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4 - Maps Yeah Yeah Yeahs 4 I Archaeological Data i Record...

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Maps- Yeah Yeah Yeahs 4 I. Archaeological Data i. Record composed of surviving and retrievable material b. Artifacts- portable objects whose form is modified or wholly created by human activity. i. Hammers, pottery vessels c. Features-nonportable human-made remains that cannot be removed from their place of discovery without altering or destroying their original form. Usually define an area where one or more activities once took place. i. Simple Features 1. Hearths 2. Burials 3. Storage pits 4. Roads ii. Composite Features 1. Buildings 2. other remains with multiple parts iii. Differentiate from nondeliberate constructed features 1. Trash heaps- grown by simple accumulation d. Ecofacts- nonartifactual natural remains that nonetheless have cultural relevance. Any natural material that provides info about past human behavior i. Following reflect ancient environmental conditions, diets, and resource exploitation patterns 1. Bones a. With cut marks from butchering i. Artifact- reflecting human technology ii. Ecofact- yielding clues to ancient envrionment and subsistence 2. Seeds 3. Pollen 4. Soils ii. Significantly modified by human activity 1. remains of domesticated plants and animals iii. Unmodified by human action 1. remains of undomesticated plants and animals or soil. e. Sites- special clusters of artifacts, features, and ecofacts i. Some consist of only one form of data 1. A surface scatter of artifacts ii. Combinations of all three forms of archaeological data iii. Distinguished by one or more functions that they served in the past 1. Habitation sites 2. trading centers 3. hunting (or kill) sites 4. ceremonial centers
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5. burial areas iv. Described in terms of their cultural affiliation of chronological position 1. American Southwest Site a. Belonging to the Anasazi or Chacoan traditions 2. Mesoamerican Site a. Identified as Late Formative v. Nature and depth of cultural deposits can reveal time span of activities. 1. whether occupation was brief of extended 2. Some sites occupation and deposition of artifacts is continuous 3. Others multiple occupations, periods of abandonment marked by naturally deposited layers- nonartifactual/sterile 4. Depth of accumulation not automatic indicator of length of occupation. a. Remains can be thick or thin, visible or unvisible. i. Unvisible- underground or underwater 1. Underwater a. Sunken ships b. Submerged sites -changes in water level or land subsidence f. Regions- largest and most flexible spatial clustters of archaeological data. i. Geographical concept- a definable area bounded by topographic features such as mountains, bodies of water. ii. Archaeological region- also often based on ecological and cultural factors. 1. Definition and scope vary according to degree of complexity of society and its means of subsistence iii. Can be defined as the area used by prehistoric population to provide its food and water.
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