Chapt_15_stu_10th_ed_07

Chapt_15_stu_10th_ed_07 - Consider the reaction H 2 Cl 2>...

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Unformatted text preview: Consider the reaction H 2 + Cl 2---> 2 HCl 1 mole 1 mole 2 moles H 2 + I 2-------> 2 HI 1 mole 1 mole < 2 moles Reason the reaction 2 HI -------> H 2 + I 2 also takes place. All chemical reactions are reversible to some extent, some much more evidently than others. ∆ + H 2 O(l) ----> H 2 O(g) H 2 O(g) ---------> H 2 O(l) + ∆ H 2 O + NH 3---------> NH 4 1+ + OH 1- NH 4 1+ + OH 1----------> NH 3 + H 2 O H 2 O + NH 3 NH 4 1+ + OH 1- two way arrow indicates reversible reaction DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM • reaction takes place at the same rate in both directions • reactant is being converted to product at the same rate that product is being converted to reactant • on the macroscopic scale there appears to be no change • on the molecular level the reactions are constantly taking place at the same rate At equilibrium: rate forward reaction = rate reverse reaction H 2 + I 2 ----> 2 HI H 2 + I 2----> 2 HI rate forward = k f [H 2 ][I 2 ] 2 HI ----> H 2 + I 2 rate reverse = k r [HI] 2 since at equilibrium rate forward = rate reverse k f [H 2 ][I 2 ] = k r [HI] 2 rearranging gives k f [HI] 2 K c = ------- = ----------- k r [H 2 ][I 2 ] where K c is the equilibrium constant by the law of mass action for any reaction [products] power of coefficients K c = -------------------------------- [reactants] power of coefficients [C] c [D] d K c = ------------ [A] a [B] b Consider the reaction a A + b B c C + d D Examples: 3 H 2 (g) + N 2 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) [NH 3 ] 2 K c = ------------------ [H 2 ] 3 [N 2 ] 2 SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 SO 3 [SO 3 ] 2 K c = ----------------- [SO 2 ] 2 [O 2 ] PCl 5 (g) PCl 3 (g) + Cl 2 (g) [PCl 3 ][Cl 2 ] K c = --------------- [PCl 5 ] PCl 3 (g) + Cl 2 (g) PCl 5 (g) [PCl 5 ] K c’ = -------------------- [PCl 3 ][Cl 2 ] Note:...
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Chapt_15_stu_10th_ed_07 - Consider the reaction H 2 Cl 2>...

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