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Human Cardiovascular System-2

Human Cardiovascular System-2 - 1 Human Cardiovascular...

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1 Human Cardiovascular System NPB 101L Lecture 3 The Heart Four compartments: Right and left atria, right and left ventricles Blood pumped into RA from systemic circulation From RV to Lungs via Pulmonary artery o Blood oxygenated in lungs From Lungs to LA via pulmonary veins Out of LV into Aorta circulation Job of the heart is to pump blood through the entire body Deliver O 2 and nutrients to organs and tissues Remove metabolites and waste products from tissues CO = HR × SV (L/min = beats/min × L/beat) Cardiac Output is the rate blood is pumped out of the LV (L/min) o In an average resting adult ~5 L/min (all of your bodies blood passes through your heart once per minute) Heart Rate is the speed the heart beats (beats/min) Stroke Volume is the volume of blood ejected into the aorta each beat (L/beat) Blood flow through the body Q = Δ P/R where R = 8L η / π r 4 Fluid flows from high pressure to low pressure Flow will decrease as vascular resistance is increased o R is proportional to length (L) and viscosity ( η ) o R is inversely proportional to the radius (r) of the vessel
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2 o Vascular resistance is measure of how hard it is to make fluid flow through the vessel o Total Peripheral Resistance is the overall resistance to flow through the entire systemic circulation Blood flow is regulated primarily through changes in vessel radius Flow does influence pressure b/c flow in and out determines steady-state volume Hemodynamic Concepts Compliance o Pressure inside a vessel depends on volume of blood in the vessel and how easily it can be stretched (dispensability) Compliance = Δ V/ Δ P If it can be easily stretched then large quantities of blood can be added with only modest increases in pressure and visa versa Capacitance is the holding capacity of the vessel thus closely related to compliance o If the vessel is compliant then it has a large capacitance The vasculature Aorta
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