103 103 103 103 103John Israel, 'Reflectionson the Modern Chinese StudentMovement',Daedalus Movement', Movement', Movement', Movement', Movement', (Winter, 1968): 229-53; and Robert C. North and Ithiel de Sola Pool, 'Kuomintang Pool, 'Kuomintang Pool, 'Kuomintang Pool, 'Kuomintang Pool, 'Kuomintang Pool, 'Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Elites', pp. 319-455 in Harold D. Lasswell and Daniel Elites', pp. Elites', pp. Elites', pp. Elites', pp. Elites', pp. Lerner, Lerner, Lerner, Lerner, Lerner, Lerner, eds., World Revolutionary Elites (Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press, Revolutionary Revolutionary Revolutionary Revolutionary Revolutionary (Cambridge, (Cambridge, (Cambridge, (Cambridge, (Cambridge, Press, Press, Press, Press, Press, 1966). 1966). 1966). 1966). 1966). 1966). Slavic Studies, Volume IV (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University 204 204 204 204 204 204 THEDA SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL SKOCPOL at first, most were the children of traditionally wealthy and prestigious first, first, first, first, first, traditionally wealthy traditionally wealthy traditionally wealthy traditionally wealthy traditionally wealthy prestigious prestigious prestigious prestigious prestigious families, families, families, families, families, families, but urban and 'rich peasant' backgrounds, respectively, came peasant' backgrounds, respectively, peasant' backgrounds, respectively, peasant' backgrounds, respectively, peasant' backgrounds, respectively, peasant' backgrounds, respectively, to be overrepresented in the (pre-1927) Kuomintang and the Commuoverrepresented overrepresented overrepresented overrepresented overrepresented (pre-1927) Kuomintang (pre-1927) Kuomintang (pre-1927) Kuomintang (pre-1927) Kuomintang (pre-1927) Kuomintang nist elites.104 With the abolition of the Confucian educational system the Confucian educational the Confucian educational the Confucian educational the Confucian educational the Confucian educational in 1904, and the collapse of the imperial government in 1911, even of the of the of the of the of the in 1911, even in 1911, even in 1911, even in 1911, even in 1911, even 1904, and the 1904, and the 1904, and the 1904, and the 1904, and the attributes and connections lost their attributes and connections lost their attributes and connections lost their attributes and connections lost their attributes and connections lost their traditionally prestigious attributes and connections lost their meaning and usefulness. At the same and usefulness. At the same and usefulness. At the same and usefulness. At the same and usefulness. At the same and usefulness. At the same time, neither warlord regimes, nor the Nanor the Nanor the Nanor the Nanor the Nanor the Naneither warlord neither warlord neither warlord neither warlord neither warlord tionalist tionalist tionalist tionalist tionalist tionalist government after 1927 offered much scope for modern skills or after 1927 offered much after 1927 offered much after 1927 offered much after 1927 offered much after 1927 offered much for modern skills or for modern skills or for modern skills or for modern skills or for modern skills or advancement in these advancement in these advancement in these advancement in these advancement in these went went went went went to those with into those with into those with into those with into those with incredentials; advancement in these regimes went only to those with inwealth or wealth or wealth or wealth or wealth or ties to ties to ties to ties to ties to commanders. commanders. commanders. commanders. commanders. dependent wealth or personal ties to military commanders. Gradually, the bulk of China's the bulk of China's the bulk of China's the bulk of China's the bulk of China's the bulk of China's modern-educated, and especially the young, came and and and and and came came came came came the the the the the to to to to to to the Communist the Communist the Communist the Communist the Communist active commitment active commitment active commitment active commitment active commitment some some some some some support the Communist movement, some through active commitment in in in in in in Yenan, others through passive political support in the cities.105 others others others others others support in the cities.105 support in the cities.105 support in the cities.105 support in the cities.105 support in the cities.105 Two considerations help to Two considerations help to Two considerations help to Two considerations help to Two considerations help to Two considerations help to account for the fact that radical leaderin in in in in ship in social revolutions came specifically from the ranks of skilled specifically specifically specifically specifically specifically and/or university-educated marginal elites oriented to state employments university-educated marginal university-educated marginal university-educated marginal university-educated marginal university-educated marginal employments employments employments employments employments and activities. First, agrarian bureaucracies are 'statist' societies. Even First, agrarian First, agrarian First, agrarian First, agrarian First, agrarian before the era of modernization official employments in these societies employments employments employments employments employments constituted both an important route for social mobility and a means for mobility mobility mobility mobility mobility important important important important important Second, Second, Second, Second, Second, validating validating validating validating validating validating traditional status and supplementing landed fortunes. Second, supplementing supplementing supplementing supplementing supplementing with the advent of economic modernization in the world, state activities world, world, world, world, world, acquired greater-than-ever objective acquired greater-than-ever objective acquired greater-than-ever objective acquired greater-than-ever objective acquired greater-than-ever objective acquired greater-than-ever objective import in the agrarian bureaucratic agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian societies which were forced to adapt to modernization abroad. For the the the the the the were forced to were forced to were forced to were forced to were forced to to modernization abroad. to modernization abroad. to modernization abroad. to modernization abroad. to modernization abroad. concrete effects of modernization abroad first concrete effects of modernization abroad first concrete effects of modernization abroad first concrete effects of modernization abroad first concrete effects of modernization abroad first concrete effects of modernization abroad first impinged upon the state's the state's the state's the state's the state's the state's in the form of in the form of in the form of in the form of in the form of and and and and and sphere, in the form of sharply and suddenly stepped up military competition or threats from more tion or threats from more tion or threats from more tion or threats from more tion or threats from more tion or threats from more developed nations abroad. And the cultural nations abroad. And the cultural nations abroad. And the cultural nations abroad. And the cultural nations abroad. And the cultural nations abroad. And the cultural effects of modernization abroad first effects of modernization abroad first effects of modernization abroad first effects of modernization abroad first effects of modernization abroad first effects of modernization abroad first impinged upon the relatively highly the the the the the educated in educated in educated in educated in educated in educated in agrarian bureaucracies, that is upon those who were mostly those who were those who were those who were those who were those who were that is that is that is that is that is either either either either either either employed by the state or else connected or oriented to its activities. the state or else connected or oriented to its activities. the state or else connected or oriented to its activities. the state or else connected or oriented to its activities. the state or else connected or oriented to its activities. the state or else connected or oriented to its activities. is obvious for Russia and China. Consider as well the fascination is obvious for Russia and China. Consider as well the fascination is obvious for Russia and China. Consider as well the fascination is obvious for Russia and China. Consider as well the fascination is obvious for Russia and China. Consider as well the fascination (This is obvious for Russia and China. Consider as well the fascination of educated French officials and of educated French officials and of educated French officials and of educated French