NPB 100 Lecture 15

NPB 100 Lecture 15 - Lecture 15 -Overview of the...

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Lecture 15 -Overview of the vertebrate’s brain -Eyes -Process of phototransduction -Organization of vertebrate retina -Sensory Processing -Receptive fields -Parallel processing -overview of vertebrate brain -range of sizes and complexities -parts that are clearly recognizable between vertebrates -olfactory bulb: concerned with odor perception -cerebrum: sometimes convoluted (have folds) -optic tract -optic tectum in birds and fish -cerebellum -brainstem -cerebrum is telencephalic region (includes the olfactory bulbs, neocortex and paleocortex, hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala) -diencephalon (thalamus and hypothalamus) -thalamus: the major visual projections come into the thalamus called the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) -MGN is used for auditory processing
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-called processing because they handle the flow of information from the periphery or proprioceptive input from the spinal cord up to the neocortex -the cortical region then projects back into the thalamus -mesencephalon -optic tectum (superior colliculus in mammals): deals with visual information -inferior colliclus: deals with auditory information -metencephalon -cerebellum: motor tuning and motor learning -myencephalon (brainstem): where a lot of different nuclei are present, process information coming in from the different cranial nerves and also information from the spinal cord -vision -ability to detect changes in electromagnetic radiations, photons -photons (370-730nm) are most abundant, strongest most intense kind of EM that reaches us. Different wavelength of light perceived as different color. -photons can vary in wavelength and intensity (how many photons/second) -differences in intensity and wavelength due to reflection or absorption of different structures -eyes are organs for transducing the flux of photons into neural signals -good eyes will do 2 things: -preserve positional information (can tell where light is coming from) -extract information about wavelength and intensity -3 kinds of eyes -ocellus -Latin for little eye -common in many kinds of animals -not good at preserving positional information
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-good for detecting light intensity and sometimes colors -compound eyes -occur in many arthropods and amphibians -can be high resolution color vision, good clarity -camera eyes -human, spiders, octopus -damsel fly -hunt mosquito visually -individually, repeating flaccid in compound eye -called ommatidium -each compound eye has about has as 30000 -each flaccid capture light from a particular position and also about wavelength and color, excellent high acuity vision -ocelli -3 on top of the head -used for flight stabilization -by looking at the light illumination above
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NPB 100 Lecture 15 - Lecture 15 -Overview of the...

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