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xs95652 - NPB 101 NAME X5 5655-1 Spring 1996 MIDTERM...

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Unformatted text preview: NPB 101 NAME X5 5655-1- Spring 1996 MIDTERM I (White Version) April 29, 1996 INSTRUCTIONS: Use SCAN-TRON Form No. 882 ONLY. A No. 2 pencil MUST be used.- Erasures MUST be complete. Completely darken the proper answer space. Choose the BEST answer to each-question. 1 2 3 4 5. Do not make any extraneous marks on the answer sheet. 6 7 TI’ ere are 31 questions. 8 Hand 1n the SCAN— TRON form and this sheet WITH YOUR NAME ON IT. NPB 101 page 2 Midterm I Systemic Physiology Spring 1996 1. Which of the following matches is (are) correct? a. b. c. d. e. actin - binding site for myosin myosin - heads of heavy meromyosin & ATPase activity Troponin subunit T - calcium binding site. a and b. a, b and c. 2. Which statement about the visual system is FALSE? a. When light is absorbed by a photoreceptor it releases more neurotransmitter. b. Your eyes adapt to bright light by a reduction of the photosensitive pigments in the receptors. c. Retinal ganglion cells show center-surround antagonism in their receptive fields. d. Hierarchical processing allows cells in the visual cortex to respond to a bar of light with a particular orientation. e. Sodium ion channels in photoreceptors are regulated ‘by cGMP. 3. Which statement about the role of ion channels in the action potential of a “typical” neuron is FALSE? a. The rapid depolarization is caused by opening voltage-gated sodium channels. b. All voltage gated sodium channels open at the same threshold membrane potential. c. Voltage gated potassium channels help rapidly repolarize the membrane. d. Opening of chemically (ligand) gated channels at a synapse may initiate an action potential. 6. While inactivated, a sodium channel does not allow sodium ions to pass through it. 4. ' Which statement (a-d) about hearing is FALSE? a. To transduce sound, hair cells produce graded potentials. b. A high frequency sound (e.g. 10,000 Hz) will cause the same frequency of action potential in auditory nerve cells. c. Different sound frequencies will cause different portions of the basilar membrane to vibrate most. ’ d. The primary auditory cortex is in the temporal lobe. e. None of the above is false. NPB 101 page 3 Midterm I stemic Ph siolo rin 1996 5. Use the information in the figure to answer the question below. Several neurons are shown synapsing on the cell body of neuron #5. A pipette with a drug is near the synapse with neuron #2. Records of synaptic potentials created in neuron #5 are shown in A—D. Arrows show the time of a single stimulation of the indicated neurons. #5 Y»! /O~ a"; 3 Which statement below is FALSE? Record A shows an example of pre-synaptic inhibition. Record B is an example of temporal summation. Record D suggests that activation of Neuron 4 alone would cause IPSPs in Neuron 5 , The mechanism of the drug used in Record C could be to block neurotransmitter re~uptake. The mechanism of the drug used in Record C could be to mimic the transmitter from Neuron 2. 99.0?!» 6. Which statement (a—d) about the cells in your body is FALSE? There are hundreds of different cell types. They can be categorized into 4 different types of tissue. An organ is made from all types of tissue. They are in contact with the plasma or interstitial fluid. None of the above are false. {DP-99'!” 7. In the absence of ATP you would expect no energizing of the myosin head. dissociation of the actin-myosin complex. the actin — myosin complex to remain coupled. a and b. a, and c. 9999‘s» NPB 101 page 4 Midterm I Systemic Physiology Spring 1996 10. ll. 12. Which statement about the somatosensory system is FALSE? a. Each type of sensory receptor transduces a specific type of physical stimulus best. b. A stronger stimulus is encoded by a higher frequency of action potentials than a weak stimulus. c. Each receptor neuron has a limited receptive field. (1. Relay nuclei allow convergence and divergence, inhibitory interactions, and descending modulation of sensory information. e. Somatosensory information is sent to the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex on the same side of the body. Which statement about sleep is FALSE? a. Sleep is one example of a circadian rhythm. b. Without light as a stimulus, there is no cyclic sleep/wake pattern. c. The EEG during REM sleep is de-synchronized just as it is in an alert person. d. There are centers for producing sleep in the brainstem. e. A variety of stimuli can awaken a person via activation of the reticular activating system. Which statement about control of motor systems is FALSE? The cortex has direct and indirect influences on the spinal cord neurons. The brainstem has motor areas for postural control. Some simple motor patterns are encoded in spinal cord circuits. The basal ganglia coordinate learned movements via direct input to the spinal cord. The motor cortex of each cerebral hemisphere is topographically organized and controls muscles on the opposite side of the body. 09.0.65» Which statement (a—d) about the visual system is FALSE? a. Both the cornea and the lens bend light to form an image on the retina. Rod photoreceptors are more sensitive to light than cones. c. Rod visual pathways have less convergence onto retinal ganglion cells than cone visual pathways. (1. Cone photoreceptors mediate color vision. e. None of the above are false. 