Psychology 100A –
Winter 2010
Homework set #1 – Covering important concepts in Chapters 14 of Kiess.
Kiess has more problems than I’ve assigned. Try more of these problems if
you want practice.
(1)
(Adapted from Kiess)
Students learning the basic ballet positions often have
difficulty assuming the correct foot position. One problem is foot pronation, (the foot rolling in
when the heals are placed together and the toes point laterally outward). To help students
overcome this problem, Clarkson et al. (1986) formed two equivalent groups of women who had
no previous ballet training. Both groups were taught the basic ballet positions and the amount of
time the feet pronated was measured. For one group, a student was warned by a buzzer when her
foot pronated. Students in the other group received no feedback. Clarkson et al. found that the
subjects with buzzer feedback had only 3.1 seconds of foot pronation while the subjects without
feedback had 21.8 seconds of feet pronation. A statistical test confirmed that the difference in
foot pronation was not due to chance.
(A) What population do these subjects belong to?
(B) Suggest a way of making the two groups equivalent.
(C) What is the independent variable manipulated by Clarkson et al.?
(1) feedback
(2) basic ballet positions
(3) degree of pronation
(4) time
(5) none of the above
(D) The independent variable is
(1) a ratio measurement
(2) a nominal measurement
(3) an ordinal measurement
(4) an interval measurement
(5) none of the above, we classify only dependent variables
(E) Is it discrete or continuous?
(F) What is the dependent variable measured by Clarkson et al.?
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 Winter '10
 FIRSTENBERG,I.
 Psychology, Level of measurement, Kiess, basic ballet positions

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