officials and of educated French officials and of educated French officials and laymen during the eighteenth century the the the the the with British economic and political models and with British economic and political models and with British economic and political models and with British economic and political models and with British economic and political models and with British economic and political models and ideas.)106 UnderstandUnderstandUnderstandUnderstandUnderstandUnderstandas as as as as the the the the the bureaucracies confronted modernization bureaucracies confronted modernization bureaucracies confronted modernization bureaucracies confronted modernization bureaucracies confronted modernization ably, as agrarian bureaucracies confronted modernization abroad, the state was viewed state was viewed state was viewed state was viewed state was viewed state was viewed by virtually everyone, from conservative reformers to from conservative reformers to from conservative reformers to from conservative reformers to from conservative reformers to from conservative reformers to virtually virtually virtually virtually virtually radicals and radicals and radicals and radicals and radicals and radicals and as the as the as the as the as the revolutionaries, as the likely tool for implementation of likely tool for implementation of likely tool for implementation of likely tool for implementation of likely tool for implementation of likely tool for implementation of reforms at home and reforms at home and reforms at home and reforms at home and reforms at home and reforms at home and enhancement of national standing in the internastanding in the internastanding in the internastanding in the internastanding in the internastanding in the international context. This was true tional context. This was true tional context. This was true tional context. This was true tional context. This was true tional context. This was true for eighteenth-century France, as well as well as well as well as well as well as eighteenth-century eighteenth-century eighteenth-century eighteenth-century eighteenth-century for pre-revolutionary for pre-revolutionary for pre-revolutionary for pre-revolutionary for pre-revolutionary for pre-revolutionary Russia and China. Edward Fox has remarked on Fox Fox Fox Fox Fox on on on on on the irony the irony the irony the irony the irony the irony of the fact that 105 John Israel, Student Nationalism in China: 1927-1937 (Stanford: Hoover InIsrael, Student Nationalism in China: 1927-1937 (Stanford: Hoover InIsrael, Student Nationalism in China: 1927-1937 (Stanford: Hoover InIsrael, Student Nationalism in China: 1927-1937 (Stanford: Hoover InIsrael, Student Nationalism in China: 1927-1937 (Stanford: Hoover InIsrael, Student Nationalism in China: 1927-1937 (Stanford: Hoover Institute Publications, 1966). stitute Publications, 1966). stitute Publications, 1966). stitute Publications, 1966). stitute Publications, 1966). stitute Publications, 1966). 106 See: Fox, op. cit., Chap. 4, and Behrens, See: Fox, See: Fox, See: Fox, See: Fox, See: Fox, cit. cit. cit. cit. cit. cit., cit., cit., cit., cit., 4, and Behrens, 4, and Behrens, 4, and Behrens, 4, and Behrens, 4, and Behrens, op. cit. 104 North and Pool, op. cit. Pool, op. Pool, op. Pool, op. Pool, op. Pool, op. A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 205 in the middle of what has been described as the 'democratic revolution,' an entire generationof gifted social critics and publicists should all but unanimously demand generationof gifted social critics and publicists should all but unanimously demand generationof gifted social critics and publicists should all but unanimously demand generationof gifted social critics and publicists should all but unanimously demand generationof gifted social critics and publicists should all but unanimously demand generationof gifted social critics and publicists should all but unanimously demand the royal imposition of their various programs of reform. In the theoretical and was criticized for its failure was criticized for its failure was criticized for its failure was criticized for its failure was criticized for its failure polemical literatureof the time, the 'absolute' polemical literatureof the time, the 'absolute' polemical literatureof the time, the 'absolute' polemical literatureof the time, the 'absolute' polemical literatureof the time, the 'absolute' polemical literatureof the time, the 'absolute'monarchy was criticized for its failure to exercise arbitrarypower. To Frenchmen of the ancien regime, it was the monthat that that that that 'liberties'that 'liberties'that 'liberties'that 'liberties'that 'liberties'that what was modern and what was modern and what was modern and what was modern and what was modern and and and and and and archy that representedwhat was modern and progressiveand political 'liberties'that appeared appeared appeared appeared appeared appearedanachronistic.... For virtually all the inhabitantsof continental France, virtually virtually virtually virtually virtually fiscal and fiscal and fiscal and fiscal and fiscal and fiscal and judicial reformswere far more urgent issues than the developmentof politof of of of of reformswere far more reformswere far more reformswere far more reformswere far more reformswere far more issues than the issues than the issues than the issues than the issues than the ical liberty;and the monarchywas the obvious agency for their implementation.Only liberty; liberty; liberty; liberty; liberty; implementation.Only implementation.Only implementation.Only implementation.Only implementation.Only monarchy monarchy monarchy monarchy monarchy agency agency agency agency agency the the the the the the King's failure to live up to their expectations drove his subjects to intervene.107 to intervene.107 to intervene.107 to intervene.107 to intervene.107 to intervene.107 drove his drove his drove his drove his drove his failure to live failure to live failure to live failure to live failure to live to their to their to their to their to their The earlier The earlier The earlier The earlier The earlier The earlier modernizing agrarian bureaucracies that (to varying dedededededebureaucracies that bureaucracies that bureaucracies that bureaucracies that bureaucracies that to to to to to from abroad did so either from abroad did so either from abroad did so either from abroad did so either from abroad did so either grees) successfully adapted to challenges from abroad did so either or basic reforms 'from above' or social revolution or basic reforms 'from above' or social revolution or basic reforms 'from above' or social revolution or basic reforms 'from above' or social revolution or basic reforms 'from above' or social revolution through revolution, or basic reforms 'from above' or social revolution 'from below'. Either traditional 'from below'. Either traditional 'from below'. Either traditional 'from below'. Either traditional 'from below'. Either traditional 'from below'. Either traditional bureaucrats successfully promoted requipromoted promoted promoted promoted promoted site reforms or else their site reforms or else their site reforms or else their site reforms or else their site reforms or else their site reforms or else their attempts precipitated splits within the attempts precipitated splits within the attempts precipitated splits within the attempts precipitated splits within the attempts precipitated splits within the attempts precipitated splits within the upper class which class which class which class which class which class which could, if the peasantry were structurally insurrection-prone, structurally insurrection-prone, structurally insurrection-prone, structurally insurrection-prone, structurally insurrection-prone, structurally insurrection-prone, peasantry peasantry peasantry peasantry peasantry open the door to social revolution. In the context of administrative/military disorganization tary disorganization tary disorganization tary disorganization tary disorganization tary disorganization and spreading peasant rebellions, tiny, organized tiny, organized tiny, organized tiny, organized tiny, organized tiny, organized spreading peasant spreading peasant spreading peasant spreading peasant spreading peasant radical elites that never could have created revolutionary crises on their revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary own gained their moments in history. As peasant insurrections undergained gained gained gained gained history. history. history. history. history. peasant peasant peasant peasant peasant mined the traditional landed upper classes, and the old regime officials regime regime regime regime regime upper classes, upper classes, upper classes, upper classes, upper classes, and structures tied to them, radical elites occupied center stage, comthem, them, them, them, them, stage, stage, stage, stage, stage, occupied occupied occupied occupied occupied peting among peting among peting among peting among peting among peting among themselves to see who could seize and build upon the upon upon upon upon upon foundations of central state power. power. power. power. power. power. 