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NPB 100 Lecture 13

NPB 100 Lecture 13 - Lecture 13-Long term potentiation and...

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Lecture 13 -Long term potentiation and long term depression lasts a long time needed for consolidation of memory -LTP’s are site specific (only those synapses that are active during the induction of an LTP will be affected) and associative (synapses active simultaneously during the induction of LTP will all be upregulated themselves) -cellular mechanism: induction of LTP is largely post-synaptic involving NMDA and AMPA channels. NMDA channels voltage-dependent (need postsynaptic cell to depolarize to stop the blockage by Mg2+) -there is also a presynaptic component (retrograde messengers) -likely retrograde messengers are nitric oxide, membrane-permeable gas that can be produced enzymatically in the postsynaptic spines, and can diffuse through the cell membrane to the membrane of other cells in the immediate region; bind w/ targets there and influence the strength of the synapse -Embryogenesis -Gastrulation -Formation of Neural Plate -Formation of Nervous System (Neurulation) -Genetic control of organization of Nervous Genes -Homeotic complex ( Hox genes: control the development of the anterior to posterior axis in all segmented animals) -Go from 2 cells (an egg and a sperm) that fuse to form a single diploid cell called the zygote -From the cell divisions of the zygote, get a sequence of specialization of subsequent cells -Initially just a ball of cell (the morula), cell division proceeds, and the cells spread all into a blastula -At this point, development of almost all animals pretty much the same -Starts going from a single layer to 3-layers thick: the gastrula stage -Have now a neural plate -From this point on, this is called the embryo
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-Gastrulation: refers to the formulation of the gut. Formation of the nervous system depends on this step since this is when the neural plate forms -To construct the nervous system, a whole sequence of things must occur: -1. Differentiation in neurons mean that they undergo terminal cell divisions. Neurons no longer divide; can use radioactive markers to see when specific kinds of neurons are born. -2. Migration: neurons must migrate to sites where they belong. From early embryogenesis to adulthood -3. Axon and dendrite elongation -4. Synapse formation -5. Neuronal cell deaths: due to excessive number of neurons being produced. Required to get the right match of neurons and the number of different targets that they might have -Slide 1. C. elegans -nervous system has determinate development (pattern of cell divisions very rigidly specified knocking out particular cells in the embryo, knock out whole pieces in the adult animal) -Eutelic: each individual of the same species of the same sex has the same number of cells -male 1031 cells -female 959 cells -neurons 381 in male; 302 in females -Slide 2 older diagram of the nervous system of the C. elegans -long nerve cords down the length of the animals connected periodically by commissures (something that runs from one side to another) -unsegmented -Slide 3: arthropod nervous system -also determinate development
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NPB 100 Lecture 13 - Lecture 13-Long term potentiation and...

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