9‘ Which statement (a-d) about homeostatic regulation of your body is FALSE? It uses positive feedback loops to counteract changes. It requires communication between cells. It is necessary because cells can only function within limited environmental conditions. It keeps the composition of the extracellular fluids relatively constant. None of the above are false. {DP-.057.” NPB 101 Systemic Physiology Spring 1996 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. page 5 Midterm 1 Which statement about the neuromuscular junction in mammalian skeletal muscle is FALSE? 9-.” It uses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Spatial summation is needed to cause a large enough end plate potential to generate a muscle cell action potential. The alpha motor neuron can be excited by voluntary input from the brain. The alpha motor neuron can be excited by reflex inputs from afferent neurons. The receptor proteins on the muscle cell are nicotinic. Which of the following will lead to greater tension or force development? a. b. c. d e Stimulating the muscle to contract at a length longer than the physiological length of the muscle. Activating a smaller rather than a larger motor unit. Recruitment of more motor units. a and c. none of the above are correct. In skeletal muscle the action potential enters the transverse tubule and activates the release of calcium from the lateral sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. a. b. \ True False Which statement about synaptic transmission is FALSE? a. b. c. d. e. Synaptic potentials are graded potentials. An EPSP will bring the membrane potential closer to the action potential threshold. Calcium release from the postsynaptic terminal triggers neurotransmitter release. One neuron can make synaptic contacts with many other neurons. ‘ Synaptic potentials decay as they travel along the membrane. Which statement (a-d) about taste, olfaction, or balance is FALSE? a. b. c. d The semicircular canals detect angular accelerations. Otoliths are found in the utricle and saccule. The vestibular system uses hair cells to transduce accelerations. There is a different type of taste bud for every specific type of food molecule you can taste. Olfactory receptors are replaced periodically. NPB 101 page 6 Midterm I S stemic Ph siolo ‘ :1 :: g1: Spring 1996 18. 19. 99.qu Which statement about skeletal muscle reflexes is FALSE? A muscle spindle detects muscle length. The spindle sensitivity is regulated by gamma motor neurons. During voluntary muscle contractions, alpha and gamma motor neurons are co-activated. Activation of la fiber by a quick stretch causes relaxation of that muscles extrafusal fibers. e. Activation of a Golgi tendon organ causes inhibition of alpha motor neurons innervating that - same muscle. 999'.” Which statement about the anatomy of sympathetic nervous system is FALSE? a. The cell bodies of the pre-ganglionic neurons are located in the brain and sacral portions of the spinal cord. The pre—ganglionic neurons are usually short. It innervates (supplies) visceral structures (e.g. Smooth muscle, glands). It innervates the medulla of the adrenal gland. There can be divergence of the pre-ganglionic cells onto many post~ganglionic cells. 09.0.0“ Use the information about a hypothetical cell in the following table to answer the question below. You may assume that each type of ion has about the same total number of ions. The resting membrane potential is -40 mV (Vm = ~40 mV) ION EQUILIBRIUM POTENTIAL RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AT REST W 0 mV 1 X -80 mV 2 y not determined 300 Z +40 mV 1 Which statement (a-d) is FALSE? If a neurotransmitter opens an ion channel for ion W, it will cause a depolarization (EPSP). .- , If the relative permeability for ion X,rchanged to 100 the cell would hyperpolarize. Ion Y has a minor effect on the resting membrane potential. The concentration of ion W is equal inside and outside. None of the above are false. NPB 101 page 7 Midterm I Systemic Physiology Spring 1996 21. Which statement about Neuroanatomy is FALSE? All cell bodies of neurons are located in the central nervous system.’ The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. ‘ A nerve is a bundle of many neuron axons. Axons are found in the white matter of the central nervous system. A somatic efferent neuron would travel in the ventral root, and synapse with a skeletal muscle. 0999‘s» 22. Which statement (a-d) about neural plasticity is FALSE? There are many more neurons in the brain than there are different genes. Sensory systems develop differently depending on the early experience of the person. Learning involves changes in synaptic strength or reorganization of synapses. The hippocampus is needed for consolidation of short-term memory into long-term memory. None of the above are false. 999?.» 23. Which statement (a-d) about the plasma membrane is FALSE? In all cells, there is an electrical potential across the membrane. Ions are moved across the membrane by both active and passive transport mechanisms. The cytoplasmic surface of the membrane consists of hydrophobic lipid tails. It acts as both a selective barrier, and an interface with the external environment. 9‘99”?” 24. Which statement about the conduction of action potentials is FALSE? A larger diameter axon has less axoplasmic resistance, which increases conduction velocity. An action potential at one place on the membrane brings the adjacent region to threshold. Myelin increases the conduction velocity by increasing the membrane capacitance. Myelin increases the conduction velocity by increasing the membrane resistance. ». They normally propagate along the axon towards the terminals. 99.0.6.2» k) UI Which statement about human sensory systems is FALSE? Different types of sensory information are sent to different lobes of the cerebral cortex. They are not particularly sensitive to change and contrast. Some systems are mapped topographically on the cerebral cortex. Conscious perception of stimuli occurs in the cerebral cortex. Different sensory modalities are integrated in association cortex. PP—PP‘P NPB 10] page 8 Midterm I fistemic Physiology Spring 1996 26. Consider the following hypothetical cell. There may be ions other than those shown. The relative concentrations of each ion is indicated by the size of the letter. These concentrations are maintained. You may assume the membrane is permeable to these ions. Vrn = -80 mV IN OUT ? A A” + B B+ EB+ = -40 mv C' C‘ From the above information which statement (a-d) is FALSE? There is a net passive movement of ion C'. The equilibrium potential for ion A (charge unknown) could be negative. The net passive movement of ion B+ is from outside to inside. One of these ions must be at equilibrium. 9.097!” Which statement about the auditory system anatomy is FALSE? The middle ear contains the ossicles (bones). The tympanic membrane (eardrum) lies between the external and middle ear. The inner ear has fluid filled chambers. Auditory hair cells have cilia that project into the tectorial membrane. The eustachian tube connects the inner ear with the external ear. 99.ng Which of the following statements is (are) correct in describing skeletal muscle contraction? a. For an isotonic contraction there is sarcomere’ shortening and tension developement before there is external muscle shortening. b. For an isotonic contraction in which the muscle is maximally activated, increasing the load against which the muscle contracts (increasing tension) also increases the magnitude of external shortening. c. A skeletal muscle is maximally activated. This muscle will develop the same tension for both an isotonic and an isometric contraction. d. a and b. e. a, b and c. NPB 101 page 9 Midterm I Systemic Physiology Spring 1996 29. Which statement (a-d) about action potentials is FALSE? a. They are a way to quickly send a signal a long distance, without decrement. b. They have an absolute refractory period, during which a second action potential cannot be generated. c. Some types of neurons do not produce action potentials. (1. Action potentials are brief reversals of the membrane potential. e. None of the above are false. 30. Which statement about the physiology of the autonomic nervous system is FALSE? a. The efferents are not voluntarily controlled. b. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions often supply the same target tissue but usually have opposite effects on that tissue. c. The sympathetic post-ganglionics most often release norcpincphrine (noradrenaline). All pre-ganglionic neurons are cholinergic. e. N orepinephrine has excitatory effects on muscarinic receptors. P- 31. What color is your exam? a. White. b. Green. c. Blue. (1. Yellow. 6. Pink. ...
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