'A complete revolution', writes Samuel Huntington, '. Samuel Samuel Samuel Samuel Samuel revolution', revolution', revolution', revolution', revolution', . involves . . . the creation and institutionalization of a new political order'.l08A social creation and institutionalization of a new creation and institutionalization of a new creation and institutionalization of a new creation and institutionalization of a new creation and institutionalization of a new order'.l08A social order'.l08A social order'.l08A social order'.l08A social order'.l08A social revolution was consummated when one revolution was consummated when one revolution was consummated when one revolution was consummated when one revolution was consummated when one revolution was consummated when one political elite succeeded in creelite succeeded in creelite succeeded in creelite succeeded in creelite succeeded in creelite succeeded in creor or or or or or a or a or a or a or a ating or capturing political organizations-a revolutionary army, or a an an an an an of of of of of minimal minimal minimal minimal minimal revolutionary party controlling an army--capable of restoring minimal order and order and order and order and order and order and incorporating the revolutionary masses, especially the peasthe the the the the the the the the the into national life. No into national life. No into national life. No into national life. No into national life. No elite not able or elite not able or elite not able or elite not able or elite not able or to to to to to antry, into national life. No political elite not able or willing to accept the the the the the the peasants' revolutionary economic gains could hope to emerge vicvicvicvicvicvicto to to to to economic economic economic economic economic could could could could could torious from the intra-elite or torious from the intra-elite or torious from the intra-elite or torious from the intra-elite or torious from the intra-elite or torious from the intra-elite or inter-party conflicts that marked revoluconflicts that marked revoluconflicts that marked revoluconflicts that marked revoluconflicts that marked revoluconflicts that marked revoluElites with close social or politico-military ties Elites with close social or politico-military ties Elites with close social or politico-military ties Elites with close social or politico-military ties Elites with close social or politico-military ties tionary interregnums. Elites with close social or politico-military ties to traditional forms of landed to traditional forms of landed to traditional forms of landed to traditional forms of landed to traditional forms of landed to traditional forms of landed upper-class institutional power (i.e., the institutional institutional institutional institutional institutional the the the the the rentier rentier rentier rentier rentier of of of of of in in in in in the the the the the privileged rentier bourgeoisie of France, the Kerensky regime in Russia, the the the the the the [post-1927] Kuomintang in China) invariably lost out. in in in in in invariably lost invariably lost invariably lost invariably lost invariably lost The historical social revolutions did not The historical social revolutions did not The historical social revolutions did not The historical social revolutions did not The historical social revolutions did not The historical social revolutions did not culminate in more liberal in in in in in At At At At At of the of the of the of the of the political arrangements. At opening stages of the French, Russian (1905) and Chinese and Chinese and Chinese and Chinese and Chinese and Chinese landed landed landed landed landed revolutions, landed upper-class/middle-strata political coupper-class/middle-strata political upper-class/middle-strata political upper-class/middle-strata political upper-class/middle-strata political upper-class/middle-strata political alitions alitions alitions alitions alitions alitions espoused 'parliamentary liberal' programs.'09But events pushed liberal' programs.'09But liberal' programs.'09But liberal' programs.'09But liberal' programs.'09But liberal' programs.'09But pushed pushed pushed pushed pushed 107 Fox, op. cit., p. 90. Fox, op. cit., p. 90. Fox, op. cit., p. 90. Fox, op. cit., p. 90. Fox, op. cit., p. 90. Fox, op. cit., p. 90. 108Huntington, op. cit., p. 266. Huntington, op. cit., p. 266. Huntington, op. cit., p. 266. Huntington, op. cit., p. 266. Huntington, op. cit., p. 266. Huntington, op. cit., p. 266. 109See: Hampson, A Social History . ., Chap. 2; Sidney Harcave, The Russian See: Hampson, A Social History . ., See: Hampson, A Social History . ., See: Hampson, A Social History . ., See: Hampson, A Social History . ., See: Hampson, A Social History . ., The Russian The Russian The Russian The Russian The Russian 2; 2; 2; 2; 2; 206 206 206 206 206 206 THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL these groups and programs aside, for the organized elites who provided groups groups groups groups groups programs aside, programs aside, programs aside, programs aside, programs aside, organized organized organized organized organized provided provided provided provided provided the ultimately successful leadership in all social revolutions ended up ultimately ultimately ultimately ultimately ultimately up up up up up leadership leadership leadership leadership leadership responding responding responding responding responding responding to popular turmoil-counterrevolutionary threats at home popular turmoil-counterrevolutionary popular turmoil-counterrevolutionary popular turmoil-counterrevolutionary popular turmoil-counterrevolutionary popular turmoil-counterrevolutionary and abroad, peasant anarchist tendencies, and the international crises abroad, peasant abroad, peasant abroad, peasant abroad, peasant abroad, peasant tendencies, tendencies, tendencies, tendencies, tendencies, faced by their societies-by creating more highly centralized, bureauby by by by by societies-by creating societies-by creating societies-by creating societies-by creating societies-by creating highly centralized, highly centralized, highly centralized, highly centralized, highly centralized, cratized and rationalized state institutions than those that existed prior to prior prior prior prior prior the revolutions. This response, moreover, was entirely in character for entirely entirely entirely entirely entirely response, moreover, response, moreover, response, moreover, response, moreover, response, moreover, elites adhering to world views which gave consistent primacy to organized adhering adhering adhering adhering adhering organized organized organized organized organized human human human human human political action in human affairs.?10 The The The The The The strengthening and rationalizing of central state powers was the was the was the was the was the was the and and and and and of central state of central state of central state of central state of central state result of the French Revolution as result of the French Revolution as result of the French Revolution as result of the French Revolution as result of the French Revolution as result of the French Revolution as surely as of the Russian and Chinese. as of the Russian and Chinese. as of the Russian and Chinese. as of the Russian and Chinese. as of the Russian and Chinese. as of the Russian and Chinese. In In In In In In assessing the basic changes wrought by the French Revolution, Frankthe basic the basic the basic the basic the basic the French Revolution, Frankthe French Revolution, Frankthe French Revolution, Frankthe French Revolution, Frankthe French Revolution, Franklin Ford lin Ford lin Ford lin Ford lin Ford lin Ford assigns greatest importance, after the elimination of the estate after the elimination of the estate after the elimination of the estate after the elimination of the estate after the elimination of the estate after the elimination of the estate to to to to to transformations. After transformations. After transformations. After transformations. After transformations. After and and and and and system, to administrative, political and military transformations. After into into into into into at least at least at least at least at least 1789, 'citizen' masses were 1789, 'citizen' masses were 1789, 'citizen' masses were 1789, 'citizen' masses were 1789, 'citizen' masses were 1789, 'citizen' masses were incorporated into politics, at least symboland via the 'levee en masse' into the national and via the 'levee en masse' into the national and via the 'levee en masse' into the national and via the 'levee en masse' into the national and via the 'levee en masse' into the national More More More More More ically, and via the 'levee en masse' into the national army. More imporFrance France France France France tant, France came out of the revolutionary-Napoleoniccrisis with its administrativeorganization organization organization organization organization organization revolutionary-Napoleonic revolutionary-Napoleonic revolutionary-Napoleonic revolutionary-Napoleonic revolutionary-Napoleonic and . . . and . . . and . . . and . . . and . . . France retained a set of France retained a set of France retained a set of France retained a set of France retained a set of altered. . . . After altered. . . . After altered. . . . After altered. . . . After altered. . . . After profoundly and . . . irreversibly altered. . . . After 1815, France retained a set of system centrally system centrally system centrally system centrally system centrally budgetaryprocedures, budgetaryprocedures, budgetaryprocedures, budgetaryprocedures, budgetaryprocedures, budgetaryprocedures,a network of departmentalprefects, and a system of centrally departmentalprefects, departmentalprefects, departmentalprefects, departmentalprefects, departmentalprefects, chaos chaos chaos chaos chaos the the the the the in the in the in the in the in the of the deficit of the deficit of the deficit of the deficit of the deficit ex ex ex ex ex appointedjudges in the place of the deficit financingex post facto, the quaint chaos of provincial powers, and the court system based on ownership of office with which system system system system system ownership ownership ownership ownership ownership provincial powers, and provincial powers, and provincial powers, and provincial powers, and provincial powers, and the old monarchy had lived for centuries.111 Within France, Napoleon on the whole maintainedthe civil equality won during the France, Napoleon France, Napoleon France, Napoleon France, Napoleon France, Napoleon equality equality equality equality equality at least in the restrictedsense in which birth conferred no formal at least in the restrictedsense in which birth conferred no formal at least in the restrictedsense in which birth conferred no formal at least in the restrictedsense in which birth conferred no formal at least in the restrictedsense in which birth conferred no formal Revolution, at least in the restrictedsense in which birth conferred no formal priviefficiency, efficiency, efficiency, efficiency, efficiency, merely merely merely merely merely Enlightenment Enlightenment Enlightenment Enlightenment Enlightenment legacy legacy legacy legacy legacy lege. lege. lege. lege. lege. lege. Such of the legacy of the Enlightenmentas related merely to national efficiency, became a became a became a became a became a free trade and advanced technical free trade and advanced technical free trade and advanced technical free trade and advanced technical free trade and advanced technical for example internal free trade and advanced technical education, became a permanent part of French society. But nent part of French society. But nent part of French society. But nent part of French society. But nent part of French society. But nent part of French society. But much that the Enlightenmentregarded as essential Enlightenmentregarded Enlightenmentregarded Enlightenmentregarded Enlightenmentregarded Enlightenmentregarded arrest. In arrest. In arrest. In arrest. In arrest. In from from from from from disappeared,notably freedom of the press and freedom from arbitrary arrest. In many respects Napoleonic France many respects Napoleonic France many respects Napoleonic France many respects Napoleonic France many respects Napoleonic France many respects Napoleonic France was closer than the France of Louis XV to Montesquieu's conception of despotism.112 forward in all the historical social forward in all the historical social forward in all the historical social forward in all the historical social forward in all the historical social The 'liberal' reforms which were The 'liberal' reforms which were The 'liberal' reforms which were The 'liberal' reforms which were The 'liberal' reforms which were The 'liberal' reforms which were put forward in all the historical social for all citizens. for all citizens. for all citizens. for all citizens. for all citizens. of of of of of revolutions alike were revolutions alike were revolutions alike were revolutions alike were revolutions alike were revolutions alike were guarantees of equal personal rights for all citizens. to warrant to warrant to warrant to warrant to warrant Alone Alone Alone Alone Alone Alone they are not enough to warrant labelling any political regime are not are not are not are not are not 'liberal'. 'liberal'. 'liberal'. 'liberal'. 'liberal'. 'liberal'. Revolution of 1905 (London: Collier Books, 1970; first published in 1964); and of of of of of (London: (London: (London: (London: (London: Books, 1970; Books, 1970; Books, 1970; Books, 1970; Books, 1970; published 1964); published 1964); published 1964); published 1964); published 1964); Constitutionalists',pp. Constitutionalists',pp. Constitutionalists',pp. Constitutionalists',pp. Constitutionalists',pp. Wright, ed., op. Wright, ed., op. Wright, ed., op. Wright, ed., op. Wright, ed., op. P'eng-yuan Chang, P'eng-yuan Chang, P'eng-yuan Chang, P'eng-yuan Chang, P'eng-yuan Chang, P'eng-yuan Chang, 'The Constitutionalists',pp. 143-83 in Wright, ed., op. cit. 110On the Bolsheviks, see Robert V. Daniels, 'Lenin and the Russian RevolutionOn the Bolsheviks, see Robert V. Daniels, 'Lenin and the Russian RevolutionOn the Bolsheviks, see Robert V. Daniels, 'Lenin and the Russian RevolutionOn the Bolsheviks, see Robert V. Daniels, 'Lenin and the Russian RevolutionOn the Bolsheviks, see Robert V. Daniels, 'Lenin and the Russian RevolutionOn the Bolsheviks, see Robert V. Daniels, 'Lenin and the Russian Revolution339-54 in McLean, Malia and Fischer, eds., op. cit. Daniels 339-54 in McLean, Malia and Fischer, eds., op. cit. Daniels 339-54 in McLean, Malia and Fischer, eds., op. cit. Daniels 339-54 in McLean, Malia and Fischer, eds., op. cit. Daniels 339-54 in McLean, Malia and Fischer, eds., op. cit. Daniels ary Tradition', pp. 339-54 in McLean, Malia and Fischer, eds., op. cit. Daniels R Russia . . prompted Russia . . prompted Russia . . prompted Russia . . prompted Russia . . prompted that 'the more autocraticsocieties like that 'the more autocraticsocieties like that 'the more autocraticsocieties like that 'the more autocraticsocieties like that 'the more autocraticsocieties like argues that 'the more autocraticsocieties like pre-revolutionary ussia . . prompted a a a a a on individual on individual on individual on individual on individual and ideas . . and ideas . . and ideas . . and ideas . . and ideas . . historical theories which historical theories which historical theories which historical theories which historical theories which historical theories which put a premium on individual will, power and ideas . . ', 352. 352. 352. 352. 352. p. 352. 22-23. 22-23. 22-23. 22-23. 22-23. tershed?' American Historical Review 69(1) (October, 1963), 22-23. 112 112 112 112 112 112 Norman Hampson, The Enlightenment (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1968), 111 111 111 111 111 111Franklin L. Ford, 'The Revolutionary-NapoleonicEra: How Much of a WaL. L. L. L. L. 'The 'The 'The 'The 'The Era: How Much of a WaEra: How Much of a WaEra: How Much of a WaEra: How Much of a WaEra: How Much of a Wa- p. p. p. p. p. p. 262. A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 207 Thus, Thus, Thus, Thus, Thus, Thus, what changed most thoroughly in all of the historical social revchanged changed changed changed changed thoroughly thoroughly thoroughly thoroughly thoroughly olutions was the mode of societal control of the lower strata. Landed upupupupupup(at least) (at least) (at least) (at least) (at least) per per per per per per classes lost (at least) their special socio-political authority and their special socio-political authority special socio-political authority special socio-political authority special socio-political authority special socio-political authority roles in controlling the peasantry (however feebly) through local and controlling controlling controlling controlling controlling peasantry (however feebly) through peasantry (however feebly) through peasantry (however feebly) through peasantry (however feebly) through peasantry (however feebly) through regional quasi-political regional quasi-political regional quasi-political regional quasi-political regional quasi-political regional quasi-political institutional arrangements-the parlements and arrangements-the parlements arrangements-the parlements arrangements-the parlements arrangements-the parlements arrangements-the parlements Russia; Russia; Russia; Russia; Russia; France; France; France; France; France; seigneurial seigneurial seigneurial seigneurial seigneurial seigneurial courts in France; zemstvos and landed estates in Russia; clans, associations, sub-district, clans, associations, sub-district, clans, associations, sub-district, clans, associations, sub-district, clans, associations, sub-district, clans, associations, sub-district, district and provincial governments in provincial governments provincial governments provincial governments provincial governments provincial governments China. The peasantry and the urban lower strata were directly incordirectly directly directly directly directly peasantry peasantry peasantry peasantry peasantry national national national national national and economies, and economies, and economies, and economies, and economies, porated porated porated porated porated porated into now truly national polities and economies, institutionally and symbolically. symbolically. symbolically. symbolically. symbolically. symbolically. But wasn't the French Revolution a But wasn't the French Revolution a But wasn't the French Revolution a But wasn't the French Revolution a But wasn't the French Revolution a But wasn't the French Revolution a 'bourgeois' revolution, in conrevolution, in conrevolution, in conrevolution, in conrevolution, in conrevolution, in contrast to the 'communist' Chinese and Russian Revolutions? trast to the 'communist' Chinese and Russian Revolutions? trast to the 'communist' Chinese and Russian Revolutions? trast to the 'communist' Chinese and Russian Revolutions? trast to the 'communist' Chinese and Russian Revolutions? trast to the 'communist' Chinese and Russian Revolutions? Throughout, this this this this this this essay has emphasized patterns common to all three of the great hishas has has has has hishishishishiscommon to all three of the common to all three of the common to all three of the common to all three of the common to all three of the torical revolutions, thus torical revolutions, thus torical revolutions, thus torical revolutions, thus torical revolutions, thus torical revolutions, thus violating much of the common wisdom about much of the common wisdom about much of the common wisdom about much of the common wisdom about much of the common wisdom about much of the common wisdom about the the the the the the special 'bourgeois' nature of the French Revolution. The traditional nature of the French Revolution. The traditional nature of the French Revolution. The traditional nature of the French Revolution. The traditional nature of the French Revolution. The traditional nature of the French Revolution. The traditional about the French Revolution holds that it was in some sense about the French Revolution holds that it was in some sense about the French Revolution holds that it was in some sense about the French Revolution holds that it was in some sense about the French Revolution holds that it was in some sense argument about the French Revolution holds that it was in some sense made made made made made made by a 'strong' bourgeois economic class, and 'cleared the way' polita a a a a economic economic economic economic economic and 'cleared the and 'cleared the and 'cleared the and 'cleared the and 'cleared the and and and and and for for for for for industrialization in France. industrialization in France. industrialization in France. industrialization in France. industrialization in France. ically, judicially and socially for capitalist industrialization in France. of the view that the French Revolution was a of the view that the French Revolution was a of the view that the French Revolution was a of the view that the French Revolution was a of the view that the French Revolution was a Proponents of the view that the French Revolution was a 'bourgeois revolution' can revolution' can revolution' can revolution' can revolution' can revolution' can point to evidence which seems to support their point to evidence which seems to support their point to evidence which seems to support their point to evidence which seems to support their point to evidence which seems to support their point to evidence which seems to support their position. The French Revolution did not result in the complete elimination of complete complete complete complete complete property-owning upper property-owning upper property-owning upper property-owning upper property-owning upper property-owning upper classes.13 Neither did political elites take direct political political political political political control of the economy to spur national industrialization. Regional, esRegional, Regional, Regional, Regional, Regional, economy economy economy economy economy spur spur spur spur spur tate and guild barriers to the formation of a national market were elimiguild guild guild guild guild nated. And, in time, France did undergo capitalist industrialization. And, And, And, And, And, time, time, time, time, time, undergo capitalist undergo capitalist undergo capitalist undergo capitalist undergo capitalist Yet there are equally important facts which contradict the thesis of equally important equally important equally important equally important equally important the 'bourgeois revolution'. Before the Revolution, French 'industry' was Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, Revolution, 'bourgeois 'bourgeois 'bourgeois 'bourgeois 'bourgeois 'industry' 'industry' 'industry' 'industry' 'industry' non-mechanized,114 non-mechanized,114 non-mechanized,114 non-mechanized,114 non-mechanized,114 overwhelmingly overwhelmingly overwhelmingly overwhelmingly overwhelmingly overwhelmingly small-scale and non-mechanized,114and commercial and financial capital coexisted non-antagonistically, indeed symbiotically, capital capital capital capital capital non-antagonistically, non-antagonistically, non-antagonistically, non-antagonistically, non-antagonistically, symbiotically, symbiotically, symbiotically, symbiotically, symbiotically, with the more settled and prestigious 'proprietary'forms of wealth (land, (land, (land, (land, (land, (land, prestigious 'proprietary' prestigious 'proprietary' prestigious 'proprietary' prestigious 'proprietary' prestigious 'proprietary' venal office, annuities).ll5 During the Revolution, political leadership office, annuities).ll5 During office, annuities).ll5 During office, annuities).ll5 During office, annuities).ll5 During office, annuities).ll5 During Revolution, political leadership Revolution, political leadership Revolution, political leadership Revolution, political leadership Revolution, political leadership for the Third Estate was overwhelmingly recruited from the ranks of overwhelmingly overwhelmingly overwhelmingly overwhelmingly overwhelmingly intellectuals, intellectuals, intellectuals, intellectuals, intellectuals, professionals (especially lawyers), office-holders, professionals (especially lawyers), office-holders, professionals (especially lawyers), office-holders, professionals (especially lawyers), office-holders, professionals (especially lawyers), office-holders, professionals (especially lawyers), office-holders, and intellectuals, not commercial or industrial bourgeois. The men who ruled France after industrial industrial industrial industrial industrial men who ruled France after men who ruled France after men who ruled France after men who ruled France after men who ruled France after the Revolution were bureaucrats, landowners, soldiers, commercial and Revolution were bureaucrats, landowners, soldiers, commercial and Revolution were bureaucrats, landowners, soldiers, commercial and Revolution were bureaucrats, landowners, soldiers, commercial and Revolution were bureaucrats, landowners, soldiers, commercial and Revolution were bureaucrats, landowners, soldiers, commercial and financial capitalists, much as before."l Economically relevant reforms much as before."l much as before."l much as before."l much as before."l much as before."l relevant reforms relevant reforms relevant reforms relevant reforms relevant reforms enacted enacted enacted enacted enacted enacted during the Revolution were largely the culmination of '. . the the culmination of '. . the the culmination of '. . the the culmination of '. . the the culmination of '. . the the culmination of '. . the the Revolution were the Revolution were the Revolution were the Revolution were the Revolution were movement [started movement [started movement [started movement [started movement [started Colbert] for the abolition of internal Colbert] for the abolition of internal Colbert] for the abolition of internal Colbert] for the abolition of internal Colbert] for the abolition of internal century century century century century century old movement [started by Colbert] for the abolition of internal customs customs customs customs customs customs ... [a movement] . . . led throughout, and ultimately brought and and and and and [a movement] . . . led [a movement] . . . led [a movement] . . . led [a movement] . . . led [a movement] . . . led 113 113 113 113 113 113 A Social A Social A Social A Social A Social Hampson, A Social History ..., Chap. 10. 114 172-3. 172-3. 172-3. 172-3. 172-3. See, op. cit., pp. 172-3. 115 115 115 115 115 115 George V. Taylor, 'Noncapitalist Wealth and the Origins of the French RevoV. V. V. V. V. American American American American American lution', American Historical Review 72(2) (January, 1967): 469-96. 116 Cobban, Social Interpretation .. ., Chaps. 12 and 13. 208 208 208 208 208 208 THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL to success, not by the representatives of commercial and industrial insuccess, success, success, success, success, by by by by by representatives representatives representatives representatives representatives terests, terests, terests, terests, terests, terests, but by reforming officials'.117 by reforming by reforming by reforming by reforming by reforming From the point of view of what might have optimized conditions for what what what what what point point point point point French national industrialization, the French Revolution seems best industrialization, the French Revolution industrialization, the French Revolution industrialization, the French Revolution industrialization, the French Revolution industrialization, the French Revolution A few ministerial A few ministerial A few ministerial A few ministerial A few ministerial as either as either as either as either as either or or or or or interpreted as either overwrought or premature. A few ministerial rechances for chances for chances for chances for chances for forms under the Old forms under the Old forms under the Old forms under the Old forms under the Old forms under the Old Regime might well have optimized chances for might well have might well have might well have might well have might well have France France France France France France quickly to emulate British industrial developments (especially to emulate British industrial to emulate British industrial to emulate British industrial to emulate British industrial to emulate British industrial since Old since Old since Old since Old since Old since Old Regime officials were leaning toward a system of international of international of international of international of international of international officials were officials were officials were officials were officials were toward a toward a toward a toward a toward a Social Social Social Social Social free free free free free free trade, as exemplified by the Commercial Treaty of 1786). Social as as as as as of of of of of the Commercial the Commercial the Commercial the Commercial the Commercial revolution in revolution in revolution in revolution in revolution in revolution in France, as in Russia and China, strengthened national politnational national national national national as in Russia and as in Russia and as in Russia and as in Russia and as in Russia and ical ical ical ical ical ical to to to to to institutions, equipped them to mobilize people and resources to meet people and resources to meet people and resources to meet people and resources to meet people and resources to meet people and resources to meet equipped equipped equipped equipped equipped and to counter and to counter and to counter and to counter and to counter of of of of of the crises of modernization, to guarantee order at home, and to counter guarantee guarantee guarantee guarantee guarantee foreign foreign foreign foreign foreign foreign threats. Yet in Russia and China, emerging from revolutionary emerging emerging emerging emerging emerging crises in the twentieth century, strengthened national political institucentury, strengthened century, strengthened century, strengthened century, strengthened century, strengthened political political political political political tions could be used directly to promote enterprises already implanted directly directly directly directly directly promote enterprises already implanted promote enterprises already implanted promote enterprises already implanted promote enterprises already implanted promote enterprises already implanted technologies technologies technologies technologies technologies by foreign capital by foreign capital by foreign capital by foreign capital by foreign capital by foreign capital and employing models and advanced technologies employing employing employing employing employing from abroad. But in post-Revolutionary France, resources mobilized by by by by by by post-Revolutionary France, post-Revolutionary France, post-Revolutionary France, post-Revolutionary France, post-Revolutionary France, strengthened strengthened strengthened strengthened strengthened strengthened national institutions were dissipated in the adventuristic dissipated dissipated dissipated dissipated dissipated Napoleonic Wars, Napoleonic Wars, Napoleonic Wars, Napoleonic Wars, Napoleonic Wars, Napoleonic Wars, while France lost ground against her chief economic ground against ground against ground against ground against ground against competitor, competitor, competitor, competitor, competitor, competitor, Great Britain. The outcome could hardly have been different. hardly hardly hardly hardly hardly A French economy consisting entirely of small-scale agricultural and agricultural agricultural agricultural agricultural agricultural economy consisting entirely economy consisting entirely economy consisting entirely economy consisting entirely economy consisting entirely be be be be be non-mechanized) industrial units could non-mechanized) industrial units could non-mechanized) industrial units could non-mechanized) industrial units could non-mechanized) industrial units could (mostly non-mechanized) industrial units could hardly be directed from when foreign when foreign when foreign when foreign when foreign above (as the Jacobin interlude above (as the Jacobin interlude above (as the Jacobin interlude above (as the Jacobin interlude above (as the Jacobin interlude above (as the Jacobin interlude proved),118 especially when foreign models of models of models of models of models of models of large-scale industry were as yet in world history entirely in world in world in world in world in world were as were as were as were as were as lacking. similar to the Russian and the similar to the Russian and the similar to the Russian and the similar to the Russian and the similar to the Russian and the The French Revolution was The French Revolution was The French Revolution was The French Revolution was The French Revolution was The French Revolution was remarkably similar to the Russian and the officials to mobilize officials to mobilize officials to mobilize officials to mobilize officials to mobilize Chinese in its basic causes-failure of old Chinese in its basic causes-failure of old Chinese in its basic causes-failure of old Chinese in its basic causes-failure of old Chinese in its basic causes-failure of old Chinese in its basic causes-failure of old regime officials to mobilize national economic national economic national economic national economic national economic sufficient national resources to sufficient national resources to sufficient national resources to sufficient national resources to sufficient national resources to sufficient national resources to promote national economic development or threats from more or threats from more or threats from more or threats from more or threats from more counter counter counter counter counter and/or counter military competition or threats from more developed and and and and and nations abroad-and in its structural nations abroad-and in its structural nations abroad-and in its structural nations abroad-and in its structural nations abroad-and in its structural nations abroad-and in its structural dynamics-peasants and marginal landed upper class. That outcomes landed upper class. That outcomes landed upper class. That outcomes landed upper class. That outcomes landed upper class. That outcomes political political political political political political elites against a traditional landed upper class. That outcomes against against against against against differed-that in France no communist party emerged to fully displace party emerged to party emerged to party emerged to party emerged to party emerged to landed wealth, collectivize agriculture, and direct industrializationwealth, wealth, wealth, wealth, wealth, agriculture, agriculture, agriculture, agriculture, agriculture, is not only attributable to factors stressed by traditional theories of revby by by by by only only only only only olution, olution, olution, olution, olution, olution, such as the shape of the pre-revolutionary class structure"9 shape shape shape shape shape pre-revolutionary pre-revolutionary pre-revolutionary pre-revolutionary pre-revolutionary and the established ideological aims of avowed revolutionary elites, but revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary ideological ideological ideological ideological ideological also to the opportunities and requirements for state initiatives in indusrequirements requirements requirements requirements requirements opportunities opportunities opportunities opportunities opportunities 118On the difficulties with attempts to impose economic controls during the to to to to to economic controls during economic controls during economic controls during economic controls during economic controls during On the difficulties with On the difficulties with On the difficulties with On the difficulties with On the difficulties with The Sans Culottes, 'Conclusion';and Moore, op. The Sans Culottes, 'Conclusion';and Moore, op. The Sans Culottes, 'Conclusion';and Moore, op. The Sans Culottes, 'Conclusion';and Moore, op. The Sans Culottes, 'Conclusion';and Moore, op. Jacobin Jacobin Jacobin Jacobin Jacobin Jacobin see: see: see: see: see: ascendance, see: Soboul, The Sans Culottes, 'Conclusion';and Moore, op. 70-92. 70-92. 70-92. 70-92. 70-92. cit., pp. 70-92. 119 with reference to the with reference to the with reference to the with reference to the with reference to the or or or or or 'class structure' is 'class structure' is 'class structure' is 'class structure' is 'class structure' is Normally 'class structure' is analyzed only or mainly with reference to the and activities influence patand activities influence patand activities influence patand activities influence patand activities influence patof a of a of a of a of a but state but state but state but state but state mode of mode of mode of mode of mode of mode of production of a society, but state organization and activities influence patsocial forces social forces social forces social forces social forces terns of stratificationas well. State influences were crucial in terns of stratificationas well. State influences were crucial in terns of stratificationas well. State influences were crucial in terns of stratificationas well. State influences were crucial in terns of stratificationas well. State influences were crucial in terns of stratificationas well. State influences were crucial in creating social forces that that that that that that played key roles in the great historicalsocial revolutions. historicalsocial revolutions. historicalsocial revolutions. historicalsocial revolutions. historicalsocial revolutions. historicalsocial revolutions. roles in the roles in the roles in the roles in the roles in the 117 Ibid., p. 70. Ibid., p. 70. Ibid., p. 70. Ibid., p. 70. Ibid., p. 70. Ibid., p. 70. A STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS 209 209 209 209 209 209 trialization presented by the world political economy at the time each presented by presented by presented by presented by presented by political economy political economy political economy political economy political economy modernizing modernizing modernizing modernizing modernizing agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian agrarian bureaucratic society was incorporated into a modernizing world incorporated incorporated incorporated incorporated incorporated society society society society society and experienced social revolutionary transformation 'in response'. revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary revolutionary response'. response'. response'. response'. response'. experienced experienced experienced experienced experienced Let me sum up what this essay has attempted to do. To explain the explain explain explain explain explain essay essay essay essay essay up up up up up attempted attempted attempted attempted attempted revolutions, have, first, conceptualized revolutions, have, first, conceptualized revolutions, have, first, conceptualized revolutions, have, first, conceptualized revolutions, have, first, conceptualized great great great great great great historical social revolutions, I have, first, conceptualized a certain type type type type type type of society, the agrarian bureaucracy, in which social control of the society, society, society, society, society, agrarian bureaucracy, agrarian bureaucracy, agrarian bureaucracy, agrarian bureaucracy, agrarian bureaucracy, lower strata (mainly peasants) rests with institutions locally and rerests rests rests rests rests locally locally locally locally locally controlled controlled controlled controlled controlled with administrative with administrative with administrative with administrative with administrative landed landed landed landed landed classes, classes, classes, classes, classes, gionally controlled by landed upper classes, together with administrative and and and and and and military machineries centrally controlled; and second, I have dismachineries machineries machineries machineries machineries controlled; and second, I have discontrolled; and second, I have discontrolled; and second, I have discontrolled; and second, I have discontrolled; and second, I have discussed differences between cussed differences between cussed differences between cussed differences between cussed differences between cussed differences between agrarian bureaucracies which did and those bureaucracies which did and those bureaucracies which did and those bureaucracies which did and those bureaucracies which did and those bureaucracies which did and those which did not which did not which did not which did not which did not which did not experience social revolutions in terms of (a) institutional institutional institutional institutional institutional institutional social revolutions in terms of social revolutions in terms of social revolutions in terms of social revolutions in terms of social revolutions in terms of structures which mediate landed structures which mediate landed structures which mediate landed structures which mediate landed structures which mediate landed structures which mediate landed upper-class relations to state apparatuses relations to state relations to state relations to state relations to state relations to state and and and and and and peasant relations to landed upper classes and (b) types and amounts and amounts and amounts and amounts and amounts and amounts relations to landed relations to landed relations to landed relations to landed relations to landed classes and classes and classes and classes and classes and of international of international of international of international of international of international political and economic pressures (especially originating and economic and economic and economic and economic and economic with more with more with more with more with more with more developed nations) impinging upon agrarian bureaucracies bureaucracies bureaucracies bureaucracies bureaucracies bureaucracies into the into the into the into the into the to to to to to world. world. world. world. world. newly incorporated into the modernizing world. According to my analysis, social social social social social social revolutions occurred in those modernizing agrarian bureaucracies modernizing agrarian modernizing agrarian modernizing agrarian modernizing agrarian modernizing agrarian -France, Russia and China-which both incubated peasantries strucpeasantries peasantries peasantries peasantries peasantries turally prone turally prone turally prone turally prone turally prone turally prone to autonomous insurrection and experienced severe adexperienced experienced experienced experienced experienced ministrative and military disorganization due to the direct or indirect military disorganization military disorganization military disorganization military disorganization military disorganization effects of military competition or threats from more modern nations military competition military competition military competition military competition military competition abroad. In the process of elucidating this basic argument, I have at one point process process process process process elucidating elucidating elucidating elucidating elucidating point point point point point argument, argument, argument, argument, argument, or another alluded to evidence concerning Prussia (Germany), Japan (Germany), Japan (Germany), Japan (Germany), Japan (Germany), Japan (Germany), Japan concerning concerning concerning concerning concerning Russia Russia Russia Russia Russia 1905. Obviously 1905. Obviously 1905. Obviously 1905. Obviously 1905. Obviously (and Turkey), (and Turkey), (and Turkey), (and Turkey), (and Turkey), (and Turkey), and Russia in 1905. Obviously the coverage of these and other 'negative' cases has been far from complete. Yet partial explanaYet Yet Yet Yet Yet 'negative' cases has been far from 'negative' cases has been far from 'negative' cases has been far from 'negative' cases has been far from 'negative' cases has been far from tions have been offered for the avoidance of social revolution by PrusPrusPrusPrusPrusPrusoffered for the avoidance of social revolution offered for the avoidance of social revolution offered for the avoidance of social revolution offered for the avoidance of social revolution offered for the avoidance of social revolution and Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia and Russia 1916. 1916. 1916. 1916. 1916. sia/Germany, sia/Germany, sia/Germany, sia/Germany, sia/Germany, sia/Germany, Japan and Russia through 1916. Japan and Russia escaped in the face of moderate in the face of moderate in the face of moderate in the face of moderate in the face of moderate from from from from from administrative/military collapse in the face of moderate challenges from abroad because their traditional abroad because their traditional abroad because their traditional abroad because their traditional abroad because their traditional abroad because their traditional governmental elites were significantly elites were elites were elites were elites were elites were differentiated from landed differentiated from landed differentiated from landed differentiated from landed differentiated from landed differentiated from landed upper classes. Prussia lacked a structurally classes. Prussia lacked a classes. Prussia lacked a classes. Prussia lacked a classes. Prussia lacked a classes. Prussia lacked a and therefore and therefore and therefore and therefore and therefore in in in in in autonomous, insurrection-prone peasantry, and therefore when, in 1848, the the the the the the King hesitated for a year to use his armies to repress popular disdisdisdisdisdishesitated for a hesitated for a hesitated for a hesitated for a hesitated for a to use his armies to to use his armies to to use his armies to to use his armies to to use his armies to the Junker-led the Junker-led the Junker-led the Junker-led the Junker-led manned manned manned manned manned from the estates from the estates from the estates from the estates from the estates turbances, the Junker-led army, manned by peasants from the estates east of the east of the east of the east of the east of the east of the Elbe, remained loyal and intact until it was finally used to remained remained remained remained remained and intact until it was and intact until it was and intact until it was and intact until it was and intact until it was used to used to used to used to used to crush the German Revolutions crush the German Revolutions crush the German Revolutions crush the German Revolutions crush the German Revolutions crush the German Revolutions 1849-50. 1849-50. 1849-50. 1849-50. 1849-50. during 1849-50. This This This This This This comparative historical analysis has been meant to render plausible historical historical historical historical historical has been meant to render plausible has been meant to render plausible has been meant to render plausible has been meant to render plausible has been meant to render plausible a theoretical a theoretical a theoretical a theoretical a theoretical a theoretical approach to explaining revolutions which breaks with certo to to to to revolutions which breaks with cerrevolutions which breaks with cerrevolutions which breaks with cerrevolutions which breaks with cerrevolutions which breaks with certain tain tain tain tain tain long-established sociological proclivities. While existing theories While While While While While theories theories theories theories theories of revolution focus on of revolution focus on of revolution focus on of revolution focus on of revolution focus on of revolution focus on discontent, and its articulation by oppositional and its articulation by oppositional and its articulation by oppositional and its articulation by oppositional and its articulation by oppositional and its articulation by oppositional or or or or or as the fundamental cause of as the fundamental cause of as the fundamental cause of as the fundamental cause of as the fundamental cause of I have I have I have I have I have programs or ideologies, as the fundamental cause of revolutions, I have of societal social control of societal social control of societal social control of societal social control of societal social control mechanisms and mechanisms and mechanisms and mechanisms and mechanisms and emphasized mechanisms and dynamics of societal social control through and class domination. and class domination. and class domination. and class domination. and class domination. while while while while while view the view the view the view the view the political and class domination. Moreover, while other theories view the 210 210 210 210 210 210 THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL THEDA SKOCPOL (as (as (as (as (as revolution) revolution) revolution) revolution) revolution) impact impact impact impact impact impact of modernization (as a cause of revolution) in terms of the effects of processes of economic development on class structures, 'system equistructures, 'system equistructures, 'system equistructures, 'system equistructures, 'system equistructures, 'system equiprocesses processes processes processes processes development development development development development librium', librium', librium', librium', librium', librium', or societal members' levels of satisfaction, my approach focuses satisfaction, satisfaction, satisfaction, satisfaction, satisfaction, on the effects of modernization-viewed also as an inter-societal politicomodernization-viewed also as an inter-societal modernization-viewed also as an inter-societal modernization-viewed also as an inter-societal modernization-viewed also as an inter-societal modernization-viewed also as an inter-societal of the of the of the of the of the bureaucratic bureaucratic bureaucratic bureaucratic bureaucratic strategic process-upon adaptive capacities of the agrarian bureaucratic states and states and states and states and states and states and upon the opportunities open to political elites who triumph the the the the the to to to to to elites who elites who elites who elites who elites who in revolutions. in revolutions. in revolutions. in revolutions. in revolutions. in revolutions. of these ideas will of these ideas will of these ideas will of these ideas will of these ideas will more more more more more Obviously, thorough testing of these ideas will require more precise delineation of delineation of delineation of delineation of delineation of delineation of concepts and the extension of hypotheses derived from this and the extension of and the extension of and the extension of and the extension of and the extension of derived from this derived from this derived from this derived from this derived from this to new cases. But I have made a start. And I to new cases. But I have made a start. And I to new cases. But I have made a start. And I to new cases. But I have made a start. And I to new cases. But I have made a start. And I that that that that that analysis to new cases. But I have made a start. And I hope that especially those who those who those who those who those who those who disagree with my conclusions will themselves turn to historical with with with with with conclusions will themselves turn to historical conclusions will themselves turn to historical conclusions will themselves turn to historical conclusions will themselves turn to historical conclusions will themselves turn to historical evidence to evidence to evidence to evidence to evidence to evidence to their cases. Social science can best their cases. Social science can best their cases. Social science can best their cases. Social science can best their cases. Social science can best the the the the the argue their cases. Social science can best grow through the of of of of of and historical and historical and historical and historical and historical and comparative historiand comparative historiand comparative historiand comparative historiand comparative historiinterplay of theory and historical investigation, and comparative historical cal cal cal cal cal analysis represents one indispensable tool for achieving this. one one one one one ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/15/2010 for the course SOC 100 taught by Professor Chen